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Audiocasts/Shows: Kubernetes, Open Source Security Podcast and "Reflecting On My Linux Journey"

Filed under
GNU
Linux
Interviews
  • Physics, politics and Pull Requests: the Kubernetes 1.18 release interview

    The start of the COVID-19 pandemic couldn't delay the release of Kubernetes 1.18, but unfortunately a small bug could — thankfully only by a day. This was the last cat that needed to be herded by 1.18 release lead Jorge Alarcón before the release on March 25.

    One of the best parts about co-hosting the weekly Kubernetes Podcast from Google is the conversations we have with the people who help bring Kubernetes releases together. Jorge was our guest on episode 96 back in March, and just like last week we are delighted to bring you the transcript of this interview.

    If you'd rather enjoy the "audiobook version", including another interview when 1.19 is released later this month, subscribe to the show wherever you get your podcasts.

    In the last few weeks, we've talked to long-time Kubernetes contributors and SIG leads David Oppenheimer, David Ashpole and Wojciech Tyczynski. All are worth taking the dog for a longer walk to listen to!

  • Open Source Security Podcast/Josh Bressers: Episode 208 – Passwords are pollution

    Josh and Kurt talk about some of the necessary evils of security. There are challenges we face like passwords and resource management. Sometimes the problem is old ideas, sometimes it’s we don’t have metrics. Can you measure not getting hacked?

  • Reflecting On My Linux Journey And Where It May Lead

    I ramble a bit about my Linux journey. Well, not just my Linux journey since my story begins before Linux existed. And even in the parts of the story that involve my Linux years, the story is really more about my journey with "free and open source software".

GNU Linux-libre 5.8

Filed under
GNU
Linux

  • GNU Linux-libre 5.8-gnu
    GNU Linux-libre 5.8-gnu cleaning-up scripts, cleaned-up sources, and
    cleaning-up logs (including tarball signatures) are now available from
    our git-based release archive git://linux-libre.fsfla.org/releases.git/
    tags {scripts,sources,logs}/v5.8-gnu.
    
    Tarballs and incremental patches are still getting compressed; when
    ready, they are all going to be at published along with patches at
    <https://www.fsfla.org/selibre/linux-libre/download/releases/5.8-gnu/>.
    
    
    There haven't been any changes to the deblobbing scripts since 5.8-rc7
    last weekend.
    
    This was quite a big release.  New drivers that required cleaning up
    were for Atom ISP Video, MediaTek 7663 USB and 7915 PCIe and Realtek
    8723DE WiFi, Renesas PCI xHCI, HabanaLabs Gaudi coprocessor, Enhanced
    Asynchronous Sample Rate Converter, Maxim Integrated MAX98390 Speaker
    Aimplifier, Microsemi ZL38060 Connected Home Audio Processor, and I2C
    EEPROM Slave.  Drivers for Adreno GPU, HabanaLabs Goya coprocessor, x86
    Touchscreen, vt6656 and btbcm, and various documentation files needed
    adjustments to their cleaning-up details.
    
    
    I've also made some adjustments to enable the use of deblob-check to
    verify full tarballs using Python or Perl rather than GNU awk or GNU
    sed.  The order of regexp alternatives matters in Python and Perl
    regular expression engines, and some constructs lead to exponential
    backtracking.  Those that affected looking for blobs (e.g. -l, -B) have
    been fixed, so now checks for blobs without context make steady progress
    even with backtracking engines; GNU awk is still tens of times faster,
    but Python and Perl will run to completion with as little as a few tens
    of MBs, whereas GNU awk takes a couple of GBs.  The details are in
    comments in deblob-check, under 'top mem'.
    
    GNU sed, that long ago was fastest and leanest, was retested, and
    verified to now explode to a couple of tens of GBs of memory use,
    running some 4x slower than GNU awk.  Maybe that's something that GNU
    sed developers would like to look into and see whether there's something
    wrong in their code, or in ours?
    
    
    As for deblob-check -C, that still won't run to completion on full Linux
    tarballs when using the Python or Perl engines.  There's presumably
    still something involving exponential backtracking in the context
    patterns.  Alas, I haven't got as far as fixing those in time for this
    release.  This is something that contributors with some regexp
    knowledge, or interest in learning, might be able to help with, without
    getting into the innards of our deblobbing monster scripts.  Please get
    in touch if you'd like to help.
    
    Another thing I could use some help with is some means to avoid
    introducing regexps prone to exponential backtracking when using perl or
    python.  I imagine there might be some code that identifies common
    pitfalls, that we might be able to use, but my web searches were
    unfruitful.
    
    
    For up-to-the-minute news, join us on #linux-libre of irc.gnu.org
    (Freenode), or follow me (@lxoliva) on Twister <http://twister.net.co/>,
    Secure Scuttlebutt, GNU social at social.libreplanet.org, Diaspora* at
    pod.libreplanetbr.org or pump.io at identi.ca.  Check the link in the
    signature for direct links.
    
    
    Be Free! with GNU Linux-libre.
    
    
    What is GNU Linux-libre?
    ------------------------
    
      GNU Linux-libre is a Free version of the kernel Linux (see below),
      suitable for use with the GNU Operating System in 100% Free
      GNU/Linux-libre System Distributions.
      http://www.gnu.org/distros/
    
      It removes non-Free components from Linux, that are disguised as
      source code or distributed in separate files.  It also disables
      run-time requests for non-Free components, shipped separately or as
      part of Linux, and documentation pointing to them, so as to avoid
      (Free-)baiting users into the trap of non-Free Software.
      http://www.fsfla.org/anuncio/2010-11-Linux-2.6.36-libre-debait
    
      Linux-libre started within the gNewSense GNU/Linux distribution.
      It was later adopted by Jeff Moe, who coined its name, and in 2008
      it became a project maintained by FSF Latin America.  In 2012, it
      became part of the GNU Project.
    
      The GNU Linux-libre project takes a minimal-changes approach to
      cleaning up Linux, making no effort to substitute components that
      need to be removed with functionally equivalent Free ones.
      Nevertheless, we encourage and support efforts towards doing so.
      http://libreplanet.org/wiki/LinuxLibre:Devices_that_require_non-free_firmware
    
      Our mascot is Freedo, a light-blue penguin that has just come out
      of the shower.  Although we like penguins, GNU is a much greater
      contribution to the entire system, so its mascot deserves more
      promotion.  See our web page for their images.
      http://linux-libre.fsfla.org/
    
    What is Linux?
    --------------
    
      Linux is a clone of the Unix kernel [...]
    
    (snipped from Documentation/admin-guide/README.rst)
    
    -- 
    Alexandre Oliva, happy hacker
    https://FSFLA.org/blogs/lxo/
    Free Software Activist
    GNU Toolchain Engineer
    
  • GNU Linux-libre 5.8 Required A Lot Of Deblobbing

    He also noted that for the scripts they use in purifying the kernel, a transition is underway for using Python and Perl rather than GNU awk or Sed. GNU Awk is much faster for the GNU Linux-libre purposes but consumes several GB of RAM where as Python/Perl can complete in "a few tens of MBs." GNU Sed meanwhile appears to be performing slower than in the past for their deblob checking.

  • GNU Linux-Libre 5.8 Kernel Arrives for Those Seeking 100% Freedom for Their PCs

    Alexandre Oliva announced today the general availability of the GNU Linux-libre 5.8 kernel for those seeking 100% freedom for their personal computers.

    Based on the recently released Linux 5.8 kernel series, the GNU Linux-libre 5.8 kernel is here to deblob any proprietary code and drivers to allow anyone who doesn’t want to use proprietary software on their personal computer to install a libre, 100% free kernel.

    As you know, Linux kernel 5.8 is one of the biggest releases of all time, so the GNU Linux-libre kernel developers had a lot of work deblobbing new drivers that required cleaning.

    Deblobbed drivers include Atom ISP Video, MediaTek 7663 USB and 7915 PCIe, Realtek 8723DE Wi-Fi, Renesas PCI xHCI, HabanaLabs Gaudi co-processor, Enhanced Asynchronous Sample Rate Converter, Maxim Integrated MAX98390 Speaker Amplifier, Microsemi ZL38060 Connected Home Audio Processor, and I2C EEPROM Slave.

Kernel: Unicore32 and IO_uring in Linux

Filed under
Linux

  • Linux 5.9 Dropping The Unicore 32-bit RISC Architecture

    It's arguably long overdue but with the just-opened Linux 5.9 kernel cycle the Unicore32 CPU architecture is being removed. 

    Unicore is a 32-bit RISC architecture developed at China's Peking University. Unicore is an ARM-like architecture. But with Unicore not being too popular and this code not seeing any maintenance for the mainline kernel paired with no upstream compiler support, it's time to gut the code out of the kernel. 

  • IO_uring Has Many Improvements Set To Go Into Linux 5.9

    Facebook's Jens Axboe who oversees the Linux storage/block code and leads the IO_uring efforts summed up the changes for Linux 5.9 as "hardening the code and/or making it easier to read and fixing [bits]." There is though a big change and that is proper async buffered reads support. That work was previously covered but didn't end up getting pulled into Linux 5.8 due to a branching difference but is now ready to go with Linux 5.9. The async buffered reads support for IO_uring has some nice performance advantages and lower CPU usage while also working its way off KThreads for the fast code path once the async buffered write support is in place. 

libinput 1.16.0

Filed under
Graphics/Benchmarks
Linux

libinput 1.16.0 is now available.

No significant changes since the second RC, so here's slightly polished RC1
announcement text.

This has been a long cycle, mostly because there weren't any huge changes on
the main development branch and a lot of the minor annoyances have found
their way into the 1.15.x releases anyway.

libinput now monitors timestamps of the events vs the current time when
libinput_dispatch() is called by the compositor. Where the difference
*may* result in issues, a (rate-limited) warning is printed to the log.
So you may see messages popping up in the form of
  "event processing lagging behind by XYZms, your system is too slow"
This is a warning only and has no immediate effect. Previously we would only
notice (and warn about) this when it affected an internal timer. Note that
these warnings do not show an issue with libinput, it shows that the the
compositor is not calling libinput_dispatch() quick enough.

The wheel tilt axis source was deprecated. No device ever had the required
udev properties set so we should stop pretending we support this.

Touchpads now support the "flat" acceleration profile. The default remains
unchanged and this needs to be selected in the configuration interface. The
"flat" profile applies a constant factor to movement deltas (1.0 for the
default speed setting).

Events from lid or tablet-mode switches that are known to libinput as being
unreliable are now filtered and no longer passed to the caller.
This prevents callers from receiving those known-bogus events and having to
replicate the same heuristics to identify unreliable devices that libinput
employs internally.

A new "libinput analyze" debugging tool is the entry tool for analysing
various aspects of devices. Right now the only tool is
"libinput analyze per-slot-delta" which can be used to detect pointer jumps
in a libiput record output. This tool used to live elsewhere, it was moved
to libinput so that reporters can easier run this tool, reducing the load on
the maintainers.

The tools have seen a few minor improvements, e.g.
- "libinput record touchpad.yml" does the right thing, no explicit --output
  argument required
- libinput measure touchpad-pressure has been revamped to be a bit more
  obvious
- libinput measure touchpad-size has been added (as replacement for the
  touchpad-edge-detector tool)
- libinput measure fuzz has been fixed to work (again and) slightly more
  reliable

The libinput test suite has been fixed to avoid interference with the
currently running session. Previously it was virtually impossible to work
while the test suite is running - multiple windows would pop up, the screen
would blank regularly, etc.

And of course a collection of fixes, quirks and new bugs.

As usual, see the git shortlog for details.

Diego Abad A (1):
      FIX: typo on building documentation

Peter Hutterer (2):
      test: semi-fix the switch_suspend_with_touchpad test
      libinput 1.16.0

git tag: 1.16.0

Read more

Also: >Libinput 1.16 Released - Ready To Warn You If Your System Is Too Slow

Journey of a Linux DevOps engineer

Filed under
GNU
Linux
Red Hat
Server

After navigating the streets of Manhattan and finding a parking spot, we walked down the block to what turned out to be a large bookstore. You've seen bookstores like this on TV and in the movies. It looks small from the outside, but once you walk in, the store is endless. Walls of books, sliding ladders, tables with books piled high—it was pretty incredible, especially for someone like me who also loves reading.

But in this particular store, there was something curious going on. One of the tables was surrounded by adults, awed and whispering among each other. Unsure of what was going on, we approached. After pushing through the crowd, I saw something that drew me in immediately. On the table, surrounded by books, was a small grey box—the Apple Macintosh. It was on, but no one dared approach it—no one, that is, except me. I was drawn like a magnet, immediately grokking that the small puck-like device moved the pointer on the screen. Adults gasped and murmured, but I ignored them all and delved into the unknown. The year was, I believe, 1984.

Somewhere around the same time, though likely a couple of years before, my father brought home a TI-99/4A computer. From what I remember, the TI had just been released, so this had to be somewhere around 1982. This machine served as the catalyst for my love of computer technology and was one of the first machines I ever cut code on.

My father tells a story about when I first started programming. He had been working on an inventory database, written from scratch, that he had built for his job. I would spend hours looking over his shoulder, absorbing everything I saw. One time, he finished coding, saved the code, and started typing the command to run his code ("RUN"). According to him, I stopped him with a comment that his code was going to fail. Ignoring me, as I was only five or six at the time, he ran the code, and, as I had predicted, it failed. He looked at me with awe, and I merely looked back and replied, "GOSUB but no RETURN."

Read more

Also: Authorizing multi-language microservices with Louketo Proxy

Linux Kernel 5.8 is Here. This is What's New

Filed under
GNU
Linux

A brand new Linux Kernel 5.8 is announced by Linus Torvalds. This kernel release is mostly a big release in terms of hardware, graphics, and other updates.
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Linux 5.8 Released

Filed under
Linux

  • Linux 5.8
    So I considered making an rc8 all the way to the last minute, but
    decided it's not just worth waiting another week when there aren't any
    big looming worries around.
    
    Because despite the merge window having been very large, there really
    hasn't been anything scary going on in the release candidates. Yeah,
    we had some annoying noise with header file dependencies this week,
    but that's not a new annoyance, and it's also not the kind of subtle
    bug that keeps me up at night worrying about it.
    
    It did reinforce how nice it would be if we had some kind of tooling
    support to break nasty header file dependencies automatically, but if
    wishes were horses.. Maybe some day we'll have some kind of SAT-solver
    for symbol dependencies that can handle all our different
    architectures and configurations, but right now it's just a manual
    pain that occasionally bites us.
    
    Anyway..
    
    Aside from silly header file noise, the last week was mostly dominated
    by the networking pull, which accounts for about half of the changes
    (mellanox drivers and selftests stand out, but there's other smaller
    things in there too). Some RCU fixes stand out.
    
    Outside of the networking stuff, it's mostly various small driver
    fixes (gpu, rdma, sound and pinctrl being much of it), and some minor
    architecture noise (arm, x86, powerpc). But it's all fairly small.
    
    So there it is, a shiny new kernel. Give it a whirl before all you
    people start sending me the pull requests for the merge window, which
    I'll start handling tomorrow..
    
                     Linus
    
  • Linus Torvalds Officially Releases the Linux 5.8 Kernel, Now Available for Download

    The Linux 5.8 kernel series has been officially announced by Linus Torvalds.

    [...]

    You can download the Linux 5.8 kernel sources right now from the kernel.org website or using the direct link below. However, please keep in mind that this currently marked as a “mainline” kernel, which means it’s not yet ready for mass deployments or use in production environments.

    You should probably wait for the first point release, Linux kernel 5.8.1, to hit the streets before considering upgrading your kernel packages to the new series. Many of the rolling GNU/Linux distributions like Arch Linux or openSUSE Tumbleweed will probably upgrade to Linux 5.8 in the coming weeks.

  • Linux 5.8 Released With AMD Energy Driver, F2FS LZO-RLE, IBM POWER10 Booting

    Linus Torvalds was debating up to the last minutes today of whether to opt for Linux 5.8-rc8 or go ahead and release Linux 5.8 as stable... He opted for Linux 5.8 splashing down on this historic day.

    Linus wrote in the 5.8 release announcement that despite this cycle being very large, it turned out fairly well and didn't need a 5.8-rc8 release. Though due to some last minute changes, he does dream of having a sort of SAT-solver for symbol dependencies that would work across architectures and configurations for cleaning up the Linux kernel header file dependency mess. But that for now is just a dream.

  • The 5.8 kernel is out

    Linus has released the 5.8 kernel. "So I considered making an rc8 all the way to the last minute, but decided it's not just worth waiting another week when there aren't any big looming worries around." Headline features in this release include: branch target identification and shadow call stacks for the arm64 architecture, the BPF iterator mechanism, inline encryption support in the block layer, the CAP_PERFMON and CAP_BPF capabilities, a generalized kernel event-notification subsystem, the KCSAN data-race detector, and more. As always, see the KernelNewbies 5.8 page for more information.

Kernel: BPF, Linux 5.9 Overview and Linux Plumbers Conference 2020

Filed under
Linux

  • Facebook Engineer Improving BPF "User Programs" Support

    Facebook engineer Song Liu has sent out a set of patches for "BPF_PROG_TYPE_USER" as a new BPF type for the Linux kernel focused on better supporting user programs. 

    Given the success of the eBPF in-kernel virtual machine and new use-cases continuing to be worked on it outside of the traditional networking scope, Facebook has been working on BPF_PROG_TYPE_USER for better handling of user-space programs within the realm of BPF. (e)BPF has numerous program types for areas of networking and other areas while this new type is for better handling of user programs. 

  • Changes Expected For The Linux 5.9 Kernel From Intel DG1 To AMD Navi 2 To New CPU Capabilities

    The Linux 5.9 kernel merge window will open up immediately upon the release of Linux 5.8, which is expected to happen this evening unless Linus Torvalds decides to stave it off for one week to allow for additional testing. In any case, once Linux 5.9 kicks off there are a lot of changes expected. 

    Based on our monitoring of the various kernel "-next" Git branches in recent weeks and the mailing lists, here is a look at some of the changes slated for the Linux 5.9 kernel. Stay tuned to Phoronix for much more once the Linux 5.9 merge window is underway. 

  • Linux Plumbers Conference: VFIO/IOMMU/PCI Microconference Accepted into 2020 Linux Plumbers Conference

    We are pleased to announce that the VFIO/IOMMU/PCI Microconference has been accepted into the 2020 Linux Plumbers Conference!

    The PCI interconnect specification, the devices implementing it, and the system IOMMUs providing memory/access control to them are incorporating more and more features aimed at high performance systems (eg PCI ATS (Address Translation Service)/PRI(Page Request Interface), enabling Shared Virtual Addressing (SVA) between devices and CPUs), that require the kernel to coordinate the PCI devices, the IOMMUs they are connected to and the VFIO layer used to manage them (for userspace access and device passthrough) with related kernel interfaces that have to be designed in-sync for all three subsystems.

    The kernel code that enables these new system features requires coordination between VFIO/IOMMU/PCI subsystems, so that kernel interfaces and userspace APIs can be designed in a clean way.

Kernel: Linux 5.9, Linux Plumbers Conference and Microsoftication

Filed under
Linux

  • Linux 5.9 Adding New Knob To Control Default Boost Value For Real-Time Workloads

    Primarily driven currently by Arm big.LITTLE use-cases like high-end smartphones where you may be running on battery and not want to boost the CPU performance too high for real-time (RT) tasks, Linux 5.9 is adding new capabilities around setting the default boost value.

    Contributed by Arm, Linux 5.9's sched/uclamp code is setting the capability to control the RT default boost value. This can be used for lowering the default boost value to in turn conserve energy consumption of real-time tasks. It's assumed that vendors will tune this value for the best performance/power for RT tasks depending upon the device and potentially differ depending upon the AC/battery power source.

  • Linux Plumbers Conference: You, Me, and IoT Two Microconference Accepted into 2020 Linux Plumbers Conference

    We are pleased to announce that the You, Me, and IoT Microconference has been accepted into the 2020 Linux Plumbers Conference!

    As everyday devices start to become more connected to the internet, the infrastructure around it constantly needs to be developed. The Internet of Things (IoT) in the Linux ecosystem is looking brighter every day. The
    development rate of the Zephyr RTOS in particular is accelerating dramatically and we are now up to 2 commits per hour[1]! LoRa WAN made it into Zephyr release 2.2 as well.

  • Linux's exFAT File-System Driver Can Now "FSCK" As Fast As Windows

    Samsung engineers responsible for the modern exFAT file-system driver for Linux have updated the adjoining "exfatprogs" user-space programs around this file-system. Notable to exfatprogs-1.0.4 is much faster "fsck" file-system checking support.

    Namjae Jeon of Samsung announced the 1.0.4 exfatprogs release today and noted that "the performance of fsck have been much improved". This now leads to the FSCK performance being close to Windows' own FSCK performance and much better than the former exfat-fuse FSCK checking. Both exfatprogs and the Windows fsck take around 11 seconds while the former exfat-fuse FSCK implementation takes more than one minute to complete in tests on microSDXC storage.

BEE free OS 20.04(2020-08-01) Update log

Filed under
GNU
Linux

Linux kernel 5.4.0-42-generic
Add speedtest for commandline
Add mpg123, sometimes it is needed for the TTS project
WPS Office 2019 For Linux(11.1.0.9615)
Speed up droidcam
Lightworks 2020.1(122068)
Remove.bg (1.3.0-1)

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today's howtos

Julia v1.5.0 has been released

Thank you to everyone who made this year’s JuliaCon great! As a parting gift, the Julia developers are pleased to announce the release of Julia v1.5.0, the fifth minor release in the 1.x series. Jeff and Stefan put together a blog post highlighting some of the most exciting new features in 1.5. Check it out! As usual, binaries are available for all of your favorite platforms (Linux, macOS, Windows, and FreeBSD) at https://julialang.org/downloads. As a minor release, v1.5.0 contains no breaking changes, only new features, performance improvements, and marginal, undisruptive changes in behavior. You can also see the NEWS file for the full set of changes. Note that like 1.5, like its predecessor 1.4, does not have long term support. As of this release 1.4 has been effectively superseded by 1.5, which means that there will not likely be any further 1.4.x releases. Julia 1.0 is still currently the only long term support version. We encourage everyone to give it a try. Packages can test with 1.5.0 on CI by specifying 1.5 on Travis, AppVeyor, Cirrus, and GitHub Actions. As always, let us know in the issue tracker if you run into any issues. Read more Also: Julia 1.5 has been released

Meet Super Container OS, a Debian-Based Live Distro with a Built-In Container Engine

I told you I love new projects, right? Well, today I have a brand-new distro that I’d like to introduce you to, called Super Container OS, and targeted at developers who want to run containerized apps. The Super Container OS developer Harshad Joshi pinged me earlier on Twitter earlier to check out his new distro, which he says it’s a live and installable Linux OS that comes pre-loaded with a container engine powered by Docker and systemd-nspawn. Based on the Bufferstack.IO computing platform, Super Container OS wants to be the ideal tool for those who want to create, deploy and distribute apps that can run on IIoT Gateways, servers, or even virtual machines. Now that Container Linux from CoreOS is no more, I guess we need more alternatives. Super Container OS is based on the latest Debian GNU/Linux 10 “Buster” operating system series and aims to make deploying, running and managing containerized applications easier by using OS level virtualization. Read more Also: Sylvain Beucler: Debian LTS and ELTS - July 2020

Software: RedNotebook, Stretchly, Vesta Control Panel and GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program)

  • RedNotebook 2.20

    RedNotebook is a modern desktop journal. It lets you format, tag and search your entries. You can also add pictures, links and customizable templates, spell check your notes, and export to plain text, HTML, Latex or PDF. RedNotebook is Free Software under the GPL. [...] RedNotebook 2.20 changelog: Fix drag and drop (#492, @dgcampea). Fix external previews (Eric Chazan). Document how to change the theme on Windows (#487, Ankur A. Sharma). Allow symlinking to ./run script (#509).

  • Stretchly – reminder to take breaks

    Many people who regularly use computers suffer from eye strain and fatigue. Looking at a monitor for a long time can strain your eyes or can make any other problems you are having with your eyes seem more apparent. There are lots of simple steps you can take to reduce eye strain and fatigue. These include adjusting the brightness, contrast settings, and text size displayed, as well as minimizing glare, and ensuring your room has proper lighting. Taking regular breaks is also very important. This is where Stretchly is designed to help. Stretchly is a cross-platform open source app that reminds you to take breaks when working with your computer.

  • Vesta Control Panel – Simple Yet Powerful Control Panel For Linux

    cPanel web hosting is easier to set up and manage. Users who are not familiar with Linux servers can easily maintain servers using cPanel, a GUI control panel for web servers. Buying shared hosting or managed web hosting can provide users a control panel. But both types of hostings have their own advantages and disadvantages. Read this article to know things to remember before buying web hosting. In this Linux cPanel series, I am discussing the best open source alternatives of cPanel. Most of the open-source alternatives of cPanel are free. Today in this article, I am going to talk about Vesta Control Panel, a free and open-source control panel for Linux servers. Vesta CP can be deployed on Red hat/CentOS (version 5,6,7), Debian (version 7, 8, 9), and Ubuntu (version 12.04 – 18.10).

  • The Best Photoshop Alternatives That Are Totally Free

    GIMP (Gnu Image Manipulation Program) is usually the default go-to alternative for anyone looking for Photoshop-level capabilities in a freeware desktop program. It’s not quite as feature-rich as Adobe’s powerhouse, but it comes with an impressive stack of tools nevertheless — and while it can be bewildering for first-timers, it shouldn’t take you too long to learn the ropes.