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At System76, we empower the world’s curious and capable makers of tomorrow with custom Linux computers.
Updated: 5 hours 37 min ago

The New Firmware Manager: Updating firmware across Linux distributions

Saturday 17th of August 2019 01:34:58 PM

Over the past few months, System76 has been developing a simple, easy-to-use tool for updating firmware on Pop!_OS and System76 hardware. Today, we’re excited to announce that you can now check and update firmware through Settings on Pop!_OS, and through the firmware manager GTK application on System76 hardware running other Debian-based distributions.

One of the issues we faced with with firmware management on Linux was the lack of options for graphical frontends to firmware management services like fwupd and system76-firmware. For fwupd, the only solutions available were to distribute either GNOME Software or KDE Discover, which is not viable for Linux distributions which have their own application centers, or frontends to package managers. For system76-firmware, an official GTK application existed, but it only supported updating System76 firmware, when it would be more ideal if it could support updating firmware from both services.

fwupd is a system service which connects to LVFS to check for firmware updates to a wide variety of hardware from multiple vendors. system76-firmware is our own system service which connects to System76 to check for firmware updates for System76 hardware. Privacy To increase privacy, we have disabled telemetry reporting in fwupd on Pop!_OS.

To solve this problem, we’ve been working on the Firmware Manager project, which we will be shipping to all Pop!_OS users, and System76 hardware customers on  other Debian-based distributions. It supports checking and updating firmware from LVFS and system76-firmware services, is Wayland-compatible, and provides both a GTK application and library.

Wayland disallows applications from being run as root, so applications must either call pkexec to prompt the user for permission to run a background process that is root, or connect to an existing background service provided the needed capabilities.

In Pop!_OS, the firmware manager will be integrated into GNOME Settings in a new Firmware panel under the Devices category with the GTK widget library. Users can simply install the latest updates to use the firmware manager. For other Linux distributions, and for those who do not use GNOME, the GTK application is available to provide the firmware manager widget as a standalone application in its own application window.

Although we’ve created a GTK application and widget library for our use in Pop!_OS, the core framework is toolkit-agnostic, thereby enabling firmware manager frontends to be written in any toolkit. However, it should be noted that since the framework is written in Rust, frontends would need to use Rust in order to interact with it.

GNOME Settings Integration

Pop!_OS will be integrating a patch into GNOME Settings which embeds the GTK widget into a new Firmware panel in the Devices category section.

GTK Application

On System76 hardware running Ubuntu, the firmware manager application will replace System76 Firmware as the source of firmware updates. Other Linux distributions which would prefer to have a standalone desktop application are free to use the included GTK application.

Implementation Details

Like all of our projects today, it is written in Rust, and adheres to current best practices. The project is configured as a workspace, with the core crate providing a generic library for discovering and managing firmware from multiple firmware services. Both fwupd and system76-firmware are supported.

The core is used as the foundation for the two members of this workspace: a notification binary to provide desktop notifications about firmware updates; and a GTK project which serves as both a widget library and desktop application.

Visualization of project structure

* firmware-manager * firmware-manager-notify * firmware-manager-gtk * firmware-manager-gtk-ffi

Core Library

The firmware-manager library provides functions for scanning firmware, as well as an event loop which receives and sends event signals through channels. One channel receives messages from the frontend, whereas the other sends messages to the frontend. This is designed to be run in a background thread in order to prevent a UI that uses the firmware manager from blocking as requests are being processed.

Additionally, the event API is expected to be used with the provided slotmap-based entity-component architecture. This allows a frontend to assign entity IDs to their requests, and receive those entity IDs back in responses. In doing so, frontends can avoid the need for complex runtime reference-counting, or creating reference cycles. The frontend has exclusive ownership of the data that an entity ID refers to.

GTK Application / Library

The firmware-manager-gtk member of the project provides the firmware widget as a library, and an application which places that widget into a window. This member contains a C FFI sub-member, which builds a dynamic library with a C API and header, and can be used to integrate the widget into any GTK application written in C.

This implementation takes full advantage of the slotmap EC, assigning its own component storages to keep track of state relative to a device entity, such as the widgets assigned to an entity, and information about their firmware.

The included GTK application statically-links the Rust widget library into the binary.

Notification Binary

The firmware-manager-notify member comes with a systemd user timer so that it is executed at login, and then periodically run again at set intervals to check for updates again. When updates are found, a clickable notification will be displayed, which will either open the Firmware panel in GNOME Settings, or the standalone desktop application, depending on which is available on the system.

Supporting Other Frontends

Although the project will release with only a GTK frontend, it is possible for anyone to use it as the foundations for developing a frontend written in any other graphical toolkit. All functionality in the core library is GUI-agnostic, and the entity-component architecture can be extended to their specialized needs. If you write a frontend for another toolkit and want it included in the project, feel free to submit a pull request!

For more details on the new firmware manager, check out Michael Aaron Murphy’s article on GitHub.

Open firmware and more news from July

Tuesday 30th of July 2019 04:00:30 PM

July kicked off in style with our Summer Flock Party, where we shook our tail feathers off to the tune of haikus and Margaritaville covers. (Some were sung by parrots!) Congratulations to those who cracked our code; we admire your dedication to the fine art of parrot spotting. Here’s the code in all its glory:

Stay tuned for more info on Superfan 3! As for our progress in July, read on for more about updates to our open firmware, Thelio, and Pop!_OS, and see what conferences you’ll find us at in the coming months.


System76 has been granted a Thunderbolt license, meaning that we can now integrate Thunderbolt compatibility into our open firmware. This is a huge development in the open firmware project, as we can now achieve full functionality of Thunderbolt in our machines once the firmware is implemented.

The open firmware is now functional on the Gazelle when running on Intel graphics. This will not yet be integrated, however, as more work is necessary to get the NVIDIA graphics up and running.


In case you missed it, Thelio has been updated with AMD Gen 3 Ryzen CPUs. Now you can configure Thelio with faster Ryzen CPUs, including the brand new Ryzen 9 3900X. Backed by 12 Cores and 24 Threads, the Ryzen 9 is AMD’s most powerful Ryzen CPU yet, boasting performance comparable to Intel’s Core i9 CPU.

Thelio Massive, the Jackal Pro 1U, the Jackal Pro 2U, and the Ibex Pro can now be configured with 2nd Gen Intel Xeon Scalable processors. The new CPUs are equipped with up to 28 Cores and 56 Threads, and have a higher Memory frequency and overall capacity than the previous generation.


The NVIDIA driver has been updated to version 430.34. This update enables support for NVIDIA GeForce RTX Super GPUs. This is welcome news for those looking to upgrade, as NVIDIA’s newest graphics cards are even faster versions of the RTX line.

Pop!_OS 18.10 has reached End of Life, meaning it will not be receiving any more updates. In order to ensure that your system remains secure and up to date, you will need to upgrade your OS to version 19.04. Pop!_OS 18.04 users can disregard this message, as they will continue to enjoy that fresh code scent that comes with new updates. Pop!_OS 18.04 is a Long-Term Support (LTS) version, and will see continued support in the years ahead.

To see what version of Pop!_OS you’re currently using, open up the Settings application and click Details at the bottom of the sidebar menu.

To upgrade Pop!_OS 18.10 to 19.04, simply enter these commands into the terminal:

sudo apt update

sudo apt install pop-desktop

sudo apt full-upgrade


Upgrading your OS will give you access to new features, such as Slim Mode and the new Dark Mode. You will also receive updates for security patches and upcoming features, including persistent power profile and backlight settings, once they are released. There’s a lot more to see on the way!


August 23–27: We will be in Thessaloniki, Greece to attend GUADEC this year. Come by our booth to discuss free software, Linux, penguins, and parrots, or even just to say Γεια. 

September 3–6: We’re also headed to the Open Firmware Summit in California. Conference attendees will have the chance to learn about our open firmware project as we break down our process for replacing the proprietary firmware on the Darter Pro with open source firmware. If you’re attending, feel free to visit us at our booth!


Destination Linux (48:30 – 56:46)

Zeb, Noah, Michael, and Ryan discuss System76’s commitment to the Linux desktop.


Jason Evangelho compares benchmarks for Windows 10 and Pop!_OS.

Chris Titus Tech
Chris teaches his 8-year-old daughter how to install Linux.

Softpedia News

Marius Nestor provides details on Thelio’s new 3rd Gen AMD Ryzen CPUs.

Matthew Buscemi

Former Dell and Mac user Matthew Buscemi shares his thoughts on his new Thelio.

Pop!_OS 18.10 will no longer receive security updates.

Thursday 18th of July 2019 04:56:38 PM

Pop!_OS 18.10 has reached End of Life today, meaning it will not be receiving any more updates. In order to ensure that your system remains secure and up to date, you will need to upgrade your OS to version 19.04. Pop!_OS 18.04 users can disregard this message, as they will continue to enjoy that fresh code scent that comes with new updates.

To see what version of Pop!_OS you’re currently using, open up the Settings application and click Details at the bottom of the sidebar menu.

To upgrade Pop!_OS 18.10 to 19.04, simply enter these commands into the terminal:

sudo apt update

sudo apt install pop-desktop

sudo apt full-upgrade


Upgrading your OS will give you access to new features, such as Slim Mode and the new Dark Mode. You will also receive updates for security patches and upcoming features, including persistent power profile and backlight settings, once they are released. There’s a lot more to see on the way!

Announcing our Summer Flock Party Event, and more news from June!

Thursday 27th of June 2019 04:45:02 PM

Summer is here, so we’re having a Flock Party! Now until July 9th, join us on our website for discounts on laptops and desktops, and even more discounts with upgrades!

To make our Flock Party even more colorful, we’ve enlisted the help of 17 parrots to hide out around our site. If you’re one of the first 10 to find them all and unscramble the code, we’ll have something special for you!

Along with our parrot mania, we have info for you on hardware, Pop!_OS, firmware, and Thelio manufacturing. Read on to see what’s new in June!

HARDWARE: Return of the Gazelle

Earlier this month, we brought the Gazelle back from laptop limbo. The refresh adds NVIDIA 16-Series GPUs to the mix for a boost in graphics performance. With Pop!_OS or Ubuntu on System76 hardware, users can easily toggle between Intel and NVIDIA graphics from their desktop on the Gazelle.

NVIDIA 16-Series GPUs work in harmony with a 9th Gen i7 Core CPU and up to 64GB RAM for the ultimate performance combo. The laptop is available in either a 15” or 17” 1080p display.

Configure your Gazelle here

Pop!_OS: Big projects see big progress


The next task on the list for the new upgrade process for Pop!_OS is the handling of the Refresh OS feature. A button is being added in GNOME settings to enable selecting the current OS for performing a refresh install. Once the new upgrade process is implemented, GNOME Settings will also receive fixes to allow the refresh OS mode to be cancelled at any point, should the user decide that they’ve changed their mind.


The power daemon has seen a few fixes to power profiles and fan curves this month.

  • Error messaging is now more descriptive as to where and why an error occurred.
  • Fixed an issue where changing the power profile would not yield a change in certain scenarios.
  • Signal handling was added to the power daemon to fix an error that occurred when switching to an automatic fan curve.


A number of patches have been made this month as well. These patches address performance issues on NVIDIA hardware, theme-related bugs, updating packages, and increasing desktop performance and responsiveness under high loads. You can follow patches and other Pop!_OS-related updates on Michael Aaron Murphy’s This Week in Pop series.

FIRMWARE: Expanding testing and adding UI

Our open firmware has entered testing on the Gazelle, but is still in the very early stages. These tests are on the new model, but the open firmware is not yet ready to be implemented on users’ machines and has therefore not yet replaced the current firmware.

A UI element for firmware updates is also in development. The plan is for users to be notified when an update is available through GNOME Settings.

THELIO MANUFACTURING: Increasing oven capacity

The oven and oven racks have been rebuilt, increasing the number of chassis that can be heated in a single “batch”. The ovens are used as a later step in the powder-coating process.


Best Alternatives to Mac and Macbook

Wired’s Scott Gilbertson and Brendan Nystedt name Thelio as the sole Linux example to compete with the Mac Pro.

A REALLY Weird Cool PC

Linus Tech Tips reviews Thelio (Hypnotoad backgrounds included).

Choose Linux: Oryx Pro First Impressions

Jason Evangelho provides his first impressions on his new Oryx Pro. (Clip starts at 19:05)

“I’m seeing it spread almost virally.”

Andy Ihnatko gives his take on Pop!_OS on episode 663 of MacBreak Weekly. (The clip starts around 1:33:10.)

The Darter Pro Surprise

Destination Linux surprises Zeb with a Darter Pro to review. See his first impressions around 1:09:49. Unboxes and Reviews the Oryx Pro

Jay reviews his experience with the Oryx Pro on

Watch his unboxing video, and see the full review here.

Lawrence Systems: The Oryx Pro Review

Tom Lawrence of Lawrence Systems provides his own review of the Oryx Pro.

Differences between Pop!_OS and Ubuntu

The Linux Experiment reviews what sets Pop!_OS and Ubuntu apart from one another.

What it’s Like to use Pop!_OS

Linux Scoop shows a brief overview of what it looks like to use Pop!_OS

System76 News: A May With Zing!

Friday 31st of May 2019 08:07:33 PM

The force was with us in May, as we have a ton of fun updates for you! See what’s new regarding hardware, manufacturing, and accessories, and what’s in the works for Pop!_OS and our open firmware.


In case you missed it, we recently announced that a new Gazelle laptop will be released soon! Gazelle has both 15” and 17” options and comes loaded with a 9th Gen Intel Core i7 CPU, an NVIDIA 16-series GPU, and up to 64GB RAM. Gazelle’s trifecta of CPU, GPU, and Memory gives content creators, gamers, animators, and designers a machine that can keep up with their graphics-heavy workloads. Head over to the product page to be notified when it releases this summer!


“Brace” yourself for these manufacturing tweaks to Thelio Major:

A new power supply brace, GPU brace, and PCI bracket improve stability within Thelio Major’s interior, especially during shipping. Similarly, modifications were made to the CPU heat sink duct to better hold the heat sink in place while in transit.


UK keyboard layouts are currently available on the Oryx Pro and Darter Pro! Though this keyboard layout is only available for a limited time, this option could stick around depending on popularity.



The ability to disable mouse acceleration has been added to GNOME Settings in Pop!_OS 19.04. Disabling mouse acceleration allows for the increased precision of mouse movements desired by PC gamers, artists, and designers for their unique use cases that depend on mouse accuracy. This patch was previously submitted upstream to GNOME by Mathew Bouma, but was not accepted. However, we’ve decided to include the patch as an option in Settings rather than through the GNOME Tweak Tool utility, as this feature has been highly requested among Pop!_OS users.


VAAPI / VDPAU hardware decoding is now enabled by default for open source graphics drivers and the proprietary NVIDIA driver. This enables hardware decoding of supported video codecs in supported video players such as MPV. This can drastically reduce power consumption and CPU workload by offloading the expensive decoding tasks to dedicated hardware included alongside the graphics chip that was built specifically for those video decoding algorithms. This does not apply to Chromium or Firefox, however, as both of these browsers lack support for hardware decoding on Linux entirely.


Support for handling multiple hwmon interfaces for multiple I/O boards and CPUs was added to system76-power to combat excessive fan usage. This should reduce the amount of noise generated by fans on desktops that are affected by this criteria. A much quieter fan curve is also in the works and will arrive soon.


Patches have already been released for Intel’s latest security vulnerabilities. To apply these patches, users are advised to install all available updates and reboot. These patches address the following security vulnerabilities:

- CVE-2018-12126 Microarchitectural Store Buffer Data Sampling (MSBDS)

- CVE-2018-12130 Microarchitectural Fill Buffer Data Sampling (MFBDS)

- CVE-2018-12127 Microarchitectural Load Port Data Sampling (MLPDS)

- CVE-2019-11091 Microarchitectural Data Sampling Uncacheable Memory (MDSUM)


We’ve updated the youtube-dl package to a newer version. This package, maintained by Debian and Canonical, is used for downloading videos from YouTube. Changes made by Google to the YouTube API had recently broken this package in the Ubuntu repositories, hence the update.

Spacing issues between labels and icons in the Files side panel have been fixed as well. If you see any other issues with the GTK theme in 19.04, be sure to submit an issue report!

Pop Upgrade Progress

The new upgrade process for Pop!_OS is almost done! Though not yet implemented, the following changes have been made to Pop!_OS upgrading in May.

  • The option for keeping or disabling third party repositories was added to the upgrade daemon. Currently, third party repositories are disabled by default during an upgrade, which can interrupt a user’s workflow for certain applications.
  • Support for the Refresh OS option has also been added to GNOME Settings. Selecting this option will prepare the system to boot into the recovery partition on the next boot, and to ask to perform a refresh install. This allows you to skip setup for the language and keyboard settings, and to go straight to the refresh view.

Pop Upgrade: The Recovery Shell

The recovery shell was implemented this month, which opens a terminal to allow the user to manually recover from an error that prevents an upgrade from completing. Once the terminal is closed, the upgrade will be re-attempted.

Pop!_Volunteers This Week

  • @derpOmattic has submitted a handful of DEP11 appstream metadata: GNOME Authenticator, Lollypop, & PulseEffects. The addition of these apps to the Pop!_Shop was made possible through the help of @stratact and his DEP11 convertor. MR
  • @derpOmattic added the appstream metadata for Alacritty and TimeShift. MR
  • @adminxvii implemented checksum verification in Popsicle. MR


In open firmware news, the camera toggle hotkey is now functional. The last remaining hardware issues with running open firmware on our laptops lie with Thunderbolt. On Whiskey Lake chipsets, the Thunderbolt controller is often not in a functional state after suspending/resuming the system. On Kaby Lake chipsets, the Thunderbolt controller is never visible.

A new BIOS setup menu is also being designed for our open firmware so that the look and feel is consistent with the beautiful aesthetic you can expect from a System76 product. This will be implemented once the new firmware is ready for release.


LFNW Recap

System76 was at LinuxFest Northwest! We hope you all had a chance to stop by and meet our support team. They had a blast speaking with all of you! In case you missed out on some fun things like the Jupiter Broadcasting barbecue or Emma’s talk on the importance of being HAPPY in tech support, you can see our recap of the event on our blog.

19.04 Pop!_Party Recap

A long time ago (May 4th), in a factory far, far away (Denver), we hosted a fun release party for Pop!_OS 19.04. Partygoers enjoyed Star Wars-themed food, such as Hanburgers and Jabba the Hutt dogs, trivia, a tour of the factory, and brought some swag home, too!


Pop!_OS Makes Classic Gnome Simpler

Jack M. Germain provides an in-depth review of Pop!_OS in this LinuxInsider article. System76’s Secret Sauce

Don Watkins of explores the “secret sauce” of System76 and the flavor that it adds to our culture and community.

Level1Tech Reviews Thelio

Wendell from Level1Tech has been busy this month on the Linux playground, testing out both Pop!_OS and Thelio.

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How to compile a Linux kernel in the 21st century

In computing, a kernel is the low-level software that handles communication with hardware and general system coordination. Aside from some initial firmware built into your computer's motherboard, when you start your computer, the kernel is what provides awareness that it has a hard drive and a screen and a keyboard and a network card. It's also the kernel's job to ensure equal time (more or less) is given to each component so that your graphics and audio and filesystem and network all run smoothly, even though they're running concurrently. The quest for hardware support, however, is ongoing, because the more hardware that gets released, the more stuff a kernel must adopt into its code to make the hardware work as expected. It's difficult to get accurate numbers, but the Linux kernel is certainly among the top kernels for hardware compatibility. Linux operates innumerable computers and mobile phones, embedded system on a chip (SoC) boards for hobbyist and industrial uses, RAID cards, sewing machines, and much more. Read more

Life with an offline laptop

When I think about an offline laptop, I immediately think I will miss IRC, mails, file synchronization, Mastodon and remote ssh to my servers. But do I really need it _all the time_?

As I started thinking about preparing an old laptop for the experiment, differents ideas with theirs pros and cons came to my mind.

Read more

today's leftovers

  • Huawei mulls open-source chip design if US ban continues

    Huawei Technologies Co said Friday that it would consider using RISC-V, an open-source chip architecture, if the US government continues restricting its access to the latest technologies from the UK firm ARM Holdings for a long time. Xu Zhijun, rotating chairman of Huawei, said in an interview in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, that the company has already obtained the perpetual license to ARM's V8 architecture technology, so the US government ban does not affect its current launch schedule of chips. "If ARM's new technologies are not available in the future, we can also use RISC-V, an architecture which is open to all companies. The challenge is not insurmountable," Xu said.

  • From Spark To Airflow And Presto: Demystifying The Fast-Moving Cloud Data Stack

    Putting data to work starts with exploration, or inspecting data so that you know what you have to work with and its characteristics. Presto is excellent for exploring large, unstructured data sets because it uses storage efficiently, which keeps costs down, and it’s compatible with SQL, a language data analysts are familiar with.  Spark, on the other hand, is great for exploring data sets when programming is required, such as being able to manipulate data for use in data science or machine learning. It has good support for non-SQL interfaces.

  • Databricks launches AutoML Toolkit for model building and deployment

    Databricks today introduced its AutoML Toolkit, an automated end-to-end machine learning service made to accommodate developers with a range of experience.

  • DigitalOcean Managed Databases add MySQL, Redis support

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  • How Storj Is Building a Storage Cloud Without Owning a Single Disk

    Led by Docker's former CEO, the startup is crowdsourcing empty disk space from desktops and data centers around the world.

  • HPC Computing Is Replacing Supercomputers In Enterprise: Jeff Reser

    Jeff Reser – Global Product and Solutions Marketing Manager of SUSE talks about High-Performance Computing.

  • Mable & The Wood is a fairly unusual Metroidvania out now with Linux support

    Featuring a sweet fairy-powered protagonist wielding a sword so big they can hardly move, Mable & The Wood certainly presents a healthy amount of charm. Developed by Triplevision Games, a solo outfit from the UK, with publishing from Graffiti Games. "Mable is a passion project for me and for so long I worked on it by myself," said Andrew Stewart, Founder of Triplevision Games. “Thanks to Graffiti, I was able to have additional support to release the game sooner and on multiple platforms. Players on Steam can finally get their hands on the brilliant title today, and fear not Switch and Xbox One players, that version will be releasing very soon."

Programming: Python Shows, Golang and GNOME/GLib Work

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  • Golang or go home: how Curve is taking Golang to new heights

    Emerging only in 2009, Golang is still relatively new and not as widely used as other mainstream coding languages. This young language was incubated inside Google, and has already been proven to perform well on a massive scale. We wanted to share with you a few reasons why we love Golang (Go) and how Curve is using it. Go has excellent characteristics for scalability and services written using it typically have very small memory footprints. Because code is compiled into a single static binary, services can also be containerised with ease, making it much simpler to build and deploy. These attributes make Go an ideal choice for companies building microservices, as you can easily deploy into a highly available and scalable environment such as Kubernetes. Go has everything you need to build APIs as part of its standard library.

  • GTimeVal deprecation in GLib 2.61.2

    One of the latest changes in GLib (released in 2.61.2) is the deprecation of GTimeVal, g_get_current_time(), and a number of other time functions. This is because we can’t guarantee they’re wide enough on all platforms to be year-2038-safe. Instead, you should use GDateTime or, if you just need to store epoch time, guint64. They are year-2038-safe — and with that, GLib should be entirely year-2038-safe. GTimeVal is used in a number of places, and widespread (but simple) changes will need to be made to stop using it. You will likely have already seen some deprecation warnings popping up to inform you of this, if you use any C-based and GLib-based libraries. If you can’t allocate time to fixing these deprecation warnings yet, you can silence them by explicitly stating your minimum and maximum supported versions of GLib. If your minimum supported version of GLib is older than 2.62, you won’t see deprecation warnings for GTimeVal (since it was deprecated in 2.62, and your code is claiming to need to support older GLib versions than that).

  • Mayank Sharma: GSoC’19 - GVfs and the Google Backend demystified

    Note: Due to time limitations, I haven’t been able to devote much time to writing a blog post. Each time I started, some or the other thing bothered me and I ended up having a draft. My humble apologies to my readers. So, over the past 3 months or so, I’ve been working on the Google Backend for GVfs (GNOME Virtual File System), and as of today, the backend is in a state where it’s completely useable. Earlier, a large number of operations were disabled. So, if you tried to copy a file from one folder to the other, you’d be given an error “Operation not supported”. Now, you may be wondering what’s there in a simple copy operation that the developers/maintainers can’t fix, or shouldn’t something like Google Drive backend for GVfs receive better attention since a great deal of peope keep their important data on their G-Drive? The answer isn’t a yes or no, and it’s much more subjective since it pertains to the state of current open-source software. One of the big reasons has been that OSS always lacks man-power, and that the problem at hand wasn’t trivial in any sense. My mentor (Ondrej Holy), is the sole maintainer of a project as big as GVfs, and he certainly doesn’t have the time of look at each backend’s issues.