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today's howtos

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  • Why Nutch-based web spiders are now blocked here

    If you write a web crawler engine, you should make it very hard for people to not fill in all of the information for a proper user-agent string (such as a URL explaining the crawling). Apache Nutch, I'm looking at you, given UA's of eg "test search engine/Nutch-1.19-SNAPSHOT".

  • How do I reset a Password in Linux

    Linux allows users to change their passwords whenever they log in. Linux offers the “passwd” utility to change an existing or a new user account password. Any information that is related to the encrypted user’s password or the password-related details is stored in the “/etc/shadow” file of the Linux system. If you are a normal user, then you can only change the password for your account. But if you are a root user or user with sudo access, you can also change the other users’ password.

    Whenever you change the password, make sure that you use a strong and unique password that meets the standard criteria for a Linux password. Having a strong password is a smart move to protect your account from potential thefts and unauthorized access. A strong password should be 16 characters long, containing one uppercase letter, one lowercase letter, one number, and one special character. It is a good habit to update your password frequently to save it from hackers and other unwanted access.

  • How do I check the size of a Folder in Linux

    Linux offers you various amazing command-line commands that will help in performing various tasks. One of the major tasks performed from the command line of Linux is to check the size of the file or folder. It might be necessary to make space for the incoming file or transfer it to another location. Also, when you run some deployments, it tends to create a log file automatically, and the space will fill up with those log files. So we must track the space of the file or folder and make space on the disk for them accordingly.

    For this, you will need a Linux system, a command-line interface for running the command, and the right user access for checking the space on the Linux system.
    We will be looking at various ways to check the file or folder size available on the Linux system.

  • How to Connect to Wi-Fi on Kali Linux

    This tutorial explains how to connect to Wi-Fi with Kali Linux using both graphical and text modes.
    After reading this tutorial, you’ll know how to connect to your wireless network from your graphical environment and the console using both nmtui and mncli tools.

  • How do I List All Groups in Linux

    Linux systems may have several users that are divided into many groups. These groups are the collection of users with the same set of privileges like reading, writing, or executing permission for a particular file or resources shared among the users of that group. Linux allows you to add a new user or the existing user to the existing group for utilizing the privileges of that particular group that it will grant. We will learn about the various Linux groups and how to list all the members of the group.

  • How do I list Upgradable packages in Ubuntu

    In computing, updates of the packages or OS have a key role in bringing the new functionalities to the users. You may encounter several updates after a few days or weeks; these updates carry bug fixes and minor changes to any software or your operating system. The frequent updates do not necessarily mean that you will experience a new interface or experience every time: however, most updates are related to some bug fixes that are identified in the previous releases. Like other operating systems, Ubuntu also provides updates time by time, and you can get the packages that can be upgraded; you have the option to upgrade all the packages or can upgrade one by one. In this write-up, our focus is to print the upgradeable packages list in Ubuntu’s terminal. So, let’s start:

  • How do you Add a User to Linux

    Linux provides you the most commonly used command that is “useradd” or “adduser.” It allows you to add or create the user to the Linux system and some properties that may differ from another user. These users can access some files or directories, and some users may not depend on what access they have. Whenever a user is added or created, access is given to that user as per the requirement.

    The “useradd ” command may vary for various Linux distributions, so it is recommended that you read the documentation properly before you create a new user account in Linux. We highlight the methods on how you can add or create a new user within the Linux system.

  • How do You Create a New File in Linux

    If you are working on Linux, then you will get various utilities for creating files. It is considered the most frequent task in Linux as most of the work is completed via files and directories. You can either use the command-line interface commands or the desktop file manager to create the desired file. Consider this tutorial for creating files using various methods.
    Before creating a file, ensure that you have the required access to create the file in the parent directory; otherwise, you will get the permission denied error on the screen.

    For checking the files that are available within the directory, use the “ls” command. We will learn about various commands for creating files.

  • How to Change Debian Desktop Environment

    In Linux, a desktop environment refers to the bundle of components that provide the common graphical user interface (GUI) components on the screen, such as icons, wallpapers, toolbars, widgets, etc. Thanks to the desktop environment, it’s possible to use Linux with your mouse and keyboard like any other graphical operating system.

    There are numerous desktop environments available on Debian, each with its own perks and features. Interested in switching to a new desktop environment? In this guide, we’ll explore how to install and change the desktop environment on Debian.

  • How to Configure DNS Server on Debian

    DNS or Domain Name System is the system that translates the name of a domain into its corresponding IP address. For instance, when you type in your browser, it maps to a particular web server’s IP address on the internet. This makes it easy for people to remember servers, applications, or any other devices connected to the internet without having to memorize their IP addresses.

    DNS is a hierarchical distributed database system. It has a tree-like structure with nodes that are arranged in layers called domains. Each domain points to the node of some level lower than itself. In DNS, these domains are defined as subdomains, and each one resides on its own DNS server, either Master DNS or Primary DNS, which contains the records for all the IP addresses and hostnames within its domain zone.

    There can be multiple Secondary DNS servers that contain an up-to-date copy of the information contained in their corresponding Master DNS servers. In addition to resolving queries using this mirrored data, secondary DNS servers also provide fault tolerance in case the primary master goes down by answering queries themselves while waiting for answers from the primary master.

  • How to Install Kali Linux In VMware Workstation Pro 16

    Kali Linux is a Debian-based operating system specially made for penetration testing. Kali Linux has all the required penetration testing tools installed by default. Even if something is not installed by default, it should be available in the official package repository of Kali Linux, and you should be able to install it easily from there. Kali Linux is any penetration tester’s best friend.
    To learn and do penetration testing, you may want to run Kali Linux as a virtual machine. This way, you can do everything in an isolated environment, take snapshots of your virtual machine and get back to an earlier state if anything goes wrong within a few seconds. It will give you a lot of flexibility that you will not get if you run it directly on your computer.

  • How to use the IP command in Ubuntu

    IP (Internet Protocol) acts as a unique identifier address over the network. This unique identifier helps to send information among different devices on the network. Internet services also work based on IP and differentiate between several devices such as routers, computers, etc. IP addresses consist of four separated integer strings, the range of each string may vary from 0 to 255 ( to

    IP commands in Ubuntu can be used for several purposes within a network, such as to assign, delete, set up an address, or configure parameters for network interfaces. One can say that it is an alternative to the ifconfig command of Ubuntu, but it is quite useful and commonly used nowadays because the ifconfig command has not been maintained for so long and, therefore, has been deprecated.

  • How To Install Laravel on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Laravel on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, Laravel is an open-source PHP web framework, designed for the faster development of web applications. It is based on the Symfony framework. Laravel makes it easier to perform some common tasks such as authentication, routing, sessions and caching. It has several useful features including, Artisan, Object-relational mapping, Template Engine, and many more.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Laravel web framework on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • How to Install The Lounge IRC Client on Ubuntu 20.04

    The Lounge is a web-based IRC client written in Node.js and can be installed and then accessed from any modern browser for a native-like experience without having a dedicated application installed.

  • How to Install MariaDB 10.6 on Ubuntu 20.04 - LinuxCapable

    MariaDB is one of the most popular open-source databases next to its originator MySQL. The original creators of MySQL developed MariaDB in response to fears that MySQL would suddenly become a paid service due to Oracle acquiring it in 2010. With its history of doing similar tactics, the developers behind MariaDB have promised to keep it open source and free from such fears as what has happened to MySQL.

    MariaDB has become just as popular as MySQL with developers, with features such as advanced clustering with Galera Cluster 4, faster cache/indexes, storage engines, and features/extensions that you won’t find in MySQL.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install MariaDB 10.6 on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.

  • How to Backup WordPress Database via phpMyAdmin

    As a WordPress site admin, you have no choice but to adhere to the number one rule for successful website administration; always create regular data backups for your site. This rule should never be taken as a consideration but as a mandate.

  • How to upgrade OpenSUSE 15.2 to 15.3 using the CLI - nixCraft

    The most advanced OpenSUSE version is 15.3 and is an opportunity for both desktop and server users on the previous 15.2 release to update OpenSUSE Linux to get the newest software stack. It is easy to follow the procedure to upgrade OpenSUSE 15.2 to 15.3. In this tutorial, we will explain how to upgrade OpenSUSE 15.2 to 15.3.

  • Create event-based serverless functions with Python | Red Hat Developer

    In my previous article, I introduced the Red Hat OpenShift Serverless Functions Operator for creating serverless functions and led you through building and deploying an HTTP function written in Python. We ended up with a basic service that simply returned a "Hello world"-type string.

    In this article, we'll take it up a notch by developing a Python-based serverless function that sends an email in response to a CloudEvent. This is a very real-world type of application for serverless functions and Functions as a Service (FaaS).

  • Find files and directories on Linux with the find command |

    Regardless of how organized I resolve to be, it seems there are always times when I just can't locate a file. Sometimes it's because I can't remember the name of the file in the first place. Other times, I know the name, but I can't recall where I decided to save it. There are even times when I need a file that I didn't create in the first place. No matter what the quandary, though, I know that on a POSIX system, I always have the find command.

More in Tux Machines

What are AMD64, I386, and PPC64EL?

This explanation article is for beginners in The Free Software and GNU/Linux Community. You will certainly meet terms like amd64, i386, and ppc64el as choices when getting copy of a software or an operating system. In short, these terms refer to choices of computer's CPU products (also known as processors) which would determine choices of software and operating systems that you can run on it. In practice, knowing these terms may benefit you to select correctly software and operating systems for your computer. Now let's start learning! Most PCs and laptops today are amd64. Most PCs and laptops produced in 1990's and before 2011 are i386. Several latest technology computers aimed for the future and could be replacing amd64 and i386 produced as ppc64el. For example, PCs with Intel Pentium 4 or AMD Althlon Classic are all i386 (also known as PC 32-bit) while today PCs with Intel Core 2 Duo and AMD Phenom onwards are all amd64 (also known as PC 64-bit). Read more

Security Leftovers

today's howtos

  • Here's How To Install Pop!_OS's COSMIC On Manjaro

    A lot of people in the Linux community love Pop!_OS mainly because of its altered GNOME (now COSMIC) desktop environment. One of the best features is Auto-tiling, which makes you focus less on moving your mouse and more on getting work done using keyboard shortcuts. But there are people who like COSMIC but not Ubuntu (Since Pop!_OS is Ubuntu-based), or some tend to like Arch more because of the package management. One of the beauties of GNU/Linux and open source is the teams of different OSes working together to bring stuff that people like in one or the other distribution. Thanks to the integration of COSMIC with GNOME 40 in Pop!_OS 21.10, COSMIC has also been ported to Manjaro.

  • 8 Commands to Check Linux CPU Usage - ByteXD

    Sometimes, due to the high utilization of resources, system applications get slow or unresponsive. All the programs must share the finite resources of the CPU, and some processes use more of it than others. In this case, the rest of the pending requests must wait until the CPU is free or available for processing. As a Linux system administrator, you can find out how much CPU is consumed by each process.

  • How To Install Django on AlmaLinux 8 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Django on AlmaLinux 8. For those of you who didn’t know, Django is a free and open-source full-featured Python web framework used to develop dynamic frameworks and applications. Django’s primary goals are simplicity, re-usability, rapid development, and scalability. This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Django web framework on an AlmaLinux 8. You can follow the same instructions for CentOS and Rocky Linux.

  • How to Install a C Compiler on Linux

    Whether you're coding in C or building a Linux program from the source, you'll have to install a C compiler. The two major ones on Linux are the venerable GCC and the newer Clang.

  • How to install lighttpd web server on Debian 11 Bullseye or Ubuntu 20.04

    lighttpd (lighty) is a web server that requires far fewer resources than Apache, for example, and is therefore particularly suitable for very large loads or very weak systems. It was developed by Jan Kneschke and can be expanded with modules. FastCGI, for example, enables PHP code to be executed. SCGI supplements lighty with Ruby or Python.

  • How to install lighttpd web server on Debian 11 Bullseye or Ubuntu 20.04

    lighttpd (lighty) is a web server that requires far fewer resources than Apache, for example, and is therefore particularly suitable for very large loads or very weak systems. It was developed by Jan Kneschke and can be expanded with modules. FastCGI, for example, enables PHP code to be executed. SCGI supplements lighty with Ruby or Python.

  • Master the Vim Text Editor on Linux Using Vimtutor

    Vim is one of the most powerful command-line text editors for Linux and other Unix-based operating systems. It has grown largely in terms of popularity, to an extent that a lot of Linux distributions ship it as the default terminal-based text editor. As powerful as it may be, Vim is also infamous for not being the easiest or the most intuitive text editor for a beginner to come across. Vimtutor is a command-line application that will help you master the ins and outs of this editor in an interactive fashion.

Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Jammy Jellyfish) Daily Builds Are Now Available for Download

Ubuntu developer Steve Langasek was the one to announce earlier this week that the upcoming Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Jammy Jellyfish) operating system is officially open for development, with Python 3.10 supported by default. And now, early adopters and application developers interested in test driving the upcoming release can now download the daily builds for Jammy Jellyfish, which you can grab from Ubuntu’s main download servers. Read more