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Updated: 14 min 48 sec ago

Christian Kastner: qemu-sbuild-utils merged into sbuild

5 hours 13 min ago

qemu-sbuild-utils have been merged into sbuild and are now shipped as package sbuild-qemu. The executables have been renamed from qemu-sbuild-* to sbuild-qemu-*, to be consisent with the other utilities provided by sbuild.

I may or may not have botched the transitional dummy package, but as the original package never migrated to testing (this was deliberate) and popcon was low, I'm confident that people will manage.

sbuild-qemu depends on the recently uploaded vdbm2, which added support for arm64, armhf, and ppc64el images. This is really exciting, as this means that sbuild-qemu and autopkgtest will soon be able to build for and test on most of the officially supported architectures, all from one host machine. MRs to enable these new features in autopkgtest have already been filed by Ryutaro Matsumoto. Support for the armel architecture is being discussed; support for the MIPS architectures is a more complicated issue, as they don't use GRUB.

I'd like to thank Johannes Schauer for reaching out, initiating discussion, and collaborating on this merge!

Daniel Lange: Compiling and installing the Gentoo Linux kernel on emerge without genkernel

5 hours 28 min ago

Gentoo emerges of sys-kernel/gentoo-sources will nicely install the current kernel into /usr/src/linux-* but it will not compile them.

The Gentoo wiki kernel documentation has a script snippet to automate the kernel build with genkernel.

I do not like to use genkernel as it brings in lots of firmware files to build initrds that are not needed on virtual hardware. It also makes building the kernel slower.

So, the plain approach:

Make emerge sys-kernel/gentoo-sources symlink the latest kernel to /usr/src/linux so we can find it easily:

echo "sys-kernel/gentoo-sources symlink" >> /etc/portage/package.use/gentoo-sources

Create /etc/portage/env/sys-kernel/gentoo-sources with the following:

post_pkg_postinst() {
        CURRENT_KV=$(uname -r)
        unset ARCH
        if [[ -f "${EROOT:-/}usr/src/linux-${CURRENT_KV}/.config" ]] ; then
                cp -n "${EROOT:-/}usr/src/linux-${CURRENT_KV}/.config" "${EROOT:-/}usr/src/linux/.config"
                cd "${EROOT:-/}usr/src/linux/" && \
                make olddefconfig && \
                make -j5 && make modules_install && make install && \
                grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
        fi
}

This will compile the next kernel on the basis of the config of the currently running kernel, install the modules and the kernel bzImage and update grub so it knows about the new kernel for the next reboot.

If you forget to unset ARCH the Linux build system will complain like:

Makefile:583: arch/amd64/Makefile: No such file or directory make: *** No rule to make target 'arch/amd64/Makefile'. Stop.

You can test the new magic by re-emerging the latest kernel, e.g. currently emerge =sys-kernel/gentoo-sources-5.4.80-r1:

Jonathan Dowland: 2020 in Fiction

Wednesday 27th of January 2021 04:24:59 PM

I managed to read 31 "books" in 2020. I'm happy with that. I thought the Pandemic would prevent me reaching my goal (30), since I did most of my reading on the commute to the Newcastle office, pre-pandemic. Somehow I've managed to compensate.

I started setting a goal for books read per year in 2012 when I started to use goodreads. Doing so started to influence the type of reading I do (which is the reason I stopped my Interzone subscription in 2014, although I resumed it again sometime afterwards). Once I realised that I've been a bit more careful to ensure setting a goal was a worthwhile thing to do and not just another source of stress in my life.

Two books I read were published in 2020. The first was Robert Galbraith's (a.k.a. J K Rowling's) Troubled Blood, the fifth (and largest) in the series of crime novels featuring Cormoran Strike (and the equally important Robin Ellacott). Nowadays Rowling is a controversial figure, but I'm not writing about that today, or the book itself, in much detail: briefly, it exceeded expectations, and my wife and I really enjoyed it.

The other was Susanna Clarke's Piranesi: an utterly fantastic modern-fantasy story, quite short, completely different to her successful debut novel Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell. I really loved this book, partly because it appeals to my love of fantasy geography, but also because it is very well put together, with a strong sense of the value of people's lives.

A couple of the other books I read were quite Pandemic-appropriate. I tore through Josh Malerman's Bird Box, a fast-paced post-apocalyptic style horror/suspense story. The appeal was mostly in the construction and delivery: the story itself was strong enough to support the book at the length that it is, but I don't really feel it could have lasted much longer, and so I've no idea how the new sequel (Malorie) will work.

The other was Station Eleven by Emily St. John Mandel. This was a story about a group of travelling musicians in a post-apocalyptic (post-pandemic) North America. A cast of characters all revolve around their relationship (or six degrees of separation) to an actor who died just prior to the Pandemic. The world-building in this book was really strong, and I felt sufficiently invested in the characters that I would love to read more about them in another book. However, I think that (although I'm largely just guessing here), in common with Bird Box, the setting was there to support the novel and the ideas that the author wanted to get across, and so I (sadly) doubt she will return to it.

Finally I read a lot of short fiction. I'll write more about that in a separate blog post.

Daniel Lange: Installing System Rescue (CD) to a flash drive

Wednesday 27th of January 2021 12:47:00 PM

System Rescue, the project formerly known as System Rescue CD, has moved from being based on Gentoo to being built on Arch Linux packages.

With this their ISO layout changed substantially so when updating my trusty recue USB flash drive, I could not just update the kernel, initrd and the root filesystem image as I had typically done every other year before.

The "Installing on a USB memory stick" documentation is good for Windows (use Rufus, it's nice) but rather useless for Linux. They recommend a dd or the fancy graphical version of that, called usbimager.

I much prefer to have a flash drive that I can write to over an image of a CD (ISO) written 1:1 onto the flash media.

The basic idea is to use the bulk of the System Rescue ISO contents but amend these with your own grub and syslinux so they work as intended over the supplied ones that are bound to the ISO layout a bit too much.

I did this on Debian Buster but with some adjustments to paths and what packages to install, any recent Linux distribution should do:

Continue reading "Installing System Rescue (CD) to a flash drive"

Russ Allbery: Review: A Deadly Education

Wednesday 27th of January 2021 04:12:00 AM

Review: A Deadly Education, by Naomi Novik

Series: The Scholomance #1 Publisher: Del Rey Copyright: 2020 ISBN: 0-593-12849-4 Format: Kindle Pages: 319

Some children are born with magic, which grows as they mature. Magic attracts maleficaria: extremely deadly magical beasts that want to feast on that magic. Having innate magical ability is therefore a recipe for endless attacks from monsters and a death at a young age. This was true even for the enclaves, which are the rich, gated communities of the magical world.

Hence, the Scholomance. This is a boarding school for magic users placed in the Void and protected against maleficaria as completely as possible while still letting the students graduate and leave after their senior year. Students are sent there via a teleportation spell with a weight allowance, taught magic by automated systems and magical artifacts, and left on their own to make alliances and survive. Or not survive; protected as well as possible still means that there are maleficaria everywhere, sneaking past the wards of the graduation hall and looking for snacks. The school sends cleansing fire through the halls at certain times; the rest of the time, the students either learn enough magic to defeat maleficaria themselves, form alliances with those who can, or die to feed the magic of the school.

Enter Galadriel, or El as she prefers. She's not an enclave kid; she's the grumpy, misfit daughter of a hippie mother whose open-hearted devotion to healing and giving away her abilities make her the opposite of the jealously guarded power structures of the enclaves. El has no resources other than what she can muster on her own. She also has her mother's ethics, which means that although she has an innate talent for malia, drawing magic from the death of other living things, she forces herself to build her mana through rigorously ethical means. Like push-ups. Or, worse, crochet.

At the start of the book, El is in her third year of four, and significantly more of her classmates are alive than normally would be. That's because of her classmate, Orion Lake, who has made a full-time hobby of saving everyone from maleficaria. His unique magical ability frees him from the constraints of mana or malia that everyone else is subject to, and he uses that to be a hero, surrounded by adoring fans. And El is thoroughly sick of it.

This book is so good in so many different ways that I don't know where to start.

Obviously, A Deadly Education is a twist on the boarding school novel, both the traditional and the magical kind. This is not a genre in which I'm that well-read, but even with my lack of familiarity, I noticed so many things Novik does to improve the genre tropes, starting with not making the heroic character with the special powers the protagonist. And getting rid of all the adults, which leaves way more space for rich social dynamics between the kids (complex and interesting ones that are entangled with the social dynamics outside of the school, not some simplistic Lord of the Flies take). Going alone anywhere in the school is dangerous, as is sitting at the bad tables in the cafeteria, so social cliques become a matter of literal life and death. And the students aren't just trying to survive; the ones who aren't part of enclaves are jockeying for invitations or trying to build the power to help their family and allies form their own.

El is the first-person narrator of the story and she's wonderful. She's grumpy, cynical, and sarcastic, which is often good for first-person narrators, but she also has a core of ethics from her mother, and from her own decisions, that gives her so much depth. She is the type of person who knows exactly how much an ethical choice will cost her and how objectively stupid it is, and then will make it anyway out of sheer stubbornness and refuse to take credit for it. I will happily read books about characters like El until the end of time.

Her mother never appears in this book, and yet she's such a strong presence because El's relationship with her matters, to both El and to the book. El could not be more unlike her mother in both personality and in magical focus, and she's exasperated by the sheer impracticality of some of her mother's ideals. And yet there's a core of love and understanding beneath that, a level at which El completely understands her mother's goals, and El relies on it even when she doesn't realize she's doing so. I don't think I've ever read a portrayal of a mother-daughter relationship this good where one of the parties isn't even present.

And I haven't even gotten to the world-building, and the level to which Novik chases down and explores all the implications of this ridiculous murder machine of a school.

I will offer this caveat: If you poke at the justification for creating this school in the way it was built, it's going to teeter a lot. That society thought this school was the best solution to its child mortality problem is just something you have to roll with. But once you accept that, the implications are handled so very well. The school is an inhuman character in its own right, with exasperating rules that the students learn and warn each other about. It tries to distract you with rare spellbooks or artifact materials because it's trying to kill you. The language tapes whisper horrific stories of your death. The back wall of your room is a window to the Void, from which you can demand spellbooks. You'll even get them in languages that you understand, for a generous definition of understand that may have involved glancing at one page of text, so be careful not to do that! The school replaces all of the adult teachers in the typical boarding school novel and is so much more interesting than any of them because it adds the science fiction thrill of setting as character.

The world-building does mean a lot of infodumping, so be prepared for that. El likes to explain things, tell stories, and over-analyze her life, and reading this book is a bit like reading the journal of a teenage girl. For me, El's voice is so strong, authentic, stubborn, and sarcastically funny that I scarcely noticed the digressions into background material.

And the relationships! Some of the turns will be predictable, since of course El's stubborn ethics will be (eventually) rewarded by the story, but the dynamic that develops between El and Orion is something special. It takes a lot to make me have sympathy with the chosen one boy hero, but Novik pulls it off without ever losing sight of the dynamics of class and privilege that are also in play. And the friendships El develops almost accidentally by being stubbornly herself are just wonderful, and the way she navigates them made me respect her even more.

The one negative thing I will say about this book is that I don't think Novik quite nailed the climax. Some of this is probably because this is the first book of a series and Novik wanted to hold some social developments in reserve, but I thought El got a bit sidelined and ended up along for the ride in an action-movie sequence. Still, it's a minor quibble, and it's clear from the very end of the book that El is going to get more attention and end up in a different social position in the next book.

This was a wholly engrossing and enjoyable story with a satisfying climax and only the barb of a cliffhanger in the very last line. It's the best SFF novel published in 2020 that I've read so far (yes, even better than Network Effect). Highly recommended, and I hope it gets award recognition this year.

Followed by The Last Graduate (not yet published at the time of this review).

Rating: 9 out of 10

Ingo Juergensmann: Migrating from Drupal to WordPress

Tuesday 26th of January 2021 07:40:38 PM

If you can read this on planet.debian.org then migrating my blog from Drupal to WordPress was successful and the feed has been successfully changed by the Debian Planet Maintainers (thanks!).

I’ve been a long term Drupal user. I think I started to use Drupal since it was included in Debian. At some point Drupal was removed from Debian and I started to use Serendipity instead. Later Drupal was included in Debian again and I moved back to Drupal. I think this must have been around Drupal 4 or Drupal 5. No idea.

I even became active in the Drupal community and went to one of the first Drupal barcamps in Germany, namely in Cologne. This was shortly before Dries Buytaert started a business off of Drupal and went to the USA. I met with many devs of Drupal in Cologne and enjoyed the community and started with others a local Drupal User Group in Rostock.

In 2011 we organized a Drupal Barcamp in Rostock, which was quite successful. But at that time it was already apparent that Drupal became more and more complex. It was far away from its original idea of providing a simple to use website and blogging site.

Now I’m still on Drupal 7 and this is some sort of a showstopper. Older major version upgrades had a upgrade path, like from Drupal 5 to Drupal 6 to Drupal 7. But for Drupal 8 there is no easy upgrade path. There are some ways to upgrade, but nothing as smooth as the prior major upgrades. In fact the upgrade from 6 to 7 was already painful.

My impression of Drupal today is that it is a framework suitable for agencies to built complex websites for their customers. It’s too much of a hassle to use it for your hobbyist websites.

So, after all the years my Drupal journey will come to an end. It was a long time with you. Sometimes joyful, sometimes painful. I wish you all the best, Drupal!

Maybe I stay with WordPress, maybe I’ll use Hugo in the future. Having a static website is very appealing, though…

Thomas Lange: Making Debian available

Tuesday 26th of January 2021 03:41:30 PM

This is the subject of an interesting thread on the debian-devel mailing list.

It started with ".. The current policy of hiding other versions of Debian is limiting the adoption of your OS by people like me.."

It seems that this user managed to contact us developers and give us some important information how we can improve the user experience. The following discussion shows that all our users need non-free firmware to get their wireless network cards run.

Do we provide such installation images for our users?

Sure. We build them regularly, host them on our servers, we also sign the hash sum with our official signing key. But we hide them very well and still call them unofficial. Why? I would like to have a more positive name for those images. Ubuntu has the HWE (Hardware Enablement) kernel. Maybe Debian firmware enablement images?

We should better promote the images that fits best for our users.

BTW, the URL for all these useful images is https://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/images-including-firmware/

Since I'm not using the Debian installer or live image often, I thought my own installation tool would already do better. In FAI , I install the package firmware-linux-nonfree if I need some nonfree firmware. But it appears that this package does not depend on any WiFi firmware package. Oops. So, I've filed a bug report #980758 and propose to add another meta package that depends on a list of firmware packages for WiFi cards.

I've now added a workaround to the FAIme service. You can now generate fully automated customized installation images including nonfree firmware for the stable and testing release. The stable release images can also use a newer kernel and firmware from backports. All other package are still from stable. Another useful image variant in my opinion.

Debian FAIme

Gunnar Wolf: Back to school... As a student

Tuesday 26th of January 2021 05:08:28 AM

Although it was a much larger step when I made a similar announcement seven years ago, when I started my Specialization, it is still a big challenge ahead, and I am very happy to pursue this: I have been admitted to a PhD program at UNAM, the university I have worked at for almost 20 years, and one of the top universities in Latin America. What program will I be part of? Doctorado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de la Computación (Computer Science and Engineering Doctorate… Quite a broad program name, yes, sounds like anything goes).

I am happy to say I managed to do as I hoped seven years ago. As that blog post says, I managed to keep an eye on my keyring-maint duties as well — Will even try to link that work with what I do at school. Over the years I spent pursuing my Specialization and Masters degrees at IPN ESIME, I managed to publish two academic papers on the keyring-maint work: Strengthening a Curated Web of Trust in a Geographically Distributed Project and Insights on the large-scale deployment of a curated Web-of-Trust: the Debian project’s cryptographic keyring.

Since that time, several relevant things have happened. Mainly, the SKS Keyserver panorama started looking quite bleak: Various attacks such as the poisoned certificates or *certificate flooding have been mounted against the keyserver network, having as a direct outcome the questioning of the future of the decentralized transitional trust model we take for granted in the OpenPGP world. The global SKS keyserver network has quickly eroded, and its continued functioning is no longer something we can take as a given. Different methods have come up, attempting to answer to this situation, such as WKD and DANE, but they all lose something that can be seen as the essence, almost the heart of the distributed, decentralized Web-of-Trust paradigm: The ability to carry the full certificates for the keys.

And that’s the problem I will try to tackle with my work: How can we, in the light of the known weaknesses, keep a working, decentralized, distributed trust scheme?

Russ Allbery: Review: The City We Became

Tuesday 26th of January 2021 04:11:00 AM

Review: The City We Became, by N.K. Jemisin

Series: The Great Cities Trilogy #1 Publisher: Orbit Copyright: March 2020 ISBN: 0-316-50985-X Format: Kindle Pages: 449

At an unpredictable point after a city has accumulated enough history, character, and sense of itself, it is born as a living creature. It selects an avatar who both embodies the city and helps it be born. But in that moment of birth, a city is at its most vulnerable, and that is when the Enemy attacks.

The birth of cities and the Enemy attacks have happened for millennia, so the cities that have survived the process have developed a system. The most recently born goes to assist the avatar with the birthing process and help fight off Enemy attacks. But the process has become riskier and the last two cities have failed to be born, snuffed out in natural disasters despite that support.

Now, it's New York City's turn. It selects its avatar and survives the initial assault with the help of São Paulo. But something still goes wrong, and it is severely injured in the process. Complicating matters, now there are five more avatars, one for each borough, who will have to unite to fight off the Enemy. And, for the first time, the Enemy has taken human form and is attacking with reason and manipulation and intelligence, not just force.

The City We Became has a great premise: take the unique sense of place that defines a city and turn it into a literalized character in a fantasy novel. The avatars are people who retain their own lives and understanding (with one exception that I'll get to in a moment), but gain an awareness of the city they represent. They can fight and repair their city through sympathetic magic and metaphor made real. The prelude that introduces this concept (adapted from Jemisin's earlier short story "The City Born Great") got too gonzo for me, but once Jemisin settles into the main story and introduces avatars with a bit more distance from the city they represent, the premise clicked.

The execution, on the other hand, I thought was strained. The biggest problem is that the premise requires an ensemble cast of five borough avatars, the primary avatar, São Paulo, and the Enemy. That's already a lot, but for the story to work each avatar has to be firmly grounded in their own unique experience of New York, which adds family members, colleagues, and roommates. That's too much to stuff into one novel, which means characters get short shrift. For example, Padmini, the avatar of Queens, gets a great introductory scene and a beautiful bit of characterization that made her one of my favorite characters, but then all but disappears for the remainder of the book. She's in the scenes, but not in a way that matters. Brooklyn and Aislyn get moments of deep characterization, but there's so much else going on that they felt rushed. And what ever happened to Manny's roommate?

The bulk of the characterization in this book goes to Broncha, the Bronx avatar, a Lenape woman and a tough-as-nails administrator of a community art museum and maker space. The dynamics between her and her co-workers, her mentorship of Veneza, and her early encounters with the Woman in White are my favorite parts of the book. I thought she and Brooklyn were a useful contrast: two very different ways of finding a base of power in the city without letting go of one's ideals.

But before we get to Broncha, we first meet Manny, the Manhattan avatar. Thematically, I thought what Jemisin did here was extremely clever. Manny's past is essentially erased at the start of the book, making him the reader insert character to start making sense of this world. This parallels the typical tourist experience of arriving in Manhattan and trying to use it to make sense of New York. He's disconnected from the rest of the city because he's the dangerous newcomer with power but not a lot of understanding, which works with my model of the political dynamics of Manhattan.

Unfortunately, he's not an interesting person. I appreciated what was happening at the metaphorical layer, but Manny veers between action hero and exposition prompt, and his amnesia meant I never got enough sense of him as a character to care that much about what happened to him. I thought his confrontation with the Woman in White near the start of the book, which establishes the major villain of the book, felt clunky and forced compared to her later encounters with the other characters.

The Woman in White, though, is a great villain. It's clear from earlier on that the Enemy is Lovecraftian, but the Woman in White mixes mad scientist glee, manic enthusiasm, and a child-like amusement at the weirdness of humanity into the more typical tropes of tentacles, corruption, and horrific creatures. One of my qualms about reading this book is that I'm not a horror fan and don't enjoy the mental images of unspeakable monsters, but the Woman in White puts such a fascinating spin on them that I enjoyed the scenes in which she appeared. I think the book was at its best when she was trying to psychologically manipulate the characters or attack them with corrupted but pre-existing power structures. I was less interested when it turned into an action-movie fight against animated monsters.

The other place Jemisin caught me by surprise is too much of a spoiler to describe in detail (and skip the next paragraph in its entirety if you want to avoid all spoilers):

Jemisin didn't take the moral conflict of the book in the direction I was expecting. This book is more interested in supporting the people who are already acting ethically than in redeeming people who make bad choices. That produces a deus ex machina ending that's a bit abrupt, but I appreciated the ethical stance.

Overall, I thought the premise was great but the execution was unsteady and a bit overstuffed. There are some great characters and some great scenes, but to me they felt disjointed and occasionally rushed. You also need to enjoy characters taking deep pride in the feel of a specific place and advocating for it with the vigor of a sports rivalry, along with loving descriptions of metaphors turned into magical waves of force. But, if you can roll with that, there are moments of real awe. Jemisin captured for me the joy that comes from a deeply grounded sense of connection to a place.

Recommended, albeit with caveats, if you're in the mood for reading about people who love the city they live in.

This is the first book of a planned trilogy and doesn't resolve the main conflict, but it reaches a satisfying conclusion. The title of the next book has not yet been announced at the time of this review.

Rating: 7 out of 10

Enrico Zini: nspawn-runner: support for image selection

Monday 25th of January 2021 03:49:16 PM

.gitlab-ci.yml supports 'image' to allow selecting in which environment the script gets run. The documentation says "Used to specify a Docker image to use for the job", but it's clearly a bug in the documentation, because we can do it with nspawn-runner, too.

It turns out that most of the environment variables available to CI runs are also available to custom runner scripts. In this case, the value passed as image can be found as $CUSTOM_ENV_CI_JOB_IMAGE in the custom runner scripts environment.

After some experimentation I made this commit that makes every chroot under /var/lib/nspawn-runner available as an image:

# Set up 3 new images for CI jobs: nspawn-runner chroot-create buster nspawn-runner chroot-create bullseye nspawn-runner chroot-create sid

That's it, CI scripts can now use image: buster, image: bullseye or image: sid, as they please. You can manually set up other chroots under /var/lib/nspawn-runner and they'll be automatically available.

You can also now choose a default image in config.toml in case the CI script doesn't specify one:

prepare_args = ["--verbose", "prepare", "--default-image=buster"]

Martin-Éric Racine: Help needed: clean up and submit KMS driver for Geode LX to LKML

Monday 25th of January 2021 02:33:15 PM

Ever since X.org switched to rootless operation, the days of the Geode X.org driver have been numbered. The old codebase dates back from Geode's early days at Cyrix, was then updated by NSC to add support for their new GX2 architecture, from which AMD dropped GX1 support and added support for their new LX architecture. To put it mildly, that codebase is a serious mess.

However, at least the LX code comes with plenty of niceties, such as being able to detect when it runs on an OLPC XO-1 and to probe DCC pins to determine the optimal display resolution on other hardware. This still doesn't make the codebase cruft-free.

Anyhow, most Linux distributions have dropped support for anything older than i686 with PAE, which essentially means that the GX2 code is just for show. Debian is one of very few distributions whose x86-32 port still ships with i686 without PAE. In fact, the lowest common denominator kernel on i386 is configured for Geode (LX).

A while back, someone had started working on a KMS driver for the Geode LX. Through word of mouth, I got my hands on a copy of their Git tree. The driver worked reasonably well, but the codebase needs some polishing before it could be included in the Linux kernel tree.

Hence this call for help:

Is there anyone with good experience of the LKML coding standards who would be willing to clean up the driver's code and submit the patch to the LKML?

Russ Allbery: Review: Laziness Does Not Exist

Monday 25th of January 2021 05:00:00 AM

Review: Laziness Does Not Exist, by Devon Price

Publisher: Atria Books Copyright: January 2021 ISBN: 1-9821-4013-5 Format: Kindle Pages: 216

The premise of Laziness Does Not Exist is in the title: Laziness as a moral failing does not exist. It is a misunderstanding of other problems with physical or psychological causes, a belief system that is used to extract unsustainable amounts of labor, an excuse to withdraw our empathy, and a justification for not solving social problems. Price refers to this as the Laziness Lie, which they define with three main tenets:

  1. Your worth is your productivity.
  2. You cannot trust your own feelings and limits.
  3. There is always more you could be doing.

This book (an expansion of a Medium article) makes the case against all three tenets using the author's own burnout-caused health problems as the starting argument. They then apply that analysis to work, achievements, information overload, relationships, and social pressure. In each case, Price's argument is to prioritize comfort and relaxation, listen to your body and your limits, and learn who you are rather than who the Laziness Lie is trying to push you to be.

The reader reaction to a book like this will depend on where the reader is in thinking about the problem. That makes reviewing a challenge, since it's hard to simulate a reader with a different perspective. For myself, I found the content unobjectionable, but largely repetitive of other things I've read. The section on relationships in particular will be very familiar to Captain Awkward readers, just not as pointed. Similarly, the chapter on information overload is ground already covered by Digital Minimalism, among other books. That doesn't make this a bad book, but it's more of a survey, so if you're already well-read on this topic you may not get much out of it.

The core assertion is aggressive in part to get the reader to argue with it and thus pay attention, but I still came away convinced that laziness is not a useful word. The symptoms that cause us to call ourselves lazy — procrastination, burnout, depression, or executive function problems, for example — are better understood without the weight of moral reproach that laziness carries. I do think there is another meaning of laziness that Price doesn't cover, since they are aiming this book exclusively at people who are feeling guilty about possibly being lazy, and we need some term for people who use their social power to get other people to do all their work for them. But given how much the concept of laziness is used to attack and belittle the hard-working or exhausted, I'm happy to replace "laziness" with "exploitation" when talking about that behavior.

This is a profoundly kind and gentle book. Price's goal is to help people be less hard on themselves and to take opportunities to relax without guilt. But that also means that it stays in the frame of psychological analysis and self-help, and only rarely strays into political or economic commentary. That means it's more useful for taking apart internalized social programming, but less useful for thinking about the broader political motives of those who try to convince us to working endlessly and treat all problems as personal responsibilities rather than political failures. For that, I think Anne Helen Peterson's Can't Even is the more effective book. Price also doesn't delve much into history, and I now want to read a book on the origin of a work ethic as a defining moral trait.

One truly lovely thing about this book is that it's quietly comfortable with human variety of gender and sexuality in a way that's never belabored but that's obvious from the examples that Price uses. Laziness Does Not Exist felt more inclusive in that way, and to some extent on economic class, than Can't Even.

I was in the mood for a book that takes apart the political, social, and economic motivations behind convincing people that they have to constantly strive to not be lazy, so the survey nature of this book and its focus on self-help made it not the book for me. It also felt a bit repetitive despite its slim length, and the chapter structure didn't click for me. But it's not a bad book, and I suspect it will be the book that someone else needs to read.

Rating: 6 out of 10

Iustin Pop: Raspbian/Raspberry PI OS with initrd

Monday 25th of January 2021 01:33:02 AM
Background

While Raspbian, ahem, Raspberry PI OS is mostly Debian, the biggest difference is the kernel, both in terms of code and packaging.

The packaging is weird since it needs to deal with the fact that there’s no bootloader per se, the firmware parses /boot/config.txt and depending on the setting of 64bit and/or kernel line, it loads a specific file. Normally, one of kernel7.img, kernel7l.img or kernel8.img. While this configuration file supports an initrd, it doesn’t have a clean way to associate an initrd with a kernel, but rather you have to (like for the actual kernel) settle on a hard-coded initrd name.

Due to this, the normal way of using an initrd doesn’t work, and one has to do two things:

  • enable building initrd’s at all
  • settle on the naming for the initrd
  • ensure the initrd is updated correctly

There are quite a few of forum threads about this, but there’s no official support for this. The best link I found was this Stack Exchange post, which goes most of the way, but fails at the third point above.

My trivial solution

Instead of naming tricks the above post suggests, I settled on having a fixed name. It risks boot failure when the kernel architecture will change, which could be worked around with hard-coded kernel too, but I haven’t done that yet.

First, enable initrd creation/update in /etc/default/raspberrypi-kernel, like the post says. Uncomment INITRD=yes, but not the RPI_INITRD. This will enable creating/updating the initrd when the kernel package is installed and/or other packages trigger it via hooks.

Second, naming: choose an initrd name. I have simply this in my config.txt:

initramfs initrd.img followkernel

So the value is fully hard-coded, and the actual work is done in the next part.

Last, add an initramfs-hook in (e.g.) /etc/initramfs/post-update.d/rpi-initrd. Note that, by default (unless other packages have created it), the /etc/initramfs directory doesn’t exist. It’s not the confusingly-named /etc/initramfs-tools/ directory, which is related to building the initrd, but rather to doing things with the (already built) initrd. This directory is briefly explain in the Debian kernel-handbook guide.

This is my contents:

#!/bin/bash ABI="$1" INITRD="$2" BOOTDIR="$(dirname "$INITRD")" # Note: the match below _must_ be synced with the boot kernel if [[ "$ABI" == *-v8+ ]]; then echo "Building v8l+ image, updating top initrd" cp -p "$INITRD" "$BOOTDIR/initrd.img" fi

This script seems to me much simpler, so in principle less chance of bugs, than all the renaming and editing config.txt I saw in that stack exchange post. As far as I know, all one needs to care about is to sync the ABI passed to this hook with the kernel one is running, and since there is only one kernel version installed at a time on Raspbian (as there’s no versioning in the kernel names), this should work correctly.

With this hook, the update also works correctly when packages trigger initrd updates, not only when new kernels are installed.

Note that the cp there is needed since the book partition is FAT, so no symbolic links/hard links allowed.

Happy initrd’ing!

Enrico Zini: Miscellaneous news links

Sunday 24th of January 2021 11:00:00 PM

Some curious news.

Here's a scam that targets terrorists: The Doomsday Scam.

On the general topic of scams, a List of confidence tricks.

Then two news involving bread:

And a last one about how people needed to rename human genes to work around Excel bugsfeatures:

Dirk Eddelbuettel: prrd 0.0.4: More tweaks

Saturday 23rd of January 2021 10:31:00 PM

prrd facilitates the parallel running [of] reverse dependency [checks] when preparing R packages. It is used extensively for Rcpp, RcppArmadillo, RcppEigen, BH, and possibly others.

The key idea of prrd is simple, and described in some more detail on its webpage and its GitHub repo. Reverse dependency checks are an important part of package development that is easily done in a (serial) loop. But these checks are also generally embarassingly parallel as there is no or little interdependency between them (besides maybe shared build depedencies). See the (dated) screenshot (running six parallel workers, arranged in split byobu session).

This release brings several smaller tweaks and improvements to the summary report that had accumulated in my use since the last realease last April. We also updated the CI runners as one does these days.

The release is summarised in the NEWS entry:

Changes in prrd version 0.0.4 (2021-01-23)
  • Report summary mode is now compact, more robust and reports extended CRAN summaries. (Dirk via several changes)

  • Continuous Integration now uses run.sh from r-ci

My CRANberries provides the usual summary of changes to the previous version. See the aforementioned webpage and its repo for details. For more questions or comments use the issue tracker off the GitHub repo.

If you like this or other open-source work I do, you can now sponsor me at GitHub.

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

Sylvain Beucler: Android Emulator Rebuild

Saturday 23rd of January 2021 01:02:13 PM

Android Rebuilds provides freely-licensed builds of Android development tools from a Mountain View-based company.

The Emulator package moved to a separate component and build system.

Emulator 30 is now available, as unattended Docker build scripts, build documentation as well as convenience binaries.

Louis-Philippe Véronneau: Montreal Subway Foot Traffic Data, Revisited

Saturday 23rd of January 2021 05:00:00 AM

In 2019, I got curious and asked Société de Transport de Montréal, Montreal's transit agency, for the foot traffic data of Montreal's subway.

Since then, two years has passed and with COVID-19 still going strong, I wanted to see what impact the pandemic had had. And oh boy, what an impact it is.

So here it is, data from 2001 to 2020, graphed the same way as in the original 2019 blog post. I could certainly juice this data, graph the pandemic using daily figures and come up with a long and interesting blog post analysing the main trends. I start teaching next Monday though and I still have prep work to do, so I'll leave that to someone else.

By clicking on a subway station, you'll be redirected to a graph of the station's foot traffic.

Licences
  • The subway map displayed on this page, the original dataset and my modified dataset are licenced under CCO 1.0: they are in the public domain.

  • The R code I wrote is licensed under the GPLv3+. Feel free to reuse it and write something nice about how the pandemic impacted the STM. I've made small changes to the 2019 version, but it's mostly the same thing.

Reproducible Builds (diffoscope): diffoscope 165 released

Saturday 23rd of January 2021 12:00:00 AM

The diffoscope maintainers are pleased to announce the release of diffoscope version 165. This version includes the following changes:

[ Dimitrios Apostolou ] * Introduce the --no-acl and --no-xattr arguments [later collapsed to --extended-filesystem-attributes] to improve performance. * Avoid calling the external stat command. [ Chris Lamb ] * Collapse --acl and --xattr into --extended-filesystem-attributes to cover all of these extended attributes, defaulting the new option to false (ie. to not check these very expensive external calls). [ Mattia Rizzolo ] * Override several lintian warnings regarding prebuilt binaries in the * source. * Add a pytest.ini file to explicitly use Junit's xunit2 format. * Ignore the Python DeprecationWarning message regarding the `imp` module deprecation as it comes from a third-party library. * debian/rules: filter the content of the d/*.substvars files

You find out more by visiting the project homepage.

Robert McQueen: Launching Endless OS Foundation

Friday 22nd of January 2021 05:00:29 PM
How our for-profit company became a nonprofit, to better tackle the digital divide.

Originally posted on the Endless OS Foundation blog.

An 8-year journey to a nonprofit

On the 1st of April 2020, our for-profit Endless Mobile officially became a nonprofit as the Endless OS Foundation. Our launch as a nonprofit just as the global pandemic took hold was, predictably, hardly noticed, but for us the timing was incredible: as the world collectively asked “What can we do to help others in need?”, we framed our mission statement and launched our .org with the same very important question in mind. Endless always had a social impact mission at its heart, and the challenges related to students, families, and communities falling further into the digital divide during COVID-19 brought new urgency and purpose to our team’s decision to officially step in the social welfare space.

On April 1st 2020, our for-profit Endless Mobile officially became a nonprofit as the Endless OS Foundation, focused on the #DigitalDivide.

Our updated status was a long time coming: we began our transformation to a nonprofit organization in late 2019 with the realization that the true charter and passions of our team would be greatly accelerated without the constraints of for-profit goals, investors and sales strategies standing in the way of our mission of digital access and equity for all. 

But for 8 years we made a go of it commercially, headquartered in Silicon Valley and framing ourselves as a tech startup with access to the venture capital and partnerships on our doorstep. We believed that a successful commercial channel would be the most efficient way to scale the impact of bringing computer devices and access to communities in need. We still believe this – we’ve just learned through our experience that we don’t have the funding to enter the computer and OS marketplace head-on. With the social impact goal first, and the hope of any revenue a secondary goal, we have had many successes in those 8 years bridging the digital divide throughout the world, from Brazil, to Kenya, and the USA. We’ve learned a huge amount which will go on to inform our strategy as a nonprofit.

Endless always had a social impact mission at its heart. COVID-19 brought new urgency and purpose to our team’s decision to officially step in the social welfare space.

Our unique perspective

One thing we learned as a for-profit is that the OS and technology we’ve built has some unique properties which are hugely impactful as a working solution to digital equity barriers. And our experience deploying in the field around the world for 8 years has left us uniquely informed via many iterations and incremental improvements.

With this knowledge in-hand, we’ve been refining our strategy throughout 2020 and now starting to focus on what it really means to become an effective nonprofit and make that impact. In many ways it is liberating to abandon the goals and constraints of being a for-profit entity, and in other ways it’s been a challenging journey for me and the team to adjust our way of thinking and let these for-profit notions and models go. Previously we exclusively built and sold a product that defined our success; and any impact we achieved was a secondary consequence of that success and seen through that lens. Now our success is defined purely in terms of social impact, and through our actions, those positive impacts can be made with or without our “product”. That means that we may develop and introduce technology to solve a problem, but it is equally as valid to find another organization’s existing offering and design a way to increase that positive impact and scale.

We develop technology to solve access equity issues, but it’s equally as valid to find another organization’s offering and partner in a way that increases their positive impact.

The analogy to Free and Open Source Software is very strong – while Endless has always used and contributed to a wide variety of FOSS projects, we’ve also had a tension where we’ve been trying to hold some pieces back and capture value – such as our own application or content ecosystem, our own hardware platform – necessarily making us competitors to other organisations even though they were hoping to achieve the same things as us. As a nonprofit we can let these ideas go and just pick the best partners and technologies to help the people we’re trying to reach.

Digital equity … 4 barriers we need to overcome

In future, our decisions around which projects to build or engage with will revolve around 4 barriers to digital equity, and how our Endless OS, Endless projects, or our partners’ offerings can help to solve them. We define these 4 equity barriers as: barriers to devices, barriers to connectivity, barriers to literacy in terms of your ability to use the technology, and barriers to engagement in terms of whether using the system is rewarding and worthwhile.

We define the 4 digital equity barriers we exist to impact as:
1. barriers to devices
2. barriers to connectivity
3. barriers to literacy
4. barriers to engagement

It doesn’t matter who makes the solutions that break these barriers; what matters is how we assist in enabling people to use technology to gain access to the education and opportunities these barriers block. Our goal therefore is to simply ensure that solutions exist – building them ourselves and with partners such as the FOSS community and other nonprofits – proving them with real-world deployments, and sharing our results as widely as possible to allow for better adoption globally.

If we define our goal purely in terms of whether people are using Endless OS, we are effectively restricting the reach and scale of our solutions to the audience we can reach directly with Endless OS downloads, installs and propagation. Conversely, partnerships that scale impact are a win-win-win for us, our partners, and the communities we all serve. 

Engineering impact

Our Endless engineering roots and capabilities feed our unique ability to build and deploy all of our solutions, and the practical experience of deploying them gives us evidence and credibility as we advocate for their use. Either activity would be weaker without the other.

Our engineering roots and capabilities feed our unique ability to build and deploy digital divide solutions.

Our partners in various engineering communities will have already seen our change in approach. Particularly, with GNOME we are working hard to invest in upstream and reconcile the long-standing differences between our experience and GNOME. If successful, many more people can benefit from our work than just users of Endless OS. We’re working with Learning Equality on Kolibri to build a better app experience for Linux desktop users and bring content publishers into our ecosystem for the first time, and we’ve also taken our very own Hack, the immersive and fun destination for kids learning to code, released it for non-Endless systems on Flathub, and made it fully open-source.

What’s next for our OS?

What then is in store for the future of Endless OS, the place where we have invested so much time and planning through years of iterations? For the immediate future, we need the capacity to deploy everything we’ve built – all at once, to our partners. We built an OS that we feel is very unique and valuable, containing a number of world-firsts: first production OS shipped with OSTree, first Flatpak-only desktop, built-in support for updating OS and apps from USBs, while still providing a great deal of reliability and convenience for deployments in offline and educational-safe environments with great apps and content loaded on every system.

However, we need to find a way to deliver this Linux-based experience in a more efficient way, and we’d love to talk if you have ideas about how we can do this, perhaps as partners. Can the idea of “Endless OS” evolve to become a spec that is provided by different platforms in the future, maybe remixes of Debian, Fedora, openSUSE or Ubuntu? 

Build, Validate, Advocate

Beyond the OS, the Endless OS Foundation has identified multiple programs to help underserved communities, and in each case we are adopting our “build, validate, advocate” strategy. This approach underpins all of our projects: can we build the technology (or assist in the making), will a community in-need validate it by adoption, and can we inspire others by telling the story and advocating for its wider use?

We are adopting a “build, validate, advocate” strategy.
1. build the technology (or assist in the making)
2. validate by community adoption
3. advocate for its wider use

As examples, we have just launched the Endless Key (link) as an offline solution for students during the COVID-19 at-home distance learning challenges. This project is also establishing a first-ever partnership of well-known online educational brands to reach an underserved offline audience with valuable learning resources. We are developing a pay-as-you-go platform and new partnerships that will allow families to own laptops via micro-payments that are built directly into the operating system, even if they cannot qualify for standard retail financing. And during the pandemic, we’ve partnered with Teach For America to focus on very practical digital equity needs in the USA’s urban and rural communities.

One part of the world-wide digital divide solution

We are one solution provider for the complex matrix of issues known collectively as the #DigitalDivide, and these issues will not disappear after the pandemic. Digital equity was an issue long before COVID-19, and we are not so naive to think it can be solved by any single institution, or by the time the pandemic recedes. It will take time and a coalition of partnerships to win. We are in for the long-haul and we are always looking for partners, especially now as we are finding our feet in the nonprofit world. We’d love to hear from you, so please feel free to reach out to me – I’m ramcq on IRC, RocketChat, Twitter, LinkedIn or rob@endlessos.org.

Bits from Debian: New Debian Maintainers (November and December 2020)

Friday 22nd of January 2021 05:00:00 PM

The following contributors were added as Debian Maintainers in the last two months:

  • Timo Röhling
  • Fabio Augusto De Muzio Tobich
  • Arun Kumar Pariyar
  • Francis Murtagh
  • William Desportes
  • Robin Gustafsson
  • Nicholas Guriev

Congratulations!

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