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Updated: 6 hours 9 min ago

Comparing Search between Nautilus and Nemo File Managers

Monday 20th of May 2019 03:52:00 PM
 (Nautilus and Nemo file managers)
We, desktop users, search our files with file managers. Search feature is so important we need it everyday. This short article compares the two famous file managers, Nautilus from GNOME and Nemo from Cinnamon, in their own search features. I compare things like Sorting feature, Advanced options, Bookmark, and several more, some with GIF animations. I will use versions of both that are available in Ubuntu 19.04 repository to present this comparison. Enjoy!

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    I use these versions of both file managers on Ubuntu 19.04 "Disco Dingo". 
    • Nautilus 3.32
    • Nemo 3.8.5

    Things compared
      • Button & Shortcut key
      • Default search
      • Speed
      • Information viewed
      • Instant search 
      • Sorting
      • Bookmark
      • Deep search

      1. Button and shortcuts
      Both Nemo and Nautilus accept either magnifier button or Ctrl+F to start search.

      (Left: Nautilus, right: Nemo)
      2. Default Search
      Without making any change, here's the default results of "pdf" search keyword.

       (Nautilus: by default, it performs full text search, meaning, search through text contained in every file)
      (Nemo: by default, it performs file name search, meaning, does not search through text in files)
      3. Speed
      Both are fast. And I love that.

      (Gif animation: Nautilus: how fast it to find everything)
      (Gif animation: Nemo: no less, it's also very fast to find anything)
      4. Displayed information
      Let's compare both results details.

      (Nautilus: columns viewed are Name, Size, Location)
      (Nemo: columns viewed are Name, Size, Type, and Location)

      To add more columns is easy in both file managers like below:
       (Nautilus to add more columns: click reversed-triangle button > Visible Columns > a new dialog appears > give check mark to Column Name available)

       (Nemo to add more columns: right-click column > select one column name available)
      5. Instant search
      Nautilus does not need Find button to search, but Nemo does need, as Nautilus instantly search as we type. It's almost similar to incremental search we know in Google Web Search as suggestions appear instantly once we type.

      (Gif animation: Nautilus does instant search once we type anything)
      (Gif animation: Nemo does not have instant search, but file name selection instead)

      6. Sort the result
      Nautilus cannot sort the result in each column, but Nemo can, either ascending or descending. This is the biggest difference between the two. This is the reason I want to write this comparison.

       (Gif animation: Nautilus found png files and displayed the results in three columns; no column can be sorted as indicated by Keyboard Status Monitor)
       (Gif animation: Nemo found png files and displayed the results in four columns; every column can be sorted either ascending or descending; this helps to find latest or oldest files quickly)
      7. Bookmark the result
      Nautilus does not have bookmark feature for search results, but Nemo does have. It's a unique feature as usually we have bookmark for address to show on the left panel, it's new to have it for search result.

       (Nautilus: no saving search result)
      (Nemo: save search result by clicking Star button)
      (Nemo: call previous searches by pressing Up or Down key)
      8. Deep search
      Nautilus is better here. It has more options to enhance search as we like. This way, we can search a certain keyword for either Files only or Folders only. That's amazing! Unfortunately, Nemo does not have such options even in its Preferences menu.
      (Nautilus: deep search based on Date and File Type)
      Both searches are very quick. The differences are shortly these: Nautilus search does not have Sorting while Nemo's does have. On the other hand, Nautilus does have Deep Search while Nemo does not. And, Nautilus search can not be bookmarked, while Nemo's can.

      Which one do you like better?
      Personally, I like Nemo search better than Nautilus search as I need to sort everything I find and I cannot do that with Nautilus. I love sort by Date/Descending as I use it everyday.

      Apparently, not only me saying this. I don't know why this once-existed feature removed in current versions of Nautilus, as normal interface provides sorting but search interface does not. I will not wonder if somebody ask "why not removing sort in the normal interface as well?" or such.

      How about you?

      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

        Intro to Devuan GNU+Linux, A Great Operating System without Systemd

        Saturday 18th of May 2019 04:29:00 PM
        (Devuan 2.0 desktop LiveCD with XFCE user interface)
        Devuan GNU+Linux is the first free software operating system to promote Init Freedom campaign. Devuan is a modified Debian GNU/Linux without systemd init system. Devuan Desktop comes with XFCE and bunch of free applications such as LibreOffice and GIMP. Current Devuan release is 2.0 codenamed "Ascii" which is released in 2018. Devuan supports both PC 32-bit and 64-bit, as well as embedded computers like Raspberry Pi, Nokia 900, and so on. Devuan makes everything more interesting as it provides an SDK to enable programmers create new GNU/Linux distro and Refracta Installer to enable casual users create a remaster or a custom LiveCD. To make you even more interested, thanks to Devuan, now we see new distros like Etertics and Maemo Leste, both as desktop and mobile OSes, developed without systemd. This intro article explains in brief what is Devuan, where to get it, the init system used, the desktop, and several more things. Finally, I hope you will give Devuan a try and like it.

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        1. Name and Versions
        Devuan GNU+Linux is its official name. The name "Devuan" comes from Debian and VUA (Veteran Unix Admins) hence Devuan, as described by the official explanation. Devuan purpose is to promote a concept they describe as Init Freedom, by creating a modified Debian operating system completely free from systemd. 

        Devuan slogan is "Software freedom, your way". Official web page shows its logo with the slogan as well as the Init Freedom logo with slogan "Watch your first step!". 

        (Devuan logo)
        (Init Freedom campaign logo)

        Devuan versions so far are:
        • 2.0 "Ascii"
        • 1.0 "Jessie"
        • Beowulf (testing release, currently equal to Debian "Buster")
        • Ceres (rolling release, currently equal to Debian "Sid")
        Currently, in May 2019, those four are the available versions of Devuan OS. The latest stable release is the 2.0, codenamed Ascii, so when you hear "Devuan Ascii" it means Devuan version 2.0, and so on. See more here.

         (Devuan 2.0 "Ascii" with kernel version 4.9 running from a usb stick as permanently-installed system)
        For next release of Devuan, it follows Debian release rule, as new packages in Ceres at a time will be published as Beowulf and later on Beowulf at a time will be released as new stable release version 3.0 to succeed 2.0 when it's ready.

        2. Download Devuan
        Devuan is available at in both direct and torrent links. As usual, I highly recommend you to download using torrent links instead.


        3. Main Difference to Debian and the Init System
        The difference is its init system: Debian uses systemd, while Devuan uses sysvinit.

        Sysvinit is the init system of choice of Devuan as replacement to Systemd. It is the main part of the Init Freedom campaign Devuan made to free users from systemd. This means all components in Devuan made so they do not depend on systemd, like Thunar and KDE, although such components on other distros might heavily depend on systemd today. That is what made Devuan very interesting.

        Several important components are also integrated:
        • Eudev (modified udev by Gentoo Project) as replacement to udev is the hardware device manager of Devuan 2.0. 
        • Elogind (also by Gentoo Project) is preinstalled in Devuan 2.0 as replacement to logind. Elogind is a modification of logind from systemd, so that everybody does not use systemd can still use KDE and GNOME that are depend on systemd.

          (dpkg -l command line showing details of sysvinit, eudev, and elogind packages installed)
          As a result, there are now several new distros developed based on Devuan as they want to derive Debian without systemd. For example, heads (Tails without systemd), Etertics (new libre distro with Linux-libre kernel from Latin America), and planned future release of Dyne:bolic (a libre distro like Trisquel but specialized for multimedia), and more here.

          (A new promising distro from Latin America, Etertics, is derived from Devuan)
          4. Architecture Support and ISO Images
          Devuan as a whole supports 5 different computer architectures:
          • i386
          • amd64
          • arm64
          • armhf
          • armel 

            This means it supports Personal Computer (PC) both 32-bit and 64-bit, you can use Devuan as daily desktop or laptop system. For Devuan 2.0, the Desktop Live images sized 1GB, while the Installer images sized 4GB (dvd), 600MBx3 (cd), and 300MB (netinst), for each architecture. See below for more explanation.

            ( is your friend to find all ISO images of Devuan)
            Aside from desktop, Devuan also supports Raspberry Pi computers version 2 and 3, Beaglebone Black, and Odroid. Even Devuan supports computers that can run Maemo OS, mainly Nokia N900 and Motorola Droid 4. Interestingly, one new distro developed, called Maemo Leste, because Devuan supports these devices. Please bear in mind that Devuan is actively developed now so it's very interesting for you to get support and updates on such devices without systemd. These embedded images are sized approximately 150-200MB each for every architecture.

             (Download page of all embedded installers of Devuan including Raspberry Pi images)
            However, Devuan is available in 7 different kinds of installer:
            • desktop-live: this is what desktop users want (example)
            • minimal-live: command-line based LiveCD (example)
            • netinst: small installer, online, command line-based (example)
            • cdrom: 3 CD-sized ISOs (example)
            • dvd: 1 full-sized ISO (example)
            • embedded: installer for ARM computers like Raspberry Pi, Beaglebone Black, and Odroid mentioned above (example)
            • virtual: vm images to install in QEMU and VirtualBox (example)
            See more here.

            5. Installation and Booting Screen
            Devuan installer is Refracta, an alternative to Ubuntu's Ubiquity and Manjaro's Calamares, system installer. Refracta is described both as a system installer and remastering tool. For you accustomed to install Ubuntu and Manjaro, installing Devuan might challenging, as the installer is quite unique and honestly still not well documented yet. However, by reading carefully every step, personally I can successfully install Devuan on a usb stick in 20 minutes or so.

            (Refracta is installing Devuan with two separate window, a dialog and a console, and running like that for the rest of process)
            Here's Devuan bootloader looks like. I installed Devuan 2.0 on a 16GB flash drive. This screenshot was taken using QEMU virtual machine.

            (How Devuan booting screen will look like on your computer after successfully installed)
            6. LiveCD
            As mentioned above, Devuan provides Live Edition (just like Debian and Ubuntu do) so you can run it fully by booting without installing it to the computer. LiveCD edition comes with XFCE User Interface. It comes with two accounts described below so you will not forget while running LiveCD.

            First account:
            Username: devuan
            Password: devuan

            Second account:
            Username: root
            Password: toor

             (Release notes file is included in the operating system; it includes default username and password of Devuan)

            7. Desktop and Applications
            Devuan is an XFCE distro by default just like Xubuntu. Run a live session and you will see the mouse. However, it provides Plasma, GNOME, Cinnamon, and MATE in its repository.

            (Devuan 2.0 running with XFCE interface with top panel and bottom dock while showing Thunar file manager)

            All menus of Devuan 2.0 look like this in one picture. Here you will know what applications are available preinstalled on it.
            (Start menu from Settings to System of Devuan)
            Applications preinstalled by default are enough for daily desktop use. It's surprising to have these in only a 1GB ISO image.
            • LibreOffice
            • Firefox ESR web browser
            • mutt email client
            • Orage Calendar
            • GIMP
            • Ristretto
            • Mousepad Text Editor
            • Evince PDF Reader
            • VLC Video Player
            • Quad Libet Audio Player
            • Xfburn Burner
            • Xarchiver Archive Tool
            • Refracta Installer and Remastering Tool
            • Synaptic Package Installer
            • GParted Partition Editor

            Can desktop applications work? They work very well. See below, Inkscape vector image editor, GIMP raster image editor, OpenShot video editor, and GNU Octave mathematical analysis running just fine.

            How about drag and drop? Drag and drop from file manager to GIMP Image Editor works well. No difference to LibreOffice and other programs as well.

            Package availability: Synaptic says it's 50,000 packages available. Considering Devuan started at 2014, with such wide architectures support, it's already an amazing number.
            (Synaptic is preinstalled by default and it just works)
            8. File Management, Networking, and Browsing
            The file manager is Thunar from XFCE, of course. It's small and fast, multitabbed, easy to use file manager.

            No automount: Devuan does not have automount in Thunar file manager as it removed D-Bus, a component used in many distros to provide "disk automount" feature, and as you may have guessed, it's tightly related to systemd. However, of course Thunar's still can work perfectly with partitions and disks although you need to click to mount or unmount them.

            (SIGNUS, my usb stick, opened in Thunar file manager without any problem)

            Default network manager is Wicd, not GNOME NetworkManager, as the package network-manager depends on systemd. However, in short, connecting to WiFi and LAN works very well with it. Although it's honestly different if we already accustomed to NetworkManager, for example,
            • for USB tethering, after enabling it on your phone, you need to configure the interface on Wicd from eth0 to usb0, and then refresh, and click Connect button.
            • for Wifi, do not forget to click Connect and enable 'automatically connect' option for convenience.
            • successfully established connection shows IP address on status bar on the bottom of Wicd window. Otherwise it's not connected.

            (Wicd successfully connecting my Devuan to a WPA2/PEAP/MSCHAPv2 wifi service)
            Browser brought to you by Devuan 2.0 is Firefox ESR (Extended Support Release). Preinstalled Firefox ESR version is 52 but you can upgrade to 60 from the repository. Browsing is just fine, video and audio playbacks (I tested Invidious) work as normal, add-ons are fine also.

            (Playing video on Invidious website using Firefox ESR works very well)
            9. Repositories, Mirrors, and Package Search
            Devuan repository is organized just like Debian's, it's divided to main, contrib, and nonfree sections; but the default configuration uses only main section. Each release repository is also divided in three sections, $release, $release-updates, and $release-security. You will see these in your /etc/apt/sources.list configuration file.

             (Default Devuan 2.0 sources.list configuration)
            Sources.list: as example, for Devuan 2.0 codenamed "ASCII", the sources.list file will look like below.
            deb ascii          main
            deb ascii-updates  main
            deb ascii-security main
            Another example, for Devuan 1.0 codenamed "Jessie", the sources.list will look like this instead.
            deb jessie          main
            deb jessie-updates  main
            deb jessie-security main
            Official documentation regarding this configuration is the Sources.list page.

            Mirrors: today, Devuan has 19 worldwide repository mirrors as indicated by mirror_list.txt file.

            Package search: just like, Devuan now has, a special search engine for packages in repositories of Devuan. You can search a particular package by keyword either in a particular release (1.0, 2.0, Beowulf, Ceres), or, in any release (all results shown in one page).

            (Showing availability of inkscape in multiple releases of Devuan is very easy)
            Download speed: using the default mirror I got some 1MB/s or more on broadband connection. It's really convenient I feel.

            10. Documentation, Development, and Donation

            Documentation: first step towards Devuan is good with its OS web page. This page explains briefly the purpose of Devuan as well as everything about its versions, how to get it, and more.

            (Official brief explanation of Devuan operating system)
            Next step is of course to read the documentation by Dev1fanboy and visit the Forum. See also the wiki.

            However, in general, all documentations of Debian can be applied to Devuan too. So you can visit Debian Documentation center if you do not find something on Devuan's documentation.

            (Debian Documentation website)
            Development: Devuan is in active development. I believe it will be interesting for anybody who disagree with systemd to lend Devuan a hand. See the mailing list and IRC #devuan-dev on Freenode, see also Bug Tracker, and the source code center. To join the team, you can read Development page first.

            (A page from bug tracker showing list of bug reports and discussions of eudev program)
            (Mailing list of Devuan development showing developers discussions)

            Do you want to develop a new GNU/Linux distro? Devuan provides you an SDK to make it real. Mentioned distro like Maemo Leste is made using this SDK. Visit to know more.

            Donation: Everybody can help Devuan development by donating here Currently, Devuan accepts donation via wire transfer, BitCoin, and PayPal.

            My Computer System
            I use Acer Aspire One laptop with a 64-bit Pentium processor and 4GB of RAM to test Devuan. I installed it on a 16GB usb stick and not on a hard disk drive and it runs very well.

            Final Words
            I hope this article introduces you well to Devuan, a modified Debian without systemd, the first GNU+Linux Desktop to implement Init Freedom campaign. I think Devuan will make a big change, as a new basis just like Debian, as indicated by its stable base system now, and by its promising derivatives like Etertics and Maemo Leste, both in desktop and mobile worlds. What make it more interesting is the Distro Kit SDK so we now are easier to make new operating system derivatives without systemd off Devuan.

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            How To Completely Remove XFCE Desktop from Mint XFCE 19.1

            Saturday 11th of May 2019 01:46:00 PM
            A friend from a community gave me an idea after last article to remove XFCE from Mint XFCE "Tessa". Thanks to him, I searched, and I did a removal that works on that Mint which already have additional KDE and GNOME installed. The XFCE components (no less than 50) are all gone, including Thunar File Manager and XFCE4 Session, resulting in a feeling like removing just one application. This tutorial is intended for users who want to remove the desktop environment and ready for the risk. Happy working!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            The plan is first to have an alternative GUI, in this case the small lightweight Openbox WM, and performing the complete removal, and finally installing back some Mint system-related programs. This tutorial will not and is not supposed to remove Xorg (Mint's display server), Lightdm (Mint's login screen), and APT (Mint's package manager). You are free to perform just the removal if you wish.

            1. Install Openbox
            This is so you will have at least a working GUI after removal of the XFCE GUI. If you don't do this, your Mint system will works only with CLI (e.g. tty screen). If you wish something other than Openbox, see the KDE + GNOME tutorial.
            $ sudo apt-get install openbox

            2. Remove XFCE
            This command line will list all packages with xfce in their names, take only the package names, and feed those package names in to a special apt-get purge command line. This way you do not need to remove every one of those 50+ package names one by one.
            $ dpkg -l | grep .xfce. | xargs sudo apt-get purge --auto-remove --yes
            Some explanations:
            • dpkg -l  lists all installed packages
            • grep .xfce.  filters so that only packages with keyword xfce within their names listed
            • xargs  changes multiple line input from previous command to be single line input for next command
            • sudo apt-get purge  removes listed packages from input
            • --auto-remove  tries to remove dependency packages too
            • --yes  makes apt-get automatically answers yes for everything

            For troubleshooting purpose, you can add one more pipeline command at the end  | tee --append removal.txt  to record the whole removal process in a plain text named removal.txt.

            3. Final Check
            This command should show nothing if it's true that all XFCE components were successfully removed.
            $ dpkg -l | grep .xfce.
            Try to logout and check whether XFCE session doesn't exist anymore from session choice menu.

            4. Install Back Some
            This steps is safe to abandon, but if you wish some Mint-related components that were removed above, you are free to install them back.
            $ sudo apt-get install mintdesktop mintsystem mintwelcome


            Anticipating Ubuntu 19.10 on May 2019

            Tuesday 7th of May 2019 06:49:00 AM
            (Ubuntu "Eoan" 19.10 development version running peacefully in May)
            Ubuntu 19.10 codenamed "Eoan" is supposed to be released next October this year. But in May we already can download the ISO image. It continues the previous names of Artful, Bionic, Cosmic, and Disco. And further we can also see the contents of that ISO without even downloading nor running it on our computer by just reading the corresponding manifest file. This short article is for new testers who want to see several information including the desktop, programs versions, and more. This way, it will be interesting for everybody to see and start test Eoan daily build ISO and further to help report issues to the developers. Finally, welcome for Eoan and happy testing for you!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            • Download
            • Desktop
            • Codename and development
            • ISO and Manifest
            • Detailed info
            • Bug reports
            • Next thing...

            You can download Eoan ISO Image from cdimage server today. Please remember that it is a developmental software and not supposed to replace your working stable Ubuntu system. I suggest you to run Eoan as LiveCD only, or install it in a Virtual Machine (QEMU, VirtualBox), or install it on a spare computer.

            Here's the desktop running from a LiveCD session. The desktop looks not different to 19.04 "Disco Dingo". However, all the wallpapers come from Disco Dingo and there is no new one at this moment.

            (Desktop menu view with Sunset of Peloponnesus wallpaper by Simos Xenitellis as the background)
            (App overview with Cramond Island wallpaper by Keanu Kerr as the background)

            Codename & development
            Today the codename is already half-known, it is "Eoan", but we still don't have any official publication of the animal name yet. Whether it will be "Eoan Elephant" or "Eoan Eel" or "Eoan Eagle" or something else we still don't know. But a Launchpad page clearly shows that it is "Eoan Ermine". If you want to know what kind of animal is it, see Animalia site, it's basically a weasel. Both Ubuntu cdimage server and Mark Shuttleworth's personal website didn't publish the animal name yet, even today, even with Launchpad publishes that Ermine name. This codename "Eoan" is known first by Dimitri John Ledkov announcement on ubuntu-devel-announce mailing list last April.

             (The brand-new shining orange header of cdimage server shows "Eoan EANIMAL")

            Some plans for 19.10 from the announcement Eoan is open for development published by Dimitri John Ledkov on ubuntu-devel-announce mailing list:
            • gcc 9 : so when we install gcc we get version 9 by default
            • glibc 2.30 : if GNU Project released it in next August or later, Ubuntu will use it as default C Library
            • openjdk 11 : so when we install openjdk we get version 11 by default, but we still can choose version 8 or 13 as well
            • python 3.7 as the default, while python 2 will be moved from main to universe repository
            • icu to be upgraded to 64.2 or newer and to support the new Japan era Reiwa

            We can see how the developers discuss Eoan development on Ubuntu Community Forum and ubuntu-devel-discuss mailing list. You can send your comments there.
            (Public mailing list archive of ubuntu-devel-discuss in May)
            While not directly related to Eoan, Ubuntu Unity Remix team also has discussion about Unity development on Eoan right now in the same forum.

            ISO and Manifest Files
            At 5 May 2019, the famous Ubuntu's cdimage server publishes its daily-built ISO image along with its manifest file. The ISO file name is eoan-desktop-amd64.iso with timestamp 2019-05-05. The size is 2.0GB at this moment. This is the ISO image I use for this article.

            (cdimage server download page of Ubuntu daily-built ISO)
            Reading the manifest file informs us what packages and what versions are included in the ISO image. From 5 May manifest, as example below shows, we know that the ISO includes LibreOffice version 6.2.3 with all modules except LibreOffice Base.

            (Gedit text editor opens the manifest file and finds out libreoffice-related packages listed)
            • LibreOffice Version From the manifest file, the version is 6.2.3. Modules installed built-in are Writer, Calc, Impress, Draw, and Math, just like usual.
            • Firefox Version From the manifest file, it's 66. It will surely change as Firefox is one among most rapidly updated free software we have in this world.
            • Kernel Version From the manifest file, it's It will surely change as well.
            • GNU Version GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) version is 8.3.0.
            • GNOME Desktop Version It is 3.32.1.
            • Nautilus File Manager Version It is 3.32.0.

            Detailed Info
            At the moment, here's information we can get by running LiveCD session. Release field shows "19.10" and Description field shows "Ubuntu Eoan EANIMAL" both are correct. Kernel version is

             (Just like usual, lsb_release -a and uname -a are important to see)
            Bug Reports
            Amazingly, bug reports for 19.10 are already present on Launchpad and today there are several of them. For example, see bug #1826691, latest bug today, reported by Jason Pritchard.

            (Bug reports and discussions of Ubuntu Eoan on Launchpad website)
            If you want to report a bug as a beginner, it's best to follow what QA Tracker site guides, that is using built-in program ubuntu-report. See the instruction here. For example, if you found issue with Nautilus you believe it's bug, run command ubuntu-bug nautilus and follow the next steps. Another example, if you found issue with GDM as bug, you run ubuntu-bug gdm3 and follow the rest.

            Next thing... Welcome!
            This will not represent exactly the final release of 19.10 next October. It's still pretty far and we need to wait. However, as a testing operating system it feels very good and is not different to 19.04 stable. For testers, bug report is open on Launchpad. For curious users, you can install 19.10 on a spare computer to explore everything without worries. Last but not least, I hope this anticipation article encourages you much to test and enjoy it. Finally, I want to say welcome to Eoan Ermine!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            KDE and GNOME on Mint 19.1

            Saturday 4th of May 2019 04:34:00 PM
             (Mint 19.1 with GNOME 3 user interface)
            This tutorial introduces how to install KDE Plasma and GNOME desktop environments on Mint 19.1 "Tessa". As you may know, Mint since 2018 abandoned their KDE Edition (the last Mint KDE Edition is 18.3), and since the very beginning never released GNOME edition. Many of us perhaps prefer to have KDE or GNOME on their Mint system so this is tutorial you can use. I use Mint XFCE Edition 19.1 to practice this and I recommend you to start with this edition as well. Finally, happy installing and have a nice day!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            Simply install GNOME by running this command line:
            $ sudo apt-get install vanilla-gnome-desktop
            This needs at least 100MB of data on a freshly-installed Mint XFCE 19.1 system.

            Select display manager:
            You need to accept the gdm3 as your display manager. Simply use arrow key to select it and press Enter and let the installer finishes everything up.

            • Select your username
            • Click gear icon
            • Select GNOME on Xorg
            • Click Login button

            And finally this is GNOME showing on Mint XFCE 19.1. At this moment, as 19.1 is actually using Ubuntu 18.04 repository, the GNOME version installed here is 3.28.

            (Mint GNOME Edition in 2019)
            Simply install KDE by this command line:
            $ sudo apt-get install kde-standard kwin sddm sddm-theme-breeze plasma-nm
            This needs around 300MB of data on a freshly-installed Mint XFCE 19.1.

            Select display manager:
            Select sddm as display manager of choice.

            Reboot your Mint computer.

            • Select Plasma from session choices.
            • Select your username.
            • Type your password 
            • Click Login button.

            Here's how KDE Plasma looks on Mint 19.1. Just like explanation above, Plasma version installed here is 5.12.

             (Mint KDE Edition lives once again in 2019)
            Happy working!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Unity Desktop on Ubuntu 19.04

            Thursday 2nd of May 2019 07:17:00 AM
            (Ubuntu 19.04 "Disco Dingo" with Unity desktop)
            Good news for us that Unity7 desktop environment works very well on Ubuntu 19.04. We can install it right now without any third-party repository. I find that this desktop works pretty faster than the built-in GNOME 3.32 desktop one, at least on my laptop. I include many screenshots to reveal how good Unity7 works on 19.04 below including the HUD, the Login Screen, and the System Tray. I hope this works for you too! Happy working!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            Install the desktop:
            Run this command:
            $ sudo apt-get install unity-session
            Install the login screen:
            Run this command:
            $ sudo apt-get install lightdm
            And using TAB key select lightdm between "gdm3" and "lightdm" choices there, and press ENTER key to go.

            The desktop we once loved comes back with the Dash Menu and left Launcher we all knew:

            (Ubuntu 19.04 feels like 16.04 just right)
            With the Head's Up Display (HUD) working so amazingly with menu-oriented applications:

             (HUD works with LibreOffice Writer; press Alt to reveal the HUD; HUD can search you "footnote" and execute it for you without you clicking on the Writer's menu bar)
            (HUD also works with Inkscape Vector Graphic Editor; the HUD was/is great to execute your frequently used Inkscape's extension just by searching without manually clicking Inkscape's menubar) 
            (Calling out menu "blur" in GIMP Image Editor is never easier indeed than using HUD just by typing "blur" and Enter; and this GIMP running as AppImage program!)
            And with the system tray and calendar and power button we accustomed with:
            (Tray programs like Telegram Desktop, OnionShare File Sharing, Remmina Remote Desktop, and Kazam Screencast Recorder running and displayed correctly in the right place; clock and calendar widget displayed just like it used to; power off menu we used for more than 6 years)
            And finally the login screen should also changed into the one we all knew:

            (LightDM Display Manager on Disco Dingo, the cool login screen we once loved)
            Thank you all Unity7 developers especially dale and khurshid. for maintaining such awesome desktop we can use in 2019. Now we are waiting to run same Unity7 on the next Ubuntu 19.10 codenamed Eoan. Happy working!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Download Links of Linux Mint 19.1 "Tessa" All Editions and Checksums

            Tuesday 30th of April 2019 04:41:00 PM
            The latest Linux Mint release 19.1 codenamed "Tessa" was released on Wednesday, 19 December 2018. It's based on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS and supported until 2023. For you wanting to download it now, here's list of all editions' download links along with the checksums. Happy downloading!

            Important Links

            Cinnamon Edition


            MATE Edition


            XFCE Edition


            b580052c4652ac8f1cbcd9057a0395642a722707d17e1a77844ff7fb4db36b70 *linuxmint-19.1-cinnamon-32bit.iso

            bb4b3ad584f2fec1d91ad60fe57ad4044e5c0934a5e3d229da129c9513862eb0 *linuxmint-19.1-cinnamon-64bit.iso

            ca86885e2384373f8fbb2121e2abb6298674e37fc206d3f23661ab5f1f523aba *linuxmint-19.1-mate-32bit.iso

            5bc212d73800007c7c3605f03c9d5988ad99f1be9fc91024049ea4b638c33bb4 *linuxmint-19.1-mate-64bit.iso

            039d619935c2993e589705e49068a6fa4dc4f9a5eb82470bc7998c9626259416 *linuxmint-19.1-xfce-32bit.iso

            7b53b29a34cfef4ddfe24dac27ee321c289dc2ed8b0c1361666bbee0f6ffa9f4 *linuxmint-19.1-xfce-64bit.iso

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Debian 9.9 GNU/Linux Released along with Live Editions and Download Links

            Tuesday 30th of April 2019 04:28:00 PM
            Debian GNU/Linux 9.9 "Stretch" released on Saturday, 27 April 2019. It is the ninth major update of the ninth major release of Debian operating system. It brings the installation ISO, along with six Live Desktop Editions (equal to Ubuntu's Flavors), each supports both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures. I listed here both direct and torrent links of them. Happy downloading!

            Important Information

            Debian (installonly)


            Note: DVD-1 ISO is enough to install a Debian operating system.

            Debian Live Editions (livecd)

            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO


            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO


            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO


            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO


            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO


            Torrent 64-bit ISO  | Torrent 32-bit ISO

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            KDE Applications 19.04 from Snap Store for Kubuntu Users

            Tuesday 30th of April 2019 03:10:00 PM
            (Kig and KolourPaint running as Snaps from KDE Applications 19.04 on Kubuntu)
            Great news announced on 18 April 2019 by KDE neon developers that KDE Applications 19.04 has been released for all GNU/Linux distros through Snap Store. This means KDE Project released their latest bundle of awesome, unique applications we know like Gwenview, Okular, Kig, KolourPaint, and so on in one time. And we in every GNU/Linux distro, as long as we have Snap installed, can install those applications without waiting our respective distro to provide them to us. Finally, happy installing!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            What is this?
            First, we know KDE (more precisely the name is Plasma) is our desktop environment we find on Kubuntu. Second, KDE Community does not just develop Plasma Desktop, but also all awesome programs in one set called KDE Applications and released regularly as source code every a period of time. Third, we have now many different GNU/Linux distros such as Kubuntu itself and Fedora and openSUSE and so on while every distro differs in their pace in providing KDE Applications bundle as binary code (i.e. packages). This story tells you that even though your distros are different, you can by now get all the KDE Applications since they are released on the universal platform for GNU/Linux called Snap Store.

            Snap Store and KDE
            If you go to you will find the official store by KDE to provide you KDE Applications. You may find there, at this moment, no less than 50 applications already available. Yes, they are all Snap applications, meaning, can be installed in every GNU/Linux distro.

            Applications available
            By now (30 April 2019) there are 52 KDE Applications available as Snaps in the Snap Store. Among them are Gwenview, Okular, Kig, KGeography, Step, Skrooge, and so on.

            Checking availability from Kubuntu
            For example, on Kubuntu 19.04, to check Gwenview availability as latest version, run:
            $ snap info gwenview

            To check availability for KGeography, run:
            $ snap info kgeography

            Install applications
            To install applications available in the Snap Store, simply run command line like this:
            $ snap install kgeographyIf you want to install more than one at once, simply combine the command lines like this:
            $ snap install gwenview kgeography kig step kolourpaint
            Run applications
            To run applications you installed from Snap Store, simply run them from your start menu. For example, here's a screenshot of Step (physics simulator) and Kalzium (chemistry, periodic table explorer), both from KDE Applications 19.04, running on Kubuntu 19.04.

            If you prefer command line, simply run them similarly to those installation commands above. For example:
            $ snap run step
            $ snap run kalzium


            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            deepin 15.10 GNU/Linux Download Links, Mirrors, and Torrents

            Tuesday 30th of April 2019 07:02:00 AM
            (deepin 15.10 desktop running from a LiveCD session with its System Info opened on right panel)
            deepin 15.10, the gorgeous Debian-based desktop operating system, has been released at Sunday, 28 April 2019. The ISO image size is now 2.3GiB. As usual, I listed here official download link with several countries' mirrors, torrents from several sources, and the checksums. However, the release number is identical to Ubuntu 15.10 "Wily Werewolf" but don't worry, they are separate things. Happy downloading!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            All about deepin: 15.8 Download | 15.7 Download | 15.6 Download | 15.4 Download | Review

            Quick Guide
            • To download using torrent link, use Transmission BitTorrent program.
            • To verify between your downloaded ISO and checksum here, follow the checking guide.
            • No matter from where you downloaded a torrent, as long as the checksum values matched, the ISO file you have should be OK. 
            • To make deepin GNU/Linux bootable USB, follow bootable making guide
            • To run the LiveCD session, choose "failsafe" on the boot screen.



            Thanks to all community contributors who have shared deepin 15.10 torrents!

            Official Server

            United States










            387b1533522af0d0ca01b0714859f5ca0839ad9c0dc5eb8da7aad82b59da7120  deepin-15.10-amd64.iso

            34aefe9ef57c13200570e0a670921cca  deepin-15.10-amd64.iso

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Compilation of 32-Bit GNU/Linux Distros with MATE Desktop in 2019

            Monday 29th of April 2019 03:56:00 PM
             (Trisquel 8.0, a MATE desktop distro that still support 32-bit in 2019)
            Because Ubuntu and all Official Flavors officially stopped providing 32-bit ISO Images in 2019, I write this compilation. I believe even in 2019 many of us still have old, 32-bit computers or laptops, so it's good to find GNU/Linux distros that support 32-bit. Here you will find at least thirteen GNU/Linux distros with MATE Desktop still supporting 32-bit in 2019, namely, Trisquel 8.0, Uruk 2.0, Fedora 29, Mint 18 and 19, Debian Live 9, Devuan 2.0, Sparky 5.3, Mageia 6, Porteus 4.0, Robo 8.11, Ubuntu MATE 18.04, Void (rolling), and IGOS 12. You can download them and install and have updates in a certain period of time. All of them are LiveCD Installers except Devuan and Mageia. I wish this compilation helps you to find latest distro and prolong support lifetime for your old computers. Finally, happy downloading!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            Read also similar compilation for all distros in 2018

            1. Trisquel
            Latest version of Trisquel is 8.0 and it's released in 2018 with 5 years support. It supports 32-bit architecture.


            2. Uruk GNU/Linux
            Uruk is a new distro derived from Trisquel by Iraqi developers. Latest version of Uruk is 2.0 with 32-bit support.


            3. Fedora Spin MATE-Compiz
            Fedora MATE-Compiz is one among many Fedora Spins (equivalent to Ubuntu Flavors) which provides 32-bit version. Latest Fedora MATE is 29.


            4. Mint MATE
            Mint being fully desktop operating system derived from Ubuntu had already supported 32-bit since the beginning. Support lifespan information are very clear: 18 is supported until 2021 and 19 is supported until 2023.


            5. Debian Live MATE
            Debian Live MATE is also one among many Debian Live Editions (equivalent to both Ubuntu Flavors and Fedora Spins) and it supports 32-bit. Latest Debian Live version now is 9 "Stretch".


            6. Porteus MATE
            Porteus being a portable and low-end OS since long had supported 32-bit.


            7. Ubuntu MATE 18.04 LTS
            Ubuntu MATE still provides 32-bit version for 18.04 LTS (supported until 2021) and for 16.04 (supported until this year).


            (Ubuntu MATE 18.04 LTS 32-bit)
            (Ubuntu MATE 16.04.2 LTS 32-bit)
            8. Devuan (nolivecd)
            Devuan, the non-systemd derivative of Debian, supported 32-bit editions. However, its not LiveCD, but InstallCD only.


            9. Robolinux MATE
            Robo, an Ubuntu and Debian-based distro from Cambodia, provides 32-bit Live MATE editions of its version 8. Please note that Robo 8 is based on Debian 8.


            10. Sparky MATE
            Sparky, Debian-based distro, provides MATE LiveCD 32-bit on its download server. However, I cannot find any information about this particular edition on its official website and its wiki.


            11. Mageia 6 (nolivecd)
            Mageia 6, an active Mandriva derivative, provides InstallCD version with MATE Desktop included in the 32-bit ISO along with other Desktops.


            12. Void Live MATE
            Void, an independent GNU/Linux distro built from scratch, has a Live MATE edition among its many other ones. Void is a rolling-release distro, non-systemd, with own XBPS package manager, and uses LibreSSL instead of OpenSSL. It's developed by a former NetBSD developer.


            13. IGOS Nusantara MATE
            IGOS, a Fedora-based GNU/Linux distro developed by Indonesian Instutute of Science, still provide 32-bit of version 12. Just choose the "live32" version on the download page.


            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            20 Recommended Applications for Ubuntu 19.04

            Monday 29th of April 2019 04:40:00 AM
             (Ubuntu 19.04 runs KGeography and Subtitle Editor applications)
            I listed here my applications recommendation for everybody getting started with Ubuntu 19.04. If you never used Ubuntu before, than this is for you. I tried to give recommendation for many fields, including personal and educational use, as well as programming and graphic designing. All applications you find here are already available via Ubuntu Software Center without the need to use PPAs. Finally, I hope this compilation helps everybody and happy working!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            More about Ubuntu 19.04: Download Links | Install Guide | Bootable-Making Guide | Upgrade 14.04 to 16.04 | Upgrade 16.04 to 18.04 | WTDAI | GNOME 3.32 | Desktop Extensions | Dash to Panel | Dash to Dock | Tray Icons | Privacy Tips

            All available on Ubuntu Software
            Every application I mentioned here is installable from Ubuntu Software on the 19.04. No need for third-party repositories (PPAs). Just search, install, and happy working!

             (Ubuntu Software shows Graphics application category)

            1. Programming
            Geany (all-language programming IDE)

            I recommend Geany for everybody looking for his/her first programming text editor on GNU/Linux. Geany supports all modern languages (most notably C/C++, Java, C#, Python, PHP, Pascal, and more) with automatic syntax coloring and compiling/interpreting setup.

            (Geany showing its Java source code tempate)
            2. Multimedia
            GNOME Sound Recorder (record audio)
            Kazam (record screen activities as video including your voice from microphone)
            Pitivi (GNOME video editor with advanced features)
            Subtitle Editor by kitone (user-friendly yet powerful subtitle creator)
            WinFF (convert audios and videos)

            (Kazam, a small but powerful screencast tool for Ubuntu desktop)
            (Subtitle Editor, a very easy to use video subtitle maker)
            3. Web Development
            Bluefish (web editing text editor non-WYSIWYG)
            FileZilla (FTP client, for uploading files to web server)

            Bluefish is an IDE for web development. It's a little bit classic but its available in Ubuntu repository and the size is small. Despite its menu-driven and everything-manual oriented user interface, we may find it good for teaching web development to students. It has comprehensive user manual here. You may find third-party tutorials on Makeuseof, Lifewire, On the other hand, FileZilla is know for a long time as the best FTP client for desktop. It helps you to upload web code you developed to the server.

            (Bluefish, web authoring text editor)
            (FileZilla, FTP client and remote file manager)

            4. File Sharing
            OnionShare (or say it "TorShare", securely share files to anyone over Tor Network)

            Ubuntu 19.04 includes OnionShare, a secure file sharing program in its repository.

            (Files being shared by OnionShare program with an onion URL)
            (Tor Browser opens the URL given by OnienShare shows exactly the files being shared)
            5. CD Burning
            Brasero (burn CD and DVD and rip them, Nero Burning ROM replacement)

            For a long time, Ubuntu included Brasero, but since several release ago Ubuntu stopped to ship it. You can simply install it again and create audio CD, burn data backup as well as DVD bootable, and re-create ISO image from a CD with it, and to rip and copy both audio and video CDs.

            (Brasero user interface)
            6. Graphic Editing
            Inkscape (draw everything, design anything; CorelDRAW replacement)
            GIMP (photo retouching, Photoshop replacement)
            Scribus (desktop publishing, InDesign replacement)
            Shotwell (photo manager)

            There are so many graphic editors in Ubuntu repository but three of them are good for beginners: Inkscape, GIMP, and Scribus. Personally, I also use Shotwell to replace the default image viewer as I need its Shift+O "Crop" feature.

            (Inkscape user interface with color swatches both opened)
            7. Instant Messaging
            Telegram Desktop (GPLv3+ licensed, recommended by the FSF as per 27 April 2019)
            Revolt/Matrix (recommended by
            Wire (recommended by and the FSF as per 27 April 2019)

            Also there are so many online communication tools available in Ubuntu repository but I recommend here three modern ones: Telegram Desktop, Revolt, and Wire. Wire and Revolt do not need any phone number, and Telegram does not require a phone to register an account.

             (Telegram Desktop)
            (Revolt, a GNOME-oriented Matrix client)
            8. Education
            GNU Octave (MATLAB replacement)
            KGeography (countries, provinces, cities learning game)
            Tux Math (cute math game for kids)

            There are many educational programs in Ubuntu repository. Among them are Octave, KGeography, and Tux Math. Octave is a scientific mathematical programming language with nice GUI and drop-in compatibility with many MATLAB scripts. KGeography is a good game to play with kids and teenager to memorize world map and countries' flags. It includes several different multiple choices to play. Lastly, Tux Math is a kids game to learn math by addition, multiplication, and more.

             (GNU Octave user interface)
            More Applications
            Small games are good for playing with kids or simply to heal some stress.

            Swell Foop (funny box game)

            Zaz (Zaz Ain't Z***, a Zuma-like ball shooting game)

            Further Information
            • P.U.C. (to search official packages in Ubuntu repositories)
            • (same as P.U.C. but for other distros as well)
            • (same as P.U.C. and but more detailed and comprehensive)

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Privacy Tips and Tricks for Ubuntu 19.04

            Friday 26th of April 2019 03:02:00 PM
             (Ubuntu 19.04 plays an Invidious video and shows Privacy from its System Settings)
            To accompany the WTDAI article, I write this one to sum up 12 things related to user's privacy on Ubuntu 19.04. You will find here tips for internet privacy, like DNSCrypt and Enigmail, and tips for system privacy, like Screen Lock and Password Management. You will also find my recommendations for network services, like Invidious to replace YouTube, and more. I tried to make them short and easy for you. I hope this list useful and practical for everybody new in both Ubuntu and privacy things. Last but not least, privacy is a very broad field and I left more readings in the end for you to learn more. Finally, happy working!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            More about Ubuntu 19.04: Download Links | Install Guide | Bootable-Making Guide | Upgrade 14.04 to 16.04 | Upgrade 16.04 to 18.04 | WTDAI | GNOME 3.32 | Desktop Extensions | Dash to Panel | Dash to Dock | Tray Icons


              • 1) Search engine
              • 2) User password
              • 3) Notifications
              • 4) Browser addons
              • 5) Dnscrypt (Protect your DNS transmission)
              • 6) Seahorse password manager
              • 7) Nautilus one-click secure delete
              • 8) Lock screen
              • 9) Enigmail (Encrypt every email in easy way)
              • 10) YouTube alternative
              • 11) Google Drive alternative
              • 12) Social networks alternatives

              1. Search Engine
              I recommend you for privacy and convenience. Its slogan is "The world's most private search engine" and it's recommended both by and PRISM Break.


              2. User Password
              Do you want to change your login password?Change it in the System Settings > Details > Users > select your username > Unlock > type your password > your user details showing > click Password box > Change Password dialog showing > type current password, type new password, type the new password once again > click Change > your password changed.

              (Users management section in System Settings)
              (Change Password dialog for current user)
              3. Control your notifications
              You can either disable or enable just particular notifications. It is useful when your chatting, emails, transfer, or any other information exchange is confidential. Go to System Settings > Notifications > disable 'Notification Popups' (to completely run desktop without notifications) > disable 'Lock Screen Notifications' (to prevent lock screen showing any of them). You can adjust these as you wish later.

              (Every application may have its notification disabled)
              4. Browser Addons
              As usual, for Mozilla Firefox I recommend the trio.

              5. DNSCrypt
              DNSCrypt, to put it simply, is a way to make every of our DNS query encrypted. This way, in most cases, your browsing will not be disturbed or redirected by your ISP anymore. The program to enable DNSCrypt system on Ubuntu is called dnscrypt-proxy. Installing dnscrypt-proxy on 19.04 is very quick for just 3 minutes.

              Install it:
              $ sudo apt-get install dnscrypt-proxy
              Configure it:
              $ sudo nano /etc/dnscrypt-proxy/dnscrypt-proxy.toml
              Change server_names = ['cloudflare'] to server_names = ['cisco'] and save it.

              Restart it:
              $ sudo systemctl restart dnscrypt-proxy
              Make your system recognize it:
              Go to Network Manager > select your currently used network name > go to IPv4 tab > disable Automatic DNS > enter address > Apply.

              Test it:
              $ dig txt

              (Encrypted DNS transmission should show "dnscrypt enabled [...]" message)
              6. Manage your passwords with Seahorse!
              As I mentioned before, Ubuntu 19.04 brings a decent password manager already. Its name is GNOME Seahorse, it's presented as Passwords and Keys on start menu. Its interface is very simple with a short left panel and wider area (to hide/show passwords) on right. You can save username+password as much as you like, you can lock the program with another password, so to access your saved credentials one needs to know your Seahorse password (the same way you use KeePassX).

              (When locked, Seahorse says "Keyring is locked" and it demands the Unlock password)
              7. Click to securely delete file on Nautilus
              See Tails GNU/Linux's about page. It mentions Nautilus Wipe as one among its state-of-the-art security tools. By selecting a file > right-click > Wipe, we are sure that a file is wiped out securely from the storage media and cannot be recovered later. It has a nice intro to "wiping" here.

              Install it by command line:
              $ sudo apt-get install nautilus-wipe
              (Right-click on a file provides 'Wipe' and 'Wipe available disk space' options)

              8. Lock screen  & purge trash automatically
              As I mentioned as well, and among those, is one important thing, that is Screen Lock. Go to System Settings > Privacy > Screen Lock > enable it and give it time delay as little as you feel comfort with (e.g. 30 seconds) > disable Show Notifications option. This setting makes your screen automatically covered up with login prompt so one should enter correct password to see what you are working with.

              Purge trash bin automatically: you need to setup this if you work with sensitive information and you often delete them temporarily so they reside on trash bin for a period of time. Go to System Settings > Privacy > Purge Trash [...] > enable Automatically Empty Trash > enable Automatically purge Temporary files > select Purge After with shortest time duration you feel comfort with e.g. 1 hour.
              (Setup to automatically purge both Trash Bin and Temporary Files)
              9. Enigmail: Email Encryption
              Ubuntu comes with both Thunderbird Mail Client and GnuPG encryption tool. Use Enigmail addon so your email account in Thunderbird can get encrypted easily. Install Enigmail by pressing Ctrl+Shift+A on Thunderbird > search enigmail > click Install button > Enigmail installed. To setup Enigmail for you emails, follow this tutorial.

              (Enigmail page shown within Thunderbird addon properties page)
              10. YouTube Alternative: Invidious
              Both YouTube and Invidious are network services, not programs you install to computer.

              YouTube is known for its nonfree JavaScript (proprietary code that runs on your web browser) and network tracking against the user. Many of us want to watch videos without those stuffs, but cannot, as YouTube videos won't play unless your browser has JavaScript enabled.

              (Ubuntu 19.04: What's New video by OMG! Ubuntu website originally uploaded to YouTube and played on Invidious; notice the blue Download button on bottom-left)
              Fortunately there is Invidious, a video streaming website that allows us to watch YouTube without YouTube, meaning, we can play and loop and download all YouTube videos without JavaScript, user tracking, and ads. You can download every YouTube video in Invidious right on the player interface in various formats, notably WEBM, MP4, and MP3. You can embed videos on your blog post without JavaScript now thanks to Invidious, just click the Share button. Thanks to Omar Roth for developing Invidious!

              11. Google Drive Alternative: Internet Archive
              If you use Google Drive only for sharing, not for personal storage, now you can use Internet Archive instead. Account registration is gratis, with unlimited file upload, direct link for every file, and ability to seed torrents. Moreover, Internet Archive is very famous as the Internet Wayback Machine and the biggest Internet Book Library.

              (Example: my public file sharing place on Internet Archive)
              12. Privacy Friendly Social Networks
     recommends Mastodon, diaspora*, and Friendica as privacy-wise replacements to Twitter and Facebook. Take Mastodon as example. You can create account in any Mastodon server, for instance, and browse around other Mastodon servers to like and reshare everything. When you see things like Mastodon, you think of emails, different email accounts can just communicate with eachothers. Here, I just want to show some examples of our communities' Mastodon accounts:

              Further Readings

              This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

              Step By Step To Upgrade Ubuntu from 18.04 to 19.04 using Command Lines

              Wednesday 24th of April 2019 01:17:00 PM
              (Ubuntu 19.04 after upgrade from 18.04 LTS)
              This is tutorial to upgrade your Ubuntu from 18.04 LTS to 19.04 using 'do-release-upgrade' command lines. The upgrade process is divided to two steps, first to upgrade to 18.10, and second to upgrade to 19.04. In other words, we will upgrade from Bionic Beaver to Cosmic Cuttlefish to Disco Dingo. The whole process takes approximately 3 hours and 30 minutes on broadband internet connection and Solid State Disk (SSD) storage. Go ahead and have a safe upgrade. Finally, happy working!

              Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
              More about Ubuntu 19.04: Download Links | Install Guide | Bootable-Making Guide | Upgrade 14.04 to 16.04 | Upgrade 16.04 to 18.04 | WTDAI | GNOME 3.32 | Desktop Extensions | Dash to Panel | Dash to Dock | Tray Icons

              • Ubuntu 18.04 installed on your computer.
              • At least 5GB free space.
              • Stable internet access. Preferable the fast one.
              • To be present in front of computer display during upgrade.

              • This tutorial is best for experimental installed Ubuntu system and I recommend you not to upgrade your daily for-work desktop system unless you know what you are doing and you accept everything may happen to your system.
              • Upgrading 18.04 to 19.04 means upgrading an LTS to a nonLTS Ubuntu version. LTS is supported for 5 years while nonLTS is supported for 9 month.
              • Upgrading is not straight, but it's twice, as you need first to upgrade to 18.10 Cosmic Cuttlefish and finally to 19.04 Disco Dingo. 
              • Upgrading costs a lot of internet bandwidth. Make sure you have at least --for safety-- 5GB data or more to upgrade. 

              • 1. Check your disk space
              • 2. Disable third party repositories
              • 3. Full update "bionic"
              • 4. Upgrade to "cosmic"
              • 5. First result
              • 6. Upgrade to "disco"
              • 7. Final result

                1. Check your disk space
                Use command line below to know your free space ("Avail"). For example, I have at least 14GB free disk space for my root partition and that is safe.

                $ df -h /
                (Before upgrade)
                After upgrade, free space becomes 12G, as I upgraded from a freshly installed 18.04. It means for a pure system, the whole upgrade needs at least 2GB free space. To be safe, I recommend you to prepare at least 5GB free space for the downloaded packages and package installation.
                $ df -h /
                (After upgrade)

                2. Disable Third Party Repositories
                If you had ever installed PPA repositories, for example, you need to disable them first in order to upgrade your system safely. Run 'Software & Updates' from menu or press Alt_F2 and run software-properties-gtk to see repository settings. Third-party repositories (if any) are configurable in the second tab Other Software. Disable them all.

                (Third-party repositories settings)
                  3. Full Update 18.04 "Bionic"
                  Before changing the OS version to the newest one, we need to make sure current OS version has the latest software packages. These processes are taking a long time e.g. more than 1 hours if you have many apps installed so you need to stand by in front of your screen to respond to any question may occur.
                  $ sudo apt-get  update
                  $ sudo apt-get upgrade
                  $ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

                  ((1) apt-get update with fastest repository mirror in my country (2) apt-get upgrade indicates I would download 400MB packages (3) selection of configuration: press arrow up/down to select and press TAB to highlight OK button and press Enter to accept it (4) apt-get dist-upgrade indicates I would download 100MB packages)
                  4. Upgrade to 18.10 "Cosmic"
                  First release upgrade, do the command line do-release-upgrade to automatically change your OS version 18.04 to latest OS version available 19.04. This process takes the most time in my practice by downloading 800MB data in approximately 2 hours. Your practice may be different so be prepared.
                  $ sudo do-release-upgrade

                  ((1) software-properties-gtk set to For any new version (2) authenticate to change of software-properties-gtk settings (3) do-release-upgrade starts and finds newer version of Ubuntu "cosmic" (4) do-release-upgrade changes the previous bionic to cosmic (5) do-release-upgrade informs it needs to download 800MB to upgrade OS version to cosmic (6) questions: answer everything with Y (7) do-release-upgrade asks your permission to remove some packages: answer with Y (8) all upgrade finished and you need to restart: answer with Y)
                  5. First Result
                  After first restart, you will see Ubuntu turned 18.10. Continue to the next step.

                  (Cosmic Cuttlefish)
                  6. Upgrade to 19.04 "Disco"
                  This is the second OS upgrade, do the command line do-release-upgrade to upgrade from 18.10 to 19.04.

                  $ sudo do-release-upgrade

                  ((1) do-release-upgrade finds new OS release "dingo" (2) do-release-upgrade informs that it needs to download 800MB packages (3) downloading all packages (4) configuration: select using up/down arrow key and press TAB to highlight OK button and press Enter to accept it (5) do-release-upgrade asks you to remove certain packages: answer with Y (6) do release-upgrade asks you to restart: answer with Y)
                  7. Final Result
                  Successful upgrade should indicate your OS version to be Ubuntu 19.04 and your wallpaper changed from Bionic Beaver to Disco Dingo. See picture below. Congratulations!

                  (Disco Dingo)
                  This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                  Download Links of Ubuntu 19.04 and Official Flavors (with Direct Links, Torrents, and Checksums)

                  Sunday 21st of April 2019 03:12:00 PM

                  Ubuntu 19.04 released Thursday, 18 April 2019 along with 7 Official Flavors. This page lists all download links of ISO images both direct links & torrents with MD5SUMS. Among these links, I highly recommends you to download via torrents instead as it's faster, more reliable, and in same time it benefits the whole community. Happy downloading, happy working!

                  Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
                  Read also: Install Guide | Making Bootable Guide





                  Ubuntu MATE

                  Ubuntu Budgie

                  Ubuntu Studio

                  Ubuntu Kylin

                  Check MD5SUM value of every ISO image you downloaded and then compare the value with these MD5SUM values. Simply use Ctrl+F on your web browser to find.

                  6fa9686bc299c19c97d280f79a723868 *ubuntu-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

                  9a5cdb753ab86cd98ff426347faf9989 *kubuntu-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

                  0ce7ed9f0664be5df686f8a85d054915 *xubuntu-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

                  93887c92a5e41f8ab339967db085553c *lubuntu-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

                  Ubuntu MATE:
                  e7f0f99a35a9fcaeceb7a7c36a53b450 *ubuntu-mate-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

                  Ubuntu Budgie:
                  e7f0f99a35a9fcaeceb7a7c36a53b450 *ubuntu-mate-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

                  96b94c64e9c5378ee353b8a4ce6dde4c *ubuntustudio-19.04-dvd-amd64.iso

                  Ubuntu Kylin:
                  8fab32ed8bae66bb280d843d4d51f083 *ubuntukylin-19.04-desktop-amd64.iso

                  This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                  What To Do After Installing Ubuntu 19.04 "Disco Dingo"

                  Saturday 20th of April 2019 07:49:00 AM

                   (Ubuntu 19.04 running Inkscape and System Info)
                  This is the traditional recommendation to do and and tips & tricks for users who just installed Ubuntu 19.04. This recommendation I tried to limit the stuffs to built-in applications only, with less customization, such as, making presentation with LibreOffice Impress using Ubuntu artworks, subscribing to Ubuntu & GNU/Linux podcasts such as MintCast & Ubuntu Podcast in Rhythmbox, saving online accounts credentials using GNOME Seahorse (similar to KeePass), along with the usual Firefox addons and changing Nautilus default view & making desktop shortcuts for apps. Of course, you will Finally, I hope you enjoy 19.04 with this article. Happy working!

                  Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.Read more about Ubuntu 19.04: Installation Guide | The GNOME 3.32 | Desktop Customization | Useful Extensions | Tray Icons

                  • 1. About Repository
                  • 2. About File Manager
                  • 3. About Podcast & Audio Player
                  • 4. About LibreOffice Impress
                  • 5. About Web Browser and Addons
                  • 6. About Password Manager
                  • 7. About System Settings
                  • 8. About Email Client
                  • 9. About Online Accounts (Google Drive sync on File Manager)
                  • 10. About Traditional Desktop

                  1. Switch Repository Mirror, Install and Upgrade Applications
                  For example, in Indonesia, personally I find that either Kartolo by Datautama company or Kambing by Indonesia University is the most reliable, fastest mirror. For you country where you live, you can either use Select Best Server button or find by yourself trying from among choices available. By default, Ubuntu chooses not either one of them, but which is considerably far slower. I changed my mirror heading to Kartolo immediately after I finished Ubuntu installation.
                   (Software & Updates blue logo)
                  • Click 3x3 dots menu button on bottom
                  • Search Software & Updates with blue logo
                  • Click the Download from button > click Others
                  • Select your country > select a mirror among mirrors available there
                  • Click Choose Server > click Close
                  • Select Reload if asked
                  • You repository mirror changed

                  (Left: software-properties-gtk window showing repository sources enabled; right: list of repository mirrors selection of Indonesia)

                  (Ubuntu Software orange logo)
                  Browsing for applications is easy thanks to Ubuntu Software (the app center) or I prefer to call it Software Center instead. The Software Center presents you applications from the official Ubuntu repository as well as applications from (in other words, gives you both DEB and Snaps). However, it mixes together between free and proprietary software there. To know whether a program is free, click the application, click License section, you will see it's described as Free (mostly with permission called "GPL"), otherwise it's described as Proprietary.

                  (Ubuntu Software Center with Krita professional drawing & animation program as featured application)
                  To install application:
                  • Click software name
                  • Click Install button
                  • Wait the process (this depends on the program size and your net speed)
                  • Application installed
                  • Find the application in the start menu

                  To remove application:
                  • Same as above, but click Remove button instead

                  To upgrade application:
                  • Go to Updates tab
                  • Press Reload button on top-left corner
                  • Wait the process
                  • You will see list of applications available to be upgraded
                  • Click Update button on application
                  • Application updated
                  • Run the application and go to (mostly) menu bar Help > About to see the version number

                  2. Nautilus
                  If you come to 19.04 straight from 16.04, you will find Nautilus changed a lot. It's far more simpler with many options removed from the screen. But your settings are still familiar, for example, show List View everywhere and show file size on Thumbnails View.

                  (Nautilus File Manager icon)
                  (Left: file manager with normal (thumbnails) view; right: file manager with detailed (list) view)

                  To put applications on desktop, you cannot drag and drop icons from menu straight to desktop area. Instead, you copy applications from /usr/share/applications/ to ~/Desktop directory. Next step, right-click every application on desktop > Allow Launching. Finally, you can run every one of them.
                  (How to copy manually every app to ~/Desktop and make them executable on desktop area)
                  3. Rhythmbox
                  Starting the new Ubuntu 19.04 with community podcasts is a good thing! Podcast is, simply, internet radio broadcasting you can download as MP3 or OGG audio file, which regularly published weekly or monthly, by individuals among our community. In our Ubuntu and Free/Libre Open Source Software community, podcasts talk about daily life using Ubuntu itself, gaming, hardware tweaking, security, and some about internal development of various GNU/Linux distros. You can play podcast using Rhythmbox.

                  (Rhythmbox aka GNOME Music logo)
                  You can start downloading podcasts from these podcast sources:

                  (Rhythmbox playing a podcast from Linux Unplugged #266, Rhythmbox playing a podcast from Choose Linux Show #5)
                  If you love to subscribe instead, in Rhythmbox you can even automatically get latest podcast as long as your internet access is on. Please remember that this requires more bandwidth than you download podcast audio file one by one. To do so, for example with two RSS feed URLs from Ubuntu Podcast and Linux Unplugged:
                  • Click Podcast section on the left panel under Library
                  • Right-click on the Feed panel > New Podcast Feed
                  • Rhythmbox will download list of podcasts available
                  • Click Subscribe button
                  • All podcasts from this source subscribed
                  • Repeat those processes for another podcast source

                  (See "Podcast" section on left? See Subscribe button on center? See list of podcasts on bottom? It's Rhythmbox subscribing to Linux Unplugged podcast RSS feed)

                  4. LibreOffice Impress Presentation
                  You can create amazing presentation in Impress using artworks you can download from Ubuntu. You can find many logos, including Ubuntu logo itself, along with the iconic dialog balloon you saw on installation progress.

                  (Impress logo)
                  Here's where to download artworks:

                  (Quote Pictogram artwork is located at bottom-right of the page)
                  For example, let's make slide decoration:
                  • Download the Quote Pictogram from
                  • You got quote-pictogram.svg file. 
                  • Drag and drop the SVG file into Impress.
                  • Right-click the balloon > Crop > cut it off to fit its left edge with left edge of the slide. 

                  ((1) insert the picture (2) select > right-click > Crop (3) move the handle a little bit to right and press Enter (4) picture cropped properly)
                  Some slides as example:

                  (Creative Impress presentation slide using artwork from Ubuntu Official)
                  (Second slide, with other artwork, but same cropping technique)
                  5. Firefox
                  Ubuntu comes with Mozilla Firefox web browser. It has automatic updates feature for its search engine, addons, and the Firefox itself. If you prefer to update everything manually, like me for example, turn them off below. And, below you will find addons recommendation you can use.

                  (Ctrl+Shift+A on Firefox brings the addons management page)

                  Addons you can find helpful:

                  This way, you can install Desktop Extensions you love from GNOME website. There are a lot of extensions to boost up your productivity and comfortability using Ubuntu 19.04, such as, Drop Down Terminal. See extension recommendation article for more.

                  (E.G.O. website showing a lot of extensions)
                  6. Password Keeper
                  Yes, Ubuntu 19.04 comes with a secure password keeper program. You can use it to save your online accounts (usernames & passwords) so you can open them at any time. It's Passwords & Keys on start menu and originally named GNOME Seahorse.

                   (GNOME Seahorse logo)
                  To save an email account:
                  • Click the + button on the title bar > Select Password
                  • Select keyring Login
                  • On Description, type your email address
                  • On Password, type the password
                  • OK
                  • Your account saved under Login keyring among other accounts
                  • Click the black lock logo beside Login keyring > type your Ubuntu password > OK
                  • Now all your saved passwords are safe

                   (Personal accounts credentials saved on GNOME Seahorse)
                  (Seahorse itself can be locked, just like any other password manager program)
                  To open your saved password:
                  • Click the black lock logo > type your Ubuntu password > OK
                  • Double click your email address
                  • Your account password shown in dots with Copy button beside. 
                  • Click the key button to show/hide the password.

                  (Opening an entry to see username and password we had saved)
                  7. System Settings
                  • Night Light
                  • Tap to click
                  • Natural scrolling
                  • Privacy
                  • Language
                  • Keyboard
                  • Volume more than 100% 

                  (System Settings logo)
                  Night light: set it to Sunset to Sunrise to make it automatically adapts screen color warmth. As many of you know, for users with long duration in front of screen, this helps reduce eye strain and sleeplessness.

                  (But, if you choose manual, you can instead move the slider to set permanent color temperature)
                  Touchpad settings: for laptop users, enable Touchpad, Tap To Click, and Two-finger Scrolling options, and disable Natural Scrolling.

                  (Disabling Natural Scrolling is needed for laptop which does not have touch screen display)
                  Privacy settings: there are six aspects of personal info transmission:
                  • 1) Screen Lock: you can choose the delay time to lock from 30 seconds to 1 hours. 
                  • 2) Location Services: it's actually Mozilla Location Service, if enabled, you allow applications (and highly probable, their developers) to know your location. Privacy wise, it's better to disable this.
                  • 3) Usage & History: recent files can be disabled by disabling this. You can also delete them by pressing Delete button there.
                  • 4) Purge Trash & Temp. Files: you may choose to automatically delete everything on trash bin and temporary. 
                  • 5) Problem Reporting: enable this and you can report problems and bugs on your system easily and automatically to Ubuntu Developers. Disable this if you do not want to see Apport Error Notification bugs you anymore.
                  • 6) Connectivity Checking: do you often go to public wifi hotspot? If this enabled, Ubuntu will show the login page of the hotspot (Captive Portal)

                  (Privacy settings)
                  (Full view of Privacy settings)
                  Region & Language settings:

                  • 1) Language: this changes the language of all applications user interface.
                  • 2) Formats: this changes date/time, numbers (100.000,00 / 1,000,000.00), measurement (Metric / Imperial), and paper size (A4 / Letter). 
                  • 3) Input source options: you can choose whether to apply one keyboard layout to all applications, or to make some exceptions.
                  • 4) Keyboard layout: add new keyboard layout (like Russian, Japanese, Arabic, etc.) and switch the order among them. Adding new layout shows them on top bar of your desktop. 
                  • 5) Install more languages: shows Language Support dialog to search and download more user interface languages.

                  (Adding keyboard layouts and choosing among them)
                  Volume settings: Ubuntu 19.04 can amplify volume beyond 100%. This helps for listening by speaker when raining, or, when you are in a noisy public place.
                  (Adjusting volume up to 150%)

                  8. Thunderbird & Gmail Account
                  In brief, here's how to assign a Gmail account, username and password, into Thunderbird Mail Client. Thunderbird on Ubuntu is replacement to Outlook on Windows. Longer explanation with screenshots I've explained on Gmail IMAP on Thunderbird. (See also here to setup it as Google Calendar client and as RSS feed reader.)
                  • Set Gmail Web to accept IMAP client
                  • Run Thunderbird
                  • Create new account
                  • Type your Gmail address and password
                  • Let Thunderbird scans everything for you
                  • Make sure you see IMAP (remote folder) option selected
                  • Go ahead

                  (Quick setup Gmail account in Mozilla Thunderbird)
                  9. Online Accounts
                  For example, you want to connect to Google Drive using file manager, and take back your personal data to keep them in your local custody. Go to System Settings > Online Accounts > Google > type your username > type your password > type verification if asked > OK > make sure Files option is enabled there. Once enabled, go to File Manager, you will see your email address there. Click it to access your Google Drive.

                  (System Settings logo)
                  System Settings showing Files section ON aka synchronized to Google Drive.

                  (System Settings in Google Account options)
                  Accessing Google Drive using file manager:

                  (After setup, you will see your files in Nautilus File Manager)
                  10. Make it traditional once again
                  Previous tutorial explained how to make this GNOME desktop look more desktop-oriented rather than smartphone-oriented. For this purpose, you will need GNOME Tweak Tool installed and GNOME Integration enabled. The extension, Dash To Panel, will automatically turn left panel to bottom taskbar including system tray. If you prefer KDE Plasma or Windows 7 style of panel positioning, you will like this customization. Enjoy!

                  (Ubuntu 19.04 with traditional desktop)
                  This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                  How To Install Ubuntu 19.04 with Instructions for External Disk Drive and UEFI

                  Wednesday 17th of April 2019 04:47:00 AM
                   (Ubuntu 19.04 installation to computer with a beautiful welcome message)
                  This tutorial explains how to install Ubuntu 19.04 "Disco Dingo" with or without UEFI and in internal or external hard disk drive. You even can practice this to install Ubuntu on USB Flash Drive. You will prepare 2 partitions, 1 USB Flash Drive as installation media, and 1 EFI partition (for computer with UEFI boot system). The installation is quick with only +/-15 minutes into flash drive and should be quicker on HDD and even more quicker on SSD. I wish you all success in your installation. Finally, good luck and happy working!

                  Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
                  Related to Ubuntu 19.04: Pre-release Review | Dash to Panel extension | Tray Icons extension | Useful Extensions | WTDAI for GNOME Desktop | GNOME 3.32 on Dingo Beta | Ubuntu's Yaru | Mojave Custom | GNOME Extensions Install and Remove

                  • Preparations
                  • Step 1: Choose Language
                  • Step 2: Choose Keyboard
                  • Step 3: Choose Network
                  • Step 4: Choose Mode
                  • Step 5: Partitioner
                  • Step 6: Create Main Partition
                  • Step 7: Create Swap
                  • Special: Create EFI System Partition
                  • Step 8: Bootloader
                  • Step 9: Personal Info
                  • Step 10: Waiting
                  • Final Result

                  There are 3 requirements:
                  • 2 partitions in hard disk drive
                  • 1 USB Flash Drive (as Ubuntu bootable media)
                  • 1 EFI partition (for UEFI computer)

                  First, what you required to create are 2 important disk partitions:
                  • One blank partition at least 20GB for main partition
                  • One blank partition at least 1GB for swap partition
                  Second, if your computer booting system is UEFI, not BIOS (Legacy), you need to create 1 more disk partition:
                  • One blank partition of 500MB for EFI System Partition (ESP)
                  Third, write the ISO image file of Ubuntu 19.04 into a USB Flash Disk using program Unetbootin (Windows), or GNOME Disk Utility (GNU/Linux), or Apple Disk Utility (MacOS).

                  To be completely careful, please pay attention to these:
                  1. This tutorial is best for empty computer i.e. newly purchased computer or second hand without any data or any operating system inside.
                  2. This tutorial can be used for dualboot installation mode e.g. having Windows and Ubuntu in one computer. 
                  3. This tutorial can be applied normally to install Ubuntu into internal hard disk.
                  4. On the other hand, this tutorial can be applied as well to install Ubuntu into external hard disk drive or USB flash drive.
                  5. You are responsible to your own computer and your own data. Make backup of all your important data present in the internal disk drive before doing any of these. Do not apply this to a non-empty computer e.g. dualboot mode unless you are experienced and you know what you are doing.
                  6. If you are not experienced, ask technician or similar people with knowledge you trust near you to guide you in front of your computer to do these preparations and instructions below. Let him/her read the instructions and help you practicing.

                  Enter LiveCD
                  Plug your bootable drive into USB port. Boot your computer with USB as booting choice. You should see Ubuntu screen soon with 2 choices. Click Try Ubuntu instead of Install Ubuntu.

                  Start the Installer
                  After that, you see a complete Ubuntu desktop ready on your screen. Double-click the Install Ubuntu icon on desktop. This starts Ubuntu System Installer.

                  1. Choose a language
                  Select English and continue.

                  2. Choose Keyboard
                  Let the default choice (English (US) - English (US)) selected unless you prefer another layout such as Russian or Japanese.

                  3. Choose No Network
                  Select I don't want to connect [...] instead. This way installation will finish faster.

                  4. Choose Normal Installation
                  Let the default choice, Normal Installation, selected. This will install everything Ubuntu comes with.

                  5. Choose Something Else
                  Select Something Else. This will bring you partition editor.

                  6. Create Main Partition
                  For installation to hard disk drive or external hard disk drive, do these:
                  • 1) Select your first blank partition > click Change
                  • 2) make sure the size is 20000 MB or more 
                  • 3) Use as: Ext4 journaling file system 
                  • 4) Format the partition: Yes 
                  • 5) Mount point: / 
                  • OK

                  If you want to install Ubuntu into USB Flash Drive, I suggest you to use Ext2 instead of Ext4 as Ext2 write rate is lower.

                  (Example setup for installation into a 16GB USB Flash Drive)
                  7. Create Swap Partition
                  • 1) Select your second empty partition > click Change
                  • 2) Make sure the size is 1000 MB at least
                  • 3) Format the partition: Yes
                  • 4) Use as: swap area

                  [Special: Create EFI Partition]
                  Only if your computer booting system is UEFI (new generation BIOS), follow this. If your computer still uses BIOS (Legacy) or has UEFI disabled, skip this right to step 8.

                  • Select your third blank partition of 500MB > click Change.
                  • Select Use as: EFI System Partition.
                  • Select Format the partition: Yes
                  • OK

                  8. Assign Bootloader
                  Choose the hard disk location where your main partition located. For hard disk drive, for example, where your main partition is /dev/sda1, then the bootloader should be assigned to /dev/sda.

                  • If you install Ubuntu to external hard drive, assume the partition is /dev/sdb1, then the bootloader should be in /dev/sdb
                  • If you install Ubuntu to USB Flash Drive, assume the partition is /dev/sdc1, then the bootloader should be in /dev/sdc.

                  Screenshot below depicts installation into USB flash drive /dev/sdc with partition /dev/sdc1 as main partition so the disk /dev/sdc is the bootloader location.

                  9. Personal Info
                  There are 2 info you need to determine here:

                  a) Your geographical location:
                  Choose your country or country region. This determines your time, currency, number format (period or comma), and so on.

                  b) Your username and password:
                  Determine your own username and password. The password here will be your sudo password as well.

                  10. Processing the Installation
                  What you need to do is to wait all remaining process to be done. In a laptop with Intel Pentium 4GB 16GB Flash Drive, this takes up to 14 minutes at most.

                  Final Result
                  Once finished, the system installer shows Installation Complete dialog. Click Restart Now, unplug your USB installation media, and let your computer boots to Ubuntu 19.04. Congratulations! Happy working!

                  This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                  The Beauty of Dash to Dock Extension on GNOME 3.32

                  Friday 12th of April 2019 03:47:00 PM
                   (GNOME with vertical panel on right side and in red color)
                  You may find many articles on the net guiding you to install Dash To Dock extension on GNOME. But there are very few ones to speak more about experimenting with it. This article explores the features of this one Extension to show you possibilities it can give to your GNOME 3 desktop environment. You can enable click to raise/minimize window, change the icon size, color the dock or make it transparent, make the dock to mimic Unity Launcher, reposition it to any edge of your screen, etc. You will find my experiments below, like, make everything looks larger to help friends with vision impairments, using GNOME 3.32 desktop on GNU/Linux. Finally, happy tweaking!

                  Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
                  Read more about GNOME 3.32: Dash to Panel | Tray Icons | Useful Extensions | WTDAI | 3.32 on Dingo Beta| Ubuntu's Yaru | Distros Availability | Mojave Custom | Extensions Install and Remove

                  Where is it?
                  Distro coming with Dash to Dock preinstalled is Ubuntu up to this moment. But other distros using GNOME still can install it by going to E.G.O. website. The version I use in this tutorial is 66.

                  Once installed, in the Tweak Tool, you will find it under Extensions section. This Extension is one among few which has Settings available.Click the Gear ('*') button to show its settings dialog.

                  Once you have it, you can follow my exploration below. I will fill Part 1 to 5 with the 5 pages of Dash to Dock (DTD from now on) settings dialog.

                  Part I: Position and Size
                  The first part of DTD settings gives you control over everything about panel position and size. You enable autohide here, make it full size, and enlarge the icons. If you wonder what kind of setting latest Ubuntu interface has, it's actually Panel mode here enabled.

                  • Show the dock on: Primary Monitor|Other Monitor
                  • Position on screen: Left|Bottom|Top|Right 
                  • Intelligen autohide(*): ON|OFF
                  • Dock size limit: 0%-100%
                  • Panel mode: YES|NO
                  • Icon size limit: 16|24|32|48|64|96|128
                  • Fixed icon size: scroll to reveal other icons: YES|NO

                  On Dock size limit measure, it's enabled by default if you don't enable Panel mode option, number you set there will be the length of the dock. If the number of apps running is more than dock length, you will need to scroll down to reveal other apps.

                  On Fixed icon size option, if enabled, panel size will adapt to number of apps running to avoid scrolling. It's not comfortable if you use the dock as panel as your maximized window will also adapt its size to dock size.

                  (*) Intellihide:

                  • Autohide: ON|OFF
                  • Enable in fullscreen mode: YES|NO
                  • Push to show: YES|NO
                  • Dodge windows: ON|OFF
                  • All windows, Only focused, only maximized: Select one
                  • Animation duration (s): 0.2
                  • Hide timeout (s): 0.2
                  • Show timeout (s): 0.25
                  • Pressure treshold: 100

                  Animation duration option may make animation smoother if you give it a higher number (max 1.0 s). Pressure threshold may help you if you wish hidden panel harder to show, 300 or 350 is a good number.

                  Part II: Launchers
                  The second part gives you control over the taskbar or list of apps running + pinned ones there. Notable option is Move the applications button... where if enabled it moves the start menu button from bottom to top of vertical panel. It's the actual setting of latest Ubuntu interface.


                  • Show favorite applications: ON|OFF
                  • Show running applications: ON|OFF
                  • Show open windows previews: YES|NO
                  • Isolate workspaces: YES|NO
                  • Isolate monitors: YES|NO
                  • Show Applications icon: ON|OFF
                  • Move the applications button at the beginning of the dock: YES|NO
                  • Animate show applications: YES|NO

                  Show open windows previews option will give you tooltip preview from right-click of an app on the dock. Disable it then no preview will show.

                  Isolate workspaces and monitors option will distinguish taskbar for different workspaces and different monitors. For example, if you run Firefox on workspace 1, then you move to workspace 2, taskbar will not indicate Firefox running on workspace 2. If you click the icon on workspace 2, it will run new window instead, not bring you to workspace 1.

                  Animate show applications option may help (a lot) reduce your computer resource if disabled. It may speed up your job as you need no animation anymore.

                  Part III: Behavior
                  Third part gives you control about click behavior of apps running on the dock. For those who consider clicking an app to show/hide the app window is the right thing, this is what they need. You want click to minimize, right? Then simply choose Click action: Minimize here.

                  • Use keyboard shortcuts to activate app:(*) ON|OFF
                  • Click action(*): Raise window|Minimize|Launch new instance|Cycle through windows|Minimize or overview|Show window previews|Minimize or show previews|Focus or show previews
                  • Scroll action: Do nothing|Cycle through windows|Switch workspace 

                  First option here turns normal vertical dock to Unity Launcher panel. When you hold Super key and press 1, first icon on the dock will run, just like we experienced on Ubuntu 16.04. The only difference at the moment is that it does not show the numbers immediately, we need to add number key (run an app) first to show every app its number.

                    (*) Use keyboard:

                    • Reset to defaults
                    • Number overlay: ON|OFF
                    • Show the dock if it is hidden: ON|OFF
                    • Shortcut for the options above: <Shift>|<Super>|<Ctrl>|<Alt>
                    • Hide timeout (s): 0.0-10.0

                    This settings dialog clearly wants to help you disable the number instead if you only want the shortcut key functionality. You can also switch the key from Super to Alt for example. This is another difference as we cannot change the Super key on Unity.

                      (*) Click action

                      • Shift+Click action: Raise|Minimize|Launch new|Cycle through|Minimize or overview|Preview|Minimize or preview|Focus of Preview|Quit
                      • Middle-Click action: idem
                      • Shift+Middle-Click action: idem

                      This settings dialog gives you more control of click behaviors. It differs between Shift+Click, Middle click, and Shift+Middle click, with a lot of choices each. For users with a lot of activities involving windows, this may help, for example Click to minimize and Shift+Click to quit. They may work quicker that way.

                      Part IV: Appearance
                      Fourth part, the last part, gives you control over appearance of the dock including the theme choice, color, and opacity. And this part is the one to help you mimic Unity panel completely on GNOME. Just see the third option below.

                      • Use built-in theme: ON|OFF
                      • Shrink the dash: ON|OFF
                      • Customize windows counter indicators(*): Default|Dots|Squares|Dashes|Segmented|Solid|Ciliora|Metro
                      • Customize the dash color: ON|OFF
                      • Customize opacity(*): Default|Fixed|Dynamic
                      • Opacity: 0%-100%
                      • Force straight corner: ON|OFF

                      I don't know if it's a bug or not, but I cannot make the (*) working from Customize opacity option.

                        (*) Customize windows counter indicators

                        • Enable Unity7 like glossy backlit items: ON|OFF
                        • Use dominant color: ON|OFF
                        • Customize indicator style: ON|OFF
                        • Color: <color_selector>
                        • Border color: <color_selector>
                        • Border width: 0-10

                        This settings dialog helps you to turn GNOME panel to Unity panel. You may see Part VIII below for screenshots and more details.

                        Part V: About
                        Fifth part of the DTD settings is information about the software itself. It's created by Michele from (see the website, it's simply cool). Finally it says it licensed under GNU GPLv2+ free software license. DTD may be only an extension, but this About page is professional in my personal opinion and I like it. Really good job, Michele, and big thanks to you!

                        Part VI: With and Without DTD
                        It's time to see the screenshots. Here's the comparison between GNOME vanilla without DTD and with DTD enabled.

                        • 1) Without DTD: no left panel showing, even when a window running
                        • 2) Without DTD: only if you show overview (pushing cursor to top-left corner), left panel will show
                        • 3) With DTD: left panel always showing
                        • 4) With DTD: left panel appears even though a window is maximized

                        These are just the basics. You still have plenty of options.

                        Part VII: Left Panel Appearance
                        Then, here are comparisons among panel size, panel position, and 'start menu' button location.

                        • We have choices between 16px (smallest) and 128px (largest) icon size, as icon size determines panel size.

                        • We can place the panel on any of left-right-top-bottom. Everything looks okay except the top one, as it covers your top panel and system tray this way.

                        (Full length panel on (1) left (2) right (3) bottom (4) top)
                        • By default it's not in full length, as the dock you see on macOS. But you can make it full just like Ubuntu 17.04-19.04 interface

                        ((1) dock size, bottom button (2) dock size, top button (3) full size, top button (4) full size, bottom button)
                        By disabling Autohide, the dock (or panel if you turned it on) will not obstruct maximized window. It will be just like any normal panel on other user interfaces (e.g. KDE).
                        Part VIII: Experimenting
                        Finally, it's time to experiment. I present you 4 things here:
                        • Make it mimics Unity Launcher
                        • Color it your color
                        • Show numbers and run an app by Super+Number
                        • Let's help people with vision problems

                        1) Unity comes to GNOME

                        By enabling Unity7... option from Appearance (see Part IV above) left panel and every app launcher there look transparent and glossy. At a glance, casual user won't see any difference to Unity desktop this way. The only one missing here is the unique Unity Dash button with Ubuntu logo on its center. I hope next time DTD will come with such option.

                        2) Colors

                        By changing Customize the dash color option (see Part IV above), we can change the dock background color. By default you will see Color Palette to choose a color from. Here's my example of green, yellow, and red panels.

                        (Color palette dialog with nice color choices)

                        3) Launcher numbers

                        On Unity desktop, when you hold Super key, you will see every icon on panel got a number, and pressing Super+1 runs the first icon and Super+9 runs the ninth icon. That's the innovation of Unity. DTD can do that for you, simply go to Behavior and enable Use keyboard shortcuts... option (see Part III above). You may have experiment between the transparent one and the colored one like below. 

                        4) To help disabled friends

                        To help people with vision difficulties, we can enlarge both left panel's icons and text on screen. Coloring the panel is also a good idea if a certain color helps them. To enlarge panel icons, simply slide Icon size limit option to the large one. To enlarge text, simply go to System Settings > Universal Access > Large Text: ON. Screenshot below is the same GNOME with full resolution with enlarged panel icons and text. You may notice the distance between clock and system tray reduced because of it.

                        (More visible text of folders and top panel, more visible icons on the dock)
                        Closing words
                        Dash To Dock is a really good extension. It proves that althogh GNOME 3 is by default less configurable*, but by using right extension you can make it more configurable and usable once again. You can enable normal behaviors of normal desktop once again, for instance, click app icon to raise or minimize it, or another instance, show the taskbar every time. You can also have unique and innovative features, such as Unity7 Launcher above and the ability to open app by Super+<number> key combo. Furthermore, you can have a little nostalgia in coloring the panel as you might did on GNOME 2 era prior to 2011. Finally, I wish you enjoy this article. Happy tweaking!

                        *) for instance, you have no right-click > Configure both on the top panel and the dock, and you can not add more panel.

                        This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                        GNOME 3.32 + Bottom Taskbar + Traditional Layout

                        Friday 5th of April 2019 01:27:00 PM
                        (GNOME 3.32 with traditional desktop settings on GNU/Linux)
                        Following latest customization tutorial, and inspired by Alex's post on /r/GNOME/, here's GNOME desktop with traditional layout tweak. Traditional means it looks like KDE, Windows, or Mint with bottom-oriented taskbar and start menu. You will have no top panel nor left panel anymore, with panel on bottom along with its system tray. The star of this tutorial is the extension named Dash to Panel (not to be confused with Dash to Dock), an amazing tool to flexibly tweak and control everything of our beloved panel. Okay, here we go!

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                        Read more about GNOME 3.32: Tray Icons | Useful Extensions | WTDAI | 3.32 on Dingo Beta| Ubuntu's Yaru | Distros Availability | Mojave Custom | Extensions Install and Remove

                        Here's what you will have after practicing the instructions:

                        1) Left start menu goes back to traditional cascading bottom-up menu:

                        (Start menu, clickable on bottom-left of screen many have accustomed to)
                        2) System tray goes back to bottom-right:

                        (System tray, now on bottom-right of screen)
                        3) Tooltip of every running app:

                        (Window preview on Nautilus with close button on its top-right corner)
                        4) And if you wish, you can also put GNOME's 3x3 dots button right beside start menu. Your whole start menu will look like below:

                        (Only bottom panel and notice there is no left dock anymore)
                        1. Controls
                        Enable trio buttons in Tweak Tool > Window Title bar > enable Maximize > enable Minimize.

                        (Close-Maximize-Minimize controls completely shown on each title bar)
                        2. Dash to Panel
                        Not to be confused with Dash to Dock, the Extension used here is Dash to Panel. It gives you so many choices, but, we will only use few here:
                        • - Panel screen position: Bottom
                        • - Taskbar position: Left, with floating center plugin icon
                        • - Display panel on all monitor: Yes
                        • - Panel size: 32
                        • - Override panel background opacity: Yes
                        • - Override panel theme gradiend: Yes
                        • - Show favorite applications: No
                        • - Show applications icon: No (mentioned above, if you wish you can turn it Yes)
                        • - Isolate workspace: Yes
                        • - Click action: Toggle Window

                        (Taskbar panel after enabling Dash to Panel)
                        3. Everything tray icon
                        Like previous tutorial, add TopIcons Plus and Ubuntu AppIndicator so you have running Telegram Desktop and such apps show their tray icons. Precisely, it's located before the native tray and clock.

                        (Transmission BitTorrent, Wire Messenger, Pidgin Messenger, Telegram Desktop, and StarDict Dictionary staying on the panel as tray icons)

                        4. Auto-hide taskbar? That's easy!
                        Go to Tweak Tool > Extensions > Dash to panel > Intellihide: On > now your taskbar will hide every time a window being maximized. And yes, this is also helpful to play Swell Foop game in full screen on 1366x768 resolution. 

                        (Intellihide enabled in the Tweak Tool)

                        (Playing large board of Swell Foop game)
                        Additional Things

                        Do you need disk drive access on the tray? If so, use Removable Drive Menu.  Once a USB storage attached on a USB port, it will detect it for you.

                        AlternateTab extension is not here anymore in 3.32 and later. Did you miss it? Default Alt+Tab switcher on GNOME is grouped and not separated, unlike what Alt+Tab we expect to work. Fortunately, this behavior is actually configurable internally in 3.32 (thanks to Florian Mueller's post). Go to System Settings > Devices > Keyboard > search switch windows > give it Alt+Tab shortcut > accept any confirmation > OK. Now your Alt+Tab switcher should be normal (ungrouped) once again. 

                        Do you like workspace switcher? If so, use Workspace Indicator. You will need to right-click a window title bar > Move to Workspace Down to create new workspace to be shown at the Indicator. 

                        Final Result
                        Just like picture in the beginning, the desktop goes traditional once again. To be honest, personally this setup looks closer to Cinnamon (from Linux Mint) than KDE (from Kubuntu). Either way, I wish this setup helps you to boost up your productivity on GNOME. Finally, enjoy your desktop and happy working!

                        Applications: working with LibreOffice is now desktop-oriented once again with this traditional layout. You got your space, you got your apps lined up on bottom, you can minimize and maximize every of it by one click on taskbar.

                        (Writer, Calc, Impress 6.2 running on GNOME 3.32 with a menu bar opened)
                        Dark theme: applications like Photos and Calendar look very good, matched with the start menu color with this traditional layout thanks to Dash to Panel.

                        (Opening the start menu while Photos opens a screenshot of GNOME itself)
                        This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                        How To Delete Telegram Groups Permanently

                        Thursday 4th of April 2019 02:09:00 PM
                        Deleting a group will automatically remove all members along with all messages and the group will disappear. On Telegram Desktop, basically you just need to convert the group to Supergroup and then click Delete Group button. In order to practice this, I did delete some of my groups on Telegram 1.2.1 on my KDE neon and it worked (however, current latest version is 1.6.3). Detailed step by step instructions are available below. Happy cleaning!

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                        1. Manage group
                        Enter the group you want to remove > click the group menu button (the vertical triple dots) > Manage group.


                        2. Group info
                        From Manage group dialog showing, click Group info.

                        3. Convert to supergroup
                        From Edit group dialog showing, select Convert to supergroup.

                        From the convert to supergroup dialog, select Convert.

                        Now, the group should be converted to Supergroup.

                        4. Delete group
                        Go to Manage group once again > Manage group > Group Info > scroll down > select Delete group.

                        5. Confirm delete
                        You will be asked to be sure to delete the group. All members well be removed along with all messages. Select Delete.

                        6. Group deleted
                        You should see that the group is no longer there. You can repeat steps 1-5 for other groups you wish to delete.

                        This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                        More in Tux Machines

                        Graphics: Red Hat's Wayland Agenda and AMD Begins Queueing Graphics Driver Changes For The Linux 5.3 Kernel

                        • Hans de Goede: Wayland itches summary
                          1. Middle click on title / header bar to lower the Window does not work for native apps. Multiple people have reported this issue to me. A similar issue was fixed for not being able to raise Windows. It should be easy to apply a similar fix for the lowering problem. There are bugs open for this here, here and here. 2. Running graphical apps via sudo or pxexec does not work. There are numerous examples of apps breaking because of this, such as lshw-gui and usbivew. At least for X11 apps this is not that hard to fix. But sofar this has deliberately not been fixed. The reasoning behind this is described in this bug. I agree with the reasoning behind this, but I think it is not pragmatic to immediately disallow all GUI apps to connect when run as root starting today.
                        • Hans de Goede: Better support for running games under Wayland (with GNOME3/mutter as compositor)
                          First of all I do not want people to get their hopes up about $subject of this blogpost. Improving gaming support is a subjects which holds my personal interest and it is an issue I plan to spend time on trying to improve. But this will take a lot of time (think months for simple things, years for more complex things).
                        • AMD Begins Queueing Graphics Driver Changes For The Linux 5.3 Kernel
                          Being past the Linux 5.2 kernel merge window, AMD's open-source Linux graphics driver developers have already begun queuing changes anticipated for Linux 5.3 via a work-in-progress tree. Given the short time that this 5.3 WIP tree has been around, there isn't too much exciting about the changes -- yet. But surely over the weeks ahead it will get interesting. Making things particularly interesting is that we are expecting initial Navi support to make it for Linux 5.3... In recent weeks AMD began pushing AMDGPU LLVM compiler back-end changes for GFX10/Navi and we expect the AMDGPU DRM kernel driver enablement to come for Linux 5.3. Linux 5.3 will already be arriving after the rumored release of the first Navi graphics cards so having to wait past 5.3 for mainline support would already be tragic. But given the recent LLVM activity, we expect AMD to push out the Navi kernel driver changes soon. For that likely massive patch-set to be reviewed in time, the Navi patches would need to make their debut within the next few weeks.

                        today's howtos and programming

                        Fedora 30 Workstation review - Smarter, faster and buggier

                        Fedora 30 is definitely one of the more interesting releases of this family in a long-time. It brings significant changes, including solid improvements in the desktop performance and responsiveness. Over the years, Fedora went from no proprietary stuff whatsoever to slowly acknowledging the modern needs of computing, so now it gives you MP3 codecs and you can install graphics drivers and such. Reasonable looks, plus good functionality across the board. However, there were tons of issues, too. Printing to Samba, video screenshot bug, installer cropped-image slides, package management complications, mouse cursor lag, oopses, average battery life, and inadequate usability out of the box. You need to change the defaults to have a desktop that can be used in a quick, efficient way without remembering a dozen nerdy keyboard shortcuts. All in all, I like the freshness. In general, it would seem the Linux desktop is seeing a cautious revival, and Fedora's definitely a happy player. But there are too many rough edges. Well, we got performance tweaks after so many years, and codecs, we might get window buttons and desktop icons one day back, too. Something like 6/10, and definitely worth exploring. I am happy enough to do two more tests. I will run an in-vivo upgrade on the F29 instance on this same box, and then also test the distro on an old Nvidia-powered laptop, which will showcase both the support for proprietary graphics (didn't work the last time) and performance improvements, if they scale for old hardware, too. That's all for now. Read more

                        Events: Automotive at LF, Linux Clusters Institute, Linux Plumbers Conference (LPC)

                        • Automotive Linux Summit and Open Source Summit Japan Keynote Speakers and Schedule Announced
                          The Linux Foundation, the nonprofit organization enabling mass innovation through open source has announced the speaker line up for Open Source Summit Japan and Automotive Linux Summit. One registration provides access to all content at both events, which will be held July 17-19 at the Toranomon Hills Forum in Tokyo. Open Source Summit Japan (OSSJ) and Automotive Linux Summit (ALS) will bring together top talent from companies on the leading edge of innovation including Toyota Motor Corporation, Uber, Intel, Sony, Google, Microsoft and more. Talks will cover a range of topics, with ALS talks on everything from infrastructure and hardware to compliance and security; and OSSJ sessions on AI, Linux systems, cloud infrastructure, cloud native applications, open networking, edge computing, safety and security and open source best practices.
                        • Register Now for the 2019 Introductory Linux Clusters Institute Workshop
                          Registration is now open for the 2019 Linux Clusters Institute (LCI) Introductory Workshop,which will be held August 19-23, 2019 at the Rutgers University Inn & Conference Center in New Brunswick, NJ. This workshop will cover the fundamentals of setting up and administering a high-performance computing (HPC) cluster and will be led by leading HPC experts.
                        • Additional early bird slots available for LPC 2019
                          The Linux Plumbers Conference (LPC) registration web site has been showing “sold out” recently because the cap on early bird registrations was reached. We are happy to report that we have reviewed the registration numbers for this year’s conference and were able to open more early bird registration slots. Beyond that, regular registration will open July 1st. Please note that speakers and microconference runners get free passes to LPC, as do some microconference presenters, so that may be another way to attend the conference. Time is running out for new refereed-track and microconference proposals, so visit the CFP page soon. Topics for accepted microconferences are welcome as well.