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HowTos

today's howtos

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HowTos
  • How to Add a Glow Effect in GIMP?

    The glow effect could be used to enhance the quality of the image and it is added in multiple variations such as the neon glow effect, dual lighting effect, gold effect, shining effect, burning effect, dramatic color lighting, led lights, nebula star space, and so on. You can add the glow effect to the entire image, to a part of the image, to an object, to a person, to a scene, to the fonts, to the lines. It is entirely up to you and you can do it with GIMP very easily.

  • How to delete an EC2 instance [Ed: But AWS is not really a skill; it's vendor lock-in. Very widely used lock-in unfortunately.]
  • How to configure auto-scaling group in AWS step by step
  • How to delete S3 bucket using AWS CLI
  • How to backup AWS EC2 instance
  • How do I connect to AWS RDS using MySQL workbench
  • How to Install TightVNC to Access Remote Desktops in Linux
  • What Does ls -l Command Do in Linux

    In Linux, the ls command is one of the fundamental tools. It lists files and directories with or without various additional information. The ls command is a part of the GNU core utility package. It should be available on any Linux distro.

    This guide will showcase how to use the ls command, specifically “ls -l” in combination with other options.

  • How to mount NTFS disk on Linux - Unixcop

    Before we start to dive into our topic, we need to clarify some terms and to explain some of the differences between the different file systems that OS families use in our day-to-day technology life.

  • How to Stop WordPress Comment Spam with CloudFlare - LinuxCapable

    Comment Spam, the plague of the Internet with any website having any input forms, with WordPress most website owners and admins would know well how much spam can be posted daily, especially as your website grows. Currently, there are free and paid plugins, some work but with various degrees of success, then on top you it can add a delay to your site with having to load additional files for captchas which is the most effective form in reducing comment spam to date.

    A handy trick for users who run their websites behind Cloudflare reverse proxy for DDoS protection and utilizing their CDN service is to place an automatic javascript challenge on all comments posted, which is far more effective at stopping all comments spam in its track immediately. Another handy benefit, giving that bots don’t visit your site like a traditional user. All spam attempts won’t hit your site but get stopped on Cloudflare servers, giving your servers decreased load if you are severely spammed.

    The following tutorial will show you some handy tricks with Cloudflare rules which can work on any plan Free to Enterprise.

  • How to Install Nginx with Let's Encrypt TLS/SSL on Debian 11 Bullseye - LinuxCapable

    NGINX is an open-source, free HTTP server software. In addition to its HTTP server capabilities, NGINX can also function as a proxy server for e-mail (IMAP, POP3, and SMTP) and a reverse proxy and load balancer for HTTP, TCP, and UDP servers. The goal behind NGINX was to create the fastest web server around, and maintaining that excellence is still a central goal of the Nginx project. NGINX consistently beats Apache and other servers in benchmarks measuring web server performance and is now the most popular used web server according to W3Tech.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install Nginx on Debian 11 Bullseye using the default Debian repository or the alternative repository by Ondřej Surý with a free TLS/SSL certificate from Let’s Encrypt.

  • How to Install Linux Kernel 5.14 on Ubuntu 20.04 - LinuxCapable

    Linux kernel 5.14 is out and is famous for testing out with many new features, support, and security. The Linux 5.14 kernel release has gone through seven release candidates over the last two months and benefits from the contributions of 1,650 different developers. Those that contribute to Linux kernel development include individual contributors and prominent vendors like Intel, AMD, IBM, Oracle, and Samsung.

  • How to Install & Configure Git on Rocky Linux 8 - LinuxCapable

    Git is a mature, actively maintained open source project initially developed in 2005 by Linus Torvalds, the famous Linux operating system kernel creator. Git is designed for developers that need a pretty straightforward version control system. Most software is collaborative efforts and sometimes can have hundreds of people with commits working on software development projects. It’s essential to track these commits customarily done in branches in most projects before being merged into the master for release. It is easy to review and track down any incorrect commits and revert, leading to a much easier development if anything goes wrong.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install Git on Rocky Linux 8 in various methods.

  • How to Install Foxit PDF Reader on Debian 11 Bullseye - LinuxCapable

    Foxit PDF Reader is a free multi-platform PDF reader for Linux, macOS, and Windows. The PDF reader is a small, fast, and feature-rich PDF Reader to view, annotate, form-fill, and sign PDF documents. PDF Reader easily integrates with popular ECMs and cloud storage.

    At the end of the tutorial, you will know how to install Foxit PDF Reader on Debian 11 Bullseye.

  • How To Install Slack on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Slack on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, Slack is one of the most popular collaborative communication platforms in the world. The way Slack works is to create channels for your teams, topics, customers, or coworkers. slack too features voice and video calls, file sharing.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of Slack on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • Review: GAOMON M10K 2018 Graphic Tablet on Linux for Digital Painting.

    I haven't put that in the video, because it is a bit long and backstage. But I'm happy to share it on the blog:

    Around 2018, the brand Gaomon contacted me by email for a review. But at that time they only had a driver for Windows and Mac, so I rejected their proposal because −as you know− I'm using only a GNU/Linux operating system for my art since more than ten years.

    Rejecting brands this way is something I do very often. Not daily, but easily on a monthly basis. I probably got already all existing brands of tablets reaching my mailbox thanks to the good statistic on the channel.

    A parenthesis about that: I also met a large amount of hardware sellers totally unrelated to digital art or FLOSS who pretends to like my channel, saw all my videos (be fans?). Then they offer only a Win/Mac product in a email template, or worst: a gadget totally unrelated to digital art. (a lamp for monitor! a sound system, a gamepad? etc...) Poeple working in marketing department should probably stop considering their recipient as idiots. I mean: it's ok to sell products and propose hardware for review. But pretending to saw all videos and be fans only to flatter the ego of creators... Without having a check on the channel and content... This is the type of marketing talk I'm really deeply allergic. Parenthesis closed.

    Anyway, in all situation, I try to optimize the new contact with a minimum of FLOSS advocacy. I reply politely with a speech about why they should get a Free/Libre driver, why I'll be happy to review if the hardware works on GNU/Linux and get in the scope of my passion for digital-art or comic. I'll not lie, I often get no replies, or replies that try to convince me to do the review on Win/Mac (lol).

    But, In the case of Gaomon, something happened after this first ping-pong of usual proposal on one side and advocacy on my side. In fact, the marketing employee at Gaomon pushed my request to their R&D department (research and development). And so: they started to cooperate with the Digimend project on a Free/Libre Linux driver.

  • How To Convert PDF File To Image on Linux - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to convert PDF files to image on Linux. Sometimes we need quickly convert a PDF file into images or save a set of images as a PDF file. To do this, we can use a couple of command-line tools such as poppler-utils and ImageMagick.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step convert PDF files to image on Linux.

  • How To Install and Configure Microsoft Teams on Linux System [Ed: This is malware that should be avoided and it typically gives Microsoft (and NSA, its partner) root access to your GNU/Linux machine each time system update runs]
  • How to Compile ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors on Ubuntu

    Compiling software from source code might sound frightening, especially if you have never done it before. If you are a Linux user and want to try compiling something on your own, you have come to the right place.

    In this guide, you will learn how to compile and run ONLYOFFICE Desktop Editors from source code on Ubuntu using special build tools.

  • How to Install Mantis BT on Ubuntu 21 - Unixcop

    MantisBT is an open source issue tracker platform designed to be flexible and user friendly and provides a tool help you collaborate with different teams to resolve bugs and issues and quickly and professionally as possible.

    Mantis also has built-in modules that extend its functionality and the platform is actively being developed. Mantis Bug Tracker allows the team to report errors and organize who can take care of them. Users are able to get started in minutes and start managing their projects while collaborating with their teammates and clients effectively.

    This Tutorial will guide you about how to install Mantis BT on Ubuntu 21.

  • How to Switch Python Version in Ubuntu & Debian – TecAdmin

    Python is a high-level programming language, widely used for system programming. It is available for all popular operating systems. You can install more than one Python version on a single system. Once you have installed multiple Python versions, you can switch the default Python with the update-alternatives tool.

    All the Python developers are recommended to use a virtual environment for the applications. Which provides an isolated environment for the application with a defined Python version.

  • How to install Docker Engine on Alpine Linux - Linux Shout

    Docker is a popular container platform to run virtualized lightweight machines. Here we learn how to install Docker Engine and Compose on Alpine Linux using simple commands to run Containers.

    Alpine Linux is popular for its lightweight, security, and performance, hence widely used for installing Docker for creating containers using various Images available on Docker Hub. If you are an Alpine user and want to know how to use this container platform on Linux, here are the steps to follow.

  • How to install MongoDB Server on Alpine Linux - Linux Shout

    Alpine Linux is a Linux distribution optimized for resource efficiency and security. It can be installed in different versions and can therefore run completely from the RAM, for example. In addition to the latest x86 hardware, images are also available for the various Raspberry Pi models. This Linux distribution is based on musl and BusyBox and uses OpenRC for its init system and compiles all user-space binaries as position. Hence, that’s the reason users prefer it for running containers, especially Dockers.

    It is an extremely lightweight Linux operating system that aims at minimalism and high security. The standard Alpine ISO size is around 138 MB only, hence quite easy to move, if required. This makes Alpine fits comfortably on a CD-R with enough space. Alpine Linux uses a technique called location-independent executables this prevents attackers to exploit any flaw in the memory because this feature randomly locates programs in memory.

  • How to install XFCE GUI on Alpine Linux - Linux Shout

    Learn the steps in this tutorial to install Graphical User Interface (GUI) XFCE Desktop on Alpine Linux using command terminal.

    Alpine Linux is popular for its lightweight, security, and performance. And that is the reason it comes out of the box with a command-line interface. However, if you want then we can install a graphical user interface on Alpine to use it as a normal Dekstop operating system. And here we learn how to do that by installing the XFCE Linux desktop environment on it.

  • How to run a basic vulnerability scan on your data center Linux servers with Nessus - TechRepublic

    Nessus is one of those tools every network, system and security admin should have at the ready. Once up and running, you can easily set up scans to check your data center servers to make sure everything is on the up and up. And knowing whether or not your systems suffer from vulnerabilities is one of the more challenging aspects of your job.

    Fortunately, Nessus scans are incredibly easy to run. They do take some time to complete, but the process of launching a scan should take you no time.

    You do have to have Nessus installed and working. I've covered that process in How to install the Nessus vulnerability scanner on Rocky Linux. So make sure you follow that howto, so you have an instance of Nessus ready to go.

today's howtos

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  • How To Install LibreNMS on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install LibreNMS on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, LibreNMS is an auto discovering PHP/MySQL-based network monitoring system that includes support for a wide range of network hardware and operating systems including Cisco, Linux, FreeBSD, Juniper, Brocade, HP, and many more.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of LibreNMS network monitoring system on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • How to Add Icinga Director for Icinga2 and Icinga Web 2. - Unixcop

    What makes Icinga Director so special is the fact that it tries to target both of them at once.

    Icinga Director uses the Icinga 2 API to talk to your monitoring system. It will help you to deploy your configuration, regardless of whether you are using a single node Icinga installation or a distributed setup with multiple masters and satellites.

  • How to Delete Files and Directories in Linux from Command Line

    In this guide you will learn several ways how to quickly and easily delete files and directories in Linux using the command line.

    One of the basic file system administration tasks in Linux involves creating, modifying, and deleting different types of files and directories. Knowing some basic tools and concepts for file deletion comes in handy and can save you time.

  • How to Install Brotli on CentOS 8 - Unixcop

    Brotli is a data format specification for data streams compressed with a specific combination of the general-purpose LZ77lossless compression algorithm, Huffman coding and 2nd order context modelling.

    A compression algorithm developed by Google and works best for text compression. Brotli primarily used by web servers and content delivery networks to compress HTTP content, making internet websites load faster.

    Brotli is a new compression method with a better compression ratio than Gzip.

  • How to Install Go Programming Language on Debian 11

    Go is a programming language that was initially created by a team at Google as a replacement for C. They wanted to have a language where the compiler would be quick but also have easy programing and efficient production. Go can be used for many things, like networking or distributed systems programs, and has earned the name “the language of the cloud”.

    It helps people do more with just a few words, making it easier to write long sentences without wasting time on formatting. If you need to share your program with other people, you can just compile it into one file so they don't have to download anything.

    In this tutorial, we'll look at how to install and configure a programming workspace with Go via command line. You can follow along if you have a working Debian 11 system. Other Debian-based Linux distributions should work in a similar way.

  • How to Install Passbolt Self-Hosted Password Manager on Debian 11

    Passbolt is a free, open-source and self-hosted password manager that allows you to store your website and other passwords securely. It is an extensible and OpenPGP based password manager and is available in both a subscription-based and community edition. It also allows you to share your login credentials with your friends.

  • Linux 101: What is the mount command and how do you use it? - TechRepublic

    Jack Wallen introduces new Linux users to the mount command and how to use it to mount an external drive to the internal file system.

today's howtos

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  • Further reducing write amplification to an SSD in Debian GNU/Linux. Put /tmp in RAM. – BaronHK's Rants

    In my last post, I wrote about setting up ZSwap in Debian 11, and now, apparently, I have to blog about this.

    Most GNU/Linux distributions put the /tmp folder (where all sorts of temporary files the OS needs to have around for a little while go, as the name implies) on a RAM drive, using tmpfs.

    Debian, it appears, doesn’t. Having /tmp mounted on an SSD in a modern computer will cause many unnecessary writes to the SSD and will contribute to the drive wearing out too quickly.

  • How To Install Bitwarden on Linux Mint 20 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Bitwarden on Linux Mint 20. For those of you who didn’t know, Bitwarden, the open-source password manager, makes it easy to generate and store unique passwords for any browser or device. Using Bitwarden you can easily and safely generate, store, and secure unique passwords from any location or device. It is compliant with Privacy Shield, HIPAA, GDPR, CCPA, SOC2, and SOC3 security standards and comes with AES-256 bit encryption, salted hashing, and PBKDF2 SHA-256.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of Bitwarden’s open-source password manager on a Linux Mint 20 (Ulyana).

  • How I use Vagrant with libvirt | Opensource.com

    I'll admit it: I'm a fan of Linux. While I've used Slackware on workstations and Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) on servers for years, I love seeing how other distributions do things. What's more, I really like to test applications and scripts I write on other distributions to ensure portability. In fact, that's one of the great advantages of Linux, as I see it: You can download a distro and test your software on it for free. You can't do that with a closed OS, at least not without either breaking an EULA or paying to play, and even then, you're often signing up to download several gigabytes just to test an application that's no more than a few hundred megabytes. But Linux is open source, so there's rarely an excuse to ignore at least the three or four main distros, except that setting up a virtual machine can take a lot of clicks and sometimes complex virtual networking. At least, that used to be the excuse until Vagrant changed the virtual machine workflow for developers.

  • How to Check your Linux OS Version - Cloudbooklet

    Linux is a most popular open source OS used widely on many systems, servers and other machines like Raspberry Pi, etc. There are many variants out there in Linux which are known as distributions. The most common distributions are Ubuntu, Debian, SUSE, Mint, CentOS, Redhat, ArcLinux and many more.

    It is better to know the version of your operating system when you update or install packages or installing security patches, etc.

    Some distributions like Ubuntu, Debian shows the version of the OS when you login as a welcome message. But this can be disabled manually.

  • How to Create a Video From Images in Linux

    Before this article gives us a walkthrough on creating videos from images under a Linux operating system environment, it is important to understand the why before we engage the how.

  • How to Disable a User in Linux - Linux Nightly

    Disabling a user account in Linux means the user can no longer login to the system. However, the account will still persist on the system, which makes it different than deleting a user account entirely.

    You may need to disable a user account temporarily, or disable the login capability for a system account. In this guide, you’ll learn a few different methods of disabling a user account on Linux. You’ll also see how to re-enable the account.

  • How to Recover Corrupted GRUB 2 Bootloader in RHEL 8

    You may need to reinstall the GRUB 2 boot loader when the system does not boot into the GRUB menu. This may be due to the installation of security patches or human error.

    If the GRUB 2 boot loader corrupted on your system then you will end up with one of the following error messages.

    In this guide, we will demonstrate how to repair corrupted GRUB 2 Bootloader in RHEL 8 system.

  • How to install Blender 2.93.4 on a Chromebook

    Today we are looking at how to install Blender 2.93.4 on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

    This tutorial will only work on Chromebooks with an Intel or AMD CPU (with Linux Apps Support) and not those with an ARM64 architecture CPU.

  • How to install Odoo 13 or 14 on Docker Container - Linux Shout

    There is a couple of well-known open-source business management software and Odoo is one of them. It offers ERP, CRM, ECM, project planning, and more… In this article, we learn how to install Odoo 14 and 13 on a docker container running on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal fossa.

    Odoo is free business software that covers a wide range of tasks. In addition to classic ERP functions, the environment offers CRM, E-commerce, content management, project planning, warehouse management, accounting, personnel management, portal, knowledge base, product management, human resources, marketing, and more.

  • How to install the latest npm on Ubuntu 20.04 - Techzim [Ed: Sadly this gives Microsoft control over your computer]

    Not so long ago the only thing I needed to learn in order to create plugins for my blogs was PHP. I could farm out the JavaScript and CSS parts of development to freelancers. With the recent versions of WordPress however, more and more code is in JavaScript so I decided to learn JavaScript deeply.

  • How to migrate Apache to Nginx by converting VirtualHosts to Server Blocks

    In this tutorial we will talk about how to migrate Apache to Nginx. Apache and Nginx are probably the most used Web servers on Linux. The former is the most ancient of the two: its development started in 1995, and it played a very important role in the World Wide Web expansion; it is still the most popular web server around. The first version of Nginx, instead, was released in 2004. Nginx is not only a web server: it can also work as a reverse proxy and a load balancer.

    Both Apache and Nginx are free and open source. One of their most important functionalities is the ability to serve multiple websites/resources. Apache uses the so called “VirtualHosts” while Nginx uses “Server Blocks”. In this tutorial we see how to migrate the most common Apache VirtualHost configurations to Nginx.

  • Interesting way to change name of current process

    Well, interesting to Linux shell script programmers anyway.

    I'm running chromium as a non-root user 'chromium'. /usr/bin/chromium is a script that performs login to user 'chromium' then runs the real chromium executable.

    I had the situation where clicked on the close-box top-right of the chromium window, it closed, but was unable to restart chromium. Found that some chromium processes were still running. These have to be killed. This also happens sometimes with seamonkey, leaving the user wondering why it won't start.

    What I want to do in the /usr/bin/chromium script is kill all these leftover processes. Simply running "killall chromium" will also kill the current script. Utility 'ps' can be run to find these processes, then run 'kill' on each one. That's one way of doing it.

How To Use The Raspberry Pi Sense HAT

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HowTos

The Astro Pi project sees experiments, written by school children running on real Raspberry Pis. This might not seem very exciting until you hear where those Raspberry Pis are located, the International Space Station, in orbit high above the Earth.

Launched, literally, in December 2015 via the Principia mission, Astro Pi began when UK astronaut Sir Tim Peake took two Raspberry Pi B+, Pi cameras and Sense HAT add-on boards enclosed in aluminum chassis designed to manage the Raspberry Pi thermals to the ISS. The two Astro Pi computers, affectionately named Izzy and Ed were able to measure temperatures, humidity, air pressure, orientation and acceleration forces thanks to the Sense HATs plethora of onboard sensors. These two Raspberry Pi were used in multiple experiments since 2015, but the B+ models inside were getting a bit long in the tooth.

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  • How To Install and Set Up WordPress with Ansible

    WordPress is considered one of the best and easiest content management system (CMS) tools. It doesn’t require any coding skills and web-developing skills to get started with WordPress. There are many ways to install the WordPress CMS on a server to localhost, and some of them are easy, and others are a bit trickier. You can set up WordPress with Ansible despite the conventional method of installing WordPress and other CMS applications. Moreover, Ansible is available for Windows, Mac, and Linux.

  • How to Install or Upgrade to Linux Kernel 5.14 on Debian 11 Bullseye - LinuxCapable

    Linux kernel 5.14 is out and is famous for testing out with many new features, support, and security. The Linux 5.14 kernel release has gone through seven release candidates over the last two months and benefits from the contributions of 1,650 different developers. Those that contribute to Linux kernel development include individual contributors and prominent vendors like Intel, AMD, IBM, Oracle, and Samsung.

  • How to install Shoutcast Server on CentOS 8 - Unixcop

    Shoutcast is proprietary software that is being used to stream media over the Internet, especially used in music live streaming by the radio stations on Internet. It is specially for creating or listening to Internet audio broadcasts. Shoutcast allows us to broadcast a stream of music to the remote client connected to the server.

    Once Shoutcast is in your server, you can use media players like Winamp or Mixxx to connect to a streaming server and broadcast audio playlists to the Internet.

    This tutorial covers installation of Shoutcast on CentOS 8.

  • How To Use Tail Command
  • How to Install Rootkit Hunter in Linux - Unixcop

    rkhunter (Rootkit Hunter) is is an open-source Unix/Linux based security monitoring and analyzing tool. It is a shell script which carries out various checks on the local system to try and detect known rootkits and malware.

    rkhunter is a Unix-based tool that scans for rootkits, backdoors and possible local exploits. It does this by comparing SHA-1 hashes of important files with known good ones in online databases, searching for default directories (of rootkits), wrong permissions, hidden files, suspicious strings in kernel modules, and special tests for Linux and FreeBSD. rkhunter is notable due to its inclusion in popular OS (Fedora, Debian, etc.)

    The tool has been written in Bourne shell, to allow for portability. It can run on almost all UNIX-derived systems.

    This article will help you with the installation and config. rkhunter.

  • Setting up Zswap in Debian 11 GNU/Linux. – BaronHK's Rants

    A compressed cache, or Zswap, sitting between your physical memory and your SWAP partition can yield benefits, whether you have a lot of RAM, or very little.

    In the case of a low memory system, you risk running out, swap thrashing, and either lots of unnecessary writes to an SSD (which only have so many before they’re finished) or swapping out to a hard drive, which is terribly slow.

    In the case of a large memory system, well, it’s still not a good idea to run without a SWAP partition, because your needs can always be bigger than the amount of RAM available.

    The OOM-KILLER (or to a lesser extent EarlyOOM) is not your friend.

    If you run out of memory and there is no swap available, the OOM-KILLER (or the iron fist in a velvet glove, EarlyOOM) fires up and starts KILLING (hence the name) things that it thinks will help keep the system up. On a desktop, this could be literally anything, although it’s always more likely to be something that’s using a ton of memory.

  • How to install and configure Icinga2 and Icinga2 Web on CentOS 8 - Unixcop

    Icinga 2 is a free and open source monitoring tool designed to be scalable and extensible. Icinga 2 checks the availability of your network resources, notifies users of outages, and generates performance data for reporting. We can monitor large and complex environments across multiple locations using Icinga2.

    We can also setup Icinga2 with high availability clusters with a distributed setup for large / complex environments.

    In this guide we will learn how to install and configure Icinga 2 and Icinga Web 2 on CentOS 8.

  • Further reducing write amplification to an SSD in Debian GNU/Linux. Put /tmp in RAM.

    Most GNU/Linux distributions put the /tmp folder (where all sorts of temporary files the OS needs to have around for a little while go, as the name implies) on a RAM drive, using tmpfs.

    Debian, it appears, doesn’t. Having /tmp mounted on an SSD in a modern computer will cause many unnecessary writes to the SSD and will contribute to the drive wearing out too quickly.

    I did some investigating and the Debian Wiki gives two ways to enable /tmp on a RAM drive.

    You can either edit /etc/fstab by hand, but it’s easier to screw something up if you do, or you can just let systemd handle it. Since systemd has a service for this, why not just let it do that?

    Open a terminal:

    sudo cp /usr/share/systemd/tmp.mount /etc/systemd/system/

    sudo systemctl enable tmp.mount

    After that, you can reboot and the OS should just clear the temp folder, come back up, and mount /tmp on tmpfs.

    You can verify this with:

    mount | grep /tmp

    It should say something like:

    tmpfs on /tmp type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,nr_inodes=409600)

    I hate systemd.

    God knows we’ve had much more trouble out of it than it was ever worth, and Debian should have known better than to bring it in. I would have much preferred Upstart.

  • How To Install Memcached on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Memcached on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, Memcached, the high-performance, distributed memory object caching system, is extremely useful in speeding up dynamic web applications by alleviating database load. This reduces the number of times an external data source must be read, which lowers overheads and speeds up response times. The memory caching software is a free, open-source project that anyone can use.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of Memcached on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • How to Disable Touchpad While Typing in Ubuntu (When Built-in Option Not Working) | UbuntuHandbook

    While typing in my Ubuntu laptop, I was often making mistakes by tapping on touch-pad accidentally. The text cursor (aka caret) jumped to another place, and/or app window lost focus. It made me crazy since the built-in ‘disable touchpad while typing‘ option does not function in my HP laptop.

    GNOME has the option to disable touchpad while typing, which is enabled out-of-the-box in current Ubuntu releases. Users may access the settings either via ‘/org/gnome/desktop/peripherals/touchpad/’ in Dconf Editor or using Gnome Tweaks tool.

How to Build A Person-Following Creepy Head for Halloween with a Raspberry Pi

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Hardware
HowTos

Halloween is coming, and what better way to celebrate the season than by using machine learning and a Raspberry Pi to accomplish something spooky! This year I’ve built a mannequin head that uses person detection and a simple servo motor to detect when a person is walking by and turn the head to follow them. I’m using a simple styrofoam mannequin head with some coloured in eyes from the dollar store, but you’re welcome to dress it up to fit your house’s theme or use a completely different kind of head or object. As long as you can use a servo to rotate it, the result is the same.

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  • How To View Nginx Log Files on Linux - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to view Nginx log files on Linux. For those of you who didn’t know, When managing Nginx web servers, one of the most frequent tasks you’ll perform is checking the log files. Nginx logging to help you troubleshoot and quickly resolve any problem you may encounter on your Nginx web server. Logging is a very powerful tool that will give you valuable data about all the operations of your server. Nginx writes records of its events in two types of logs: access logs and error logs. Access logs write information about client requests, and error logs write information about the server and application issues.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step view of Nginx web server log files on Linux.

  • How to Install Vivaldi Browser on Debian 11 Bullseye - LinuxCapable

    Vivaldi is a freeware, cross-platform web browser developed by Vivaldi Technologies. It had grown from the downfall of Opera with many disgruntled when it changed from the Presto layout engine to a Chromium-based browser. This platform angered traditional Opera users. Since then, Vivaldi has become one of the most popular alternative Internet Browsers amongst the big three Chrome, Firefox, and Edge.

    Vivaldi promotes itself as a leading browser with faster navigation, clever bookmarking, more intelligent browsing, extensive tab management, and a more visual approach.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install Vivaldi Browser on Debian 11 Bullseye.

  • Watch Online Video Streams Using Streamlink In Linux - OSTechNix

    Streamlink is a command line streaming utility that allows you to watch online video streams in popular media players, such as VLC, MPlayer, MPlayer2, MPC-HC, mpv, Daum Pot Player, QuickTime, and OMXPlayer etc.

    It extracts the videos from various online services and pipes them into a media player of your choice. Streamlink currently supports popular live video streaming services, such as YouTube, Dailymotion, Livestream, Twitch, UStream, and more. Streamlink is built upon a plugin system which allows support for new services to be easily added.

    Streamlink is written using Python programming language, and was forked from LiveStreamer, which is no longer maintained. Streamlink supports GNU/Linux, *BSDs, Microsoft Windows, and Mac OS X.

  • How to Install Microsoft Teams on Ubuntu/Debian Linux [Ed: Well, technically is malware and it spies a lot]
  • SSH Port Forwarding and the Command Cargo Cult

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  • How to Install WhatsApp on Ubuntu 20.04 - Linux Nightly

    WhatsApp is a free messaging application used by over a billion people worldwide. WhatsApp provides secure, reliable voice and video calls that can be made locally or internationally with a Wi-Fi or cellular data connection. WhatsApp is available for multiple devices, like computers, tablets, and phones.

    Though there doesn’t exist a download link for Linux on the WhatsApp website, it’s still possible to install WhatsApp on Ubuntu. In this tutorial, you’ll learn two methods of installing WhatsApp on Ubuntu.

  • Setting up a JMP SIP account on Asterisk

    JMP offers VoIP calling via XMPP, but it's also possibly to use the VoIP using SIP.

    The underlying VoIP calling functionality in JMP is provided by Bandwidth, but their old Asterisk instructions didn't quite work for me. Here's how I set it up in my Asterisk server.

  • How to Install or Upgrade Nvidia Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

    Most modern Linux Desktop systems such as Debian come with an Nvidia driver pre-installed in the Nouveau open-source graphics device driver for Nvidia video cards. For the most part, this is acceptable; however, if you are using your Linux system for graphical design or gaming, you may get better drivers.

    Historically, the Nouveau proprietary drivers are slower than Nvidia’s proprietary drivers, along with lacking the newest features, software technology, and support for the latest graphics card hardware. In most situations, upgrading your Nvidia Drivers using the following guide is more beneficial than not doing it. In some cases, you may see some substantial improvements overall.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install Nvidia Graphic Drivers for the series 470.xx / 465.xx / 460.xx / 390.xx and 340.xx from the Nvidia Proprietary Repository, giving you the latest in software available.

  • How to Install or Upgrade Nvidia Graphic Drivers on Linux Mint 20

    Most modern Linux Desktop systems such as Linux Mint come with an Nvidia driver pre-installed in the Nouveau open-source graphics device driver for Nvidia video cards. For the most part, this is acceptable; however, if you are using your Linux system for graphical design or gaming, you may get better drivers.

    Historically, the Nouveau proprietary drivers are slower than Nvidia’s, which lacks the latest graphics card hardware’s latest features, software technology, and support. In most situations, upgrading your Nvidia Drivers using the following guide is more beneficial than not doing it. In some cases, you may see some substantial improvements overall.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install Nvidia Graphic Drivers for the series 470.xx / 465.xx / 460.xx / 390.xx and 340.xx from the Nvidia Proprietary Repository, giving you the latest in software available.

  • Switch To A Directory Without Using Cd Command in Linux - OSTechNix [Ed: Old but newly-updated]

    Most of the intermediate and almost all advanced users prefer CLI over GUI mode, because there are plethora of command line tricks to make things much easier and faster. Today, I'd like to share one simple tip. This simple bash trick can help you to automatically switch to a directory without using cd command. All you need to do is just enter the path of the directory in the Terminal, and you will be landed in that particular directory. This could be useful in scripting and for those who use command line a lot at work. Read on.

  • 2 ways to Install Mysql Workbench on Debian 11 Bullseye Linux - Linux Shout

    MySQL Workbench is a graphical modeling tool and development system available in a free and a commercial edition… It offers a collection of tools for working with MySQL databases. In short, it provides a Graphical user interface to easily design and edit databases, display them clearly, and administer them. Workbench can be used on computers with the Linux, macOS, or Microsoft Windows operating systems.

    The software is able to extract structures from existing databases and display them clearly. In addition, MySQL Workbench converts tables from SQL Server to MySQL tables; allow developers to visually design databases and then offline and host them on a MySQL server. The Community Edition can be downloaded for free. For advanced users who need additional functions, extensions with scripting languages ​​can be integrated into the tool.

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  • Tr Command In Linux Explained With Examples For Beginners

    The real power of Linux is there are many programs/utilities created to make our lives easy. When you write a lot of shell scripts in your environment this set of programs comes in handy, where you will use these programs to manipulate your input or output in your scripts. One such utility is tr, which stands for translate. As the name implies, the tr command is used to translate, squeeze, and delete characters from standard input, writing to standard output in Linux and Unix-like operating systems.

    In this article, we will learn tr command usage with practical examples. At the end of this guide, you will be comfortable in using the tr command and you will come to know in which scenario using this command would be beneficial.

  • mv Command in Linux

    The mv command is one of Linux's built-in commands, and its primary function is to move files and directories. However, the mv command's function is not limited to moving files; it also performs a variety of other tasks. In Linux, mv stands for move.

    In this tutorial, we will learn how to move files and directories in Linux using mv Command.

  • Claimed 2TB USB SSD is only 128GB
  • Install ifconfig on debian 11 or 10, if command not found - Linux Shout

    After installing Debian 11 Bullseye or 10 Buster, if you get ifconfig: command not found error while using it to check the system’s Ip-addresses, then here are the steps to solve the problem.

    It is the command tool that is used on the Linux system to look for its current IP address and other information of the network.

today's howtos

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HowTos
  • How to create a shared folder in VirtualBox - TechRepublic

    VirtualBox is a great tool for creating, running, and managing virtual machines. It's free, it's flexible, and it's powerful. If you use this tool in your data center, you might find the need to create a shared folder between a host and a guest. In fact, this is a solid way to share a folder with multiple guests or use it as a way to expand the available storage for your virtual machines.

    No matter how you use these shared folders, you have to know how to create them first. Let me show you how to do so in VirtualBox 6.1.

  • How to Create a Cold Storage Crypto Wallet with a USB Memory Stick
  • How to Sync Two Web Servers in Linux Automatically

    As you graduate from a Linux enthusiast to a Linux administrator/superuser in a production/server environment, you start to see the sense in working with more than one web server.

    Right now, you might not see the logic in having two similar web servers running at the same time but there will come a time when having an extra server environment creates an ideal backup plan for your primary server.

  • How to Install and Configure Git in Debian 11 - Unixcop

    Today we will learn how to configure Git with Debian 11. Consider a scenario where multiple developers are working on the same project. How to keep control of a different version of their work? Git is the answer! it’s one of the most famous version control of today.

    Git was originally developed by Linus in 2005. Git is designed for such developers who just need nothing but a straightforward version control system.

    What is a version control system? Well, you can assume it as a centralized repo. Where are developers can work on the same project or on a module/part of the project? Without affecting other team member’s work they can keep contributing.

    Developers can keep their work intact in form of branches. In branches, developers can develop, stage, and commit their codes.

  • How to use head command - Unixcop
  • How to install MongoDB 5.0 Server on Debian 11 Bullseye - Linux Shout

    MongoDB is a database based on a non-relational document model. As a so-called NoSQL database (NoSQL = Not-only-SQL) it differs fundamentally from conventional relational databases such as Oracle, MySQL, or the Microsoft SQL Server. The name MongoDB is derived from the English word “humongous”, which roughly means “gigantic”.

  • How to Scan Open Ports with Nmap – TecAdmin

    Nmap (Network Mapper) is the most popular discovery tool used by Network Administrators for security auditing and mapping their network. This core tool is furthermore used for finding live hosts, OS detection, performing port scanning, and version detection.

    In order to detect various available hosts on the network, the services they’re offering, the version of operating system they’re running, and the type of firewall they are using, nmap uses the raw IP address. Whenever we’re having connectivity issues of network or firewall configuration, the first thing we check is which ports are open.

    There are several commands available to check open ports and scan them on your system, but nmap is the most used command for this purpose. In this article, we’ll discuss how to scan all open ports with nmap on your Linux system.

  • How to Install and Configure Apache Cassandra on Linux System

    The Apache Cassandra is a widely used cross-platform NoSQL database for handling big data and live data. Many tech giants use the apache Cassandra database as a not conventional relational database engine; instead, it’s a wide column store, database engine. The Apache Cassandra tool is available for Linux, Windows, and Mac. In the benchmark, the speed of apache Cassandra is higher and trustworthy. If you own a large amount of data, you can surely use apache Cassandra for data security.

    Moreover, it also allows a distributed method of sharing and handling data. The Cassandra cloud and DB engine can help you to build your own server. Handling data scalability, Hadoop MapReduce, and other features have made the apache Cassandra a giant tool for data management.

  • How to Install Zoom Client on Ubuntu 20.04

    Zoom is a communications technology platform that provides videotelephony and real-time online chat services through a cloud-based peer-to-peer software platform and is used for teleconferencing, telecommuting, distance education, and much more.

    In the following tutorial, you will know how to install Zoom on your Ubuntu 20.04 desktop.

  • How to Install PHP ImageMagick (IMAGICK) on Debian 11 Bullseye

    Imagick is a PHP extension to create and modify images using the ImageMagick library. Those unfamiliar with the ImageMagick software are open-source, free software that can convert, read, write, and process raster images. Currently, the PHP extension only supports PHP 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 7.0, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, and 7.4. Currently, no PHP 8.0 or 8.1 support exists at this current time.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install PHP ImageMagick (IMAGICK) on Debian 11 Bullseye.

  • How to Install Debian 11 (Bullseye) Step by Step Guide

    Hello, friends. How to install an operating system is always a task that we must know to perform our work in a better way. So, in this post, I will show you how to install Debian 11. The process will be done in a virtual machine and it will be guided.

    Debian 11 is the latest version of this popular operating system that pretends to be universal. That is to say, that is so robust in a desktop as in server, and thanks to the great number of available packages we will not lack anything more.

  • How to Get Discord for Linux - TechnoChops

    Are you also tired of locking up yourself inside your house away from any activity and people are known as ‘Quarantine period’? In these challenging times when people were unable to meet each other and were missing all these gatherings, Discord has played its magic and succeed in winning everyone’s hearts. This famous online communication app helped people stay connected with their fellows and friends through text messages, voice chats, and video chats.

    In short, it is very rightly said that Discord had made its name popular very early, especially in the last decades when people were surviving this deadly coronavirus pandemic. It was introduced to people in 2015, primarily for gamers, but its versatility made it an all-rounder platform that helped everyone from different communities. This online app has also gained the trust of many other outsources and clients with its excellent services. So, now we will discuss how to get Discord for Linux.

  • How To Install ProFTPD on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install ProFTPD on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, ProFTPd is an open-source FTP server application that allows you to set up your own FTP servers on a Linux system. It stands out for being highly configurable and for having great documentation available for all users.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the ProFTPD on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How To Install Apache NetBeans on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Apache NetBeans on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, The NetBeans (also known as Apache Netbeans) is an integrated development environment (IDE) for all Java application development. So, Apache NetBeans provides editors, wizards, and templates to help you create applications in Java, PHP, and many other languages. Apache NetBeans is available for Windows, Linux, macOS, and Solaris.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of Apache NetBeans on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • How To Get The Number Of Bytes In A String In JavaScript - linuxwebdevelopment.com

    Getting the number of bytes in a JavaScript string can be very useful.

    For example, at the time of this article being written, 01 October 2021, Twitter limits posts to 280 bytes. If you use just Latin characters, numbers, or other ASCII characters in a Twitter post, then the number of characters would be equal to the number of bytes since each ASCII character is made with 1 byte.

    But in other languages, or other non-ASCII characters like emojis, the character would likely be made with more than 1 byte.

    Essentially there are 2 steps to getting the number of bytes in a string in JavaScript.
    1. Convert the string into a Blob object.

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More in Tux Machines

Devices: Arduino Nano, HarmonyOS,and Pi

  • Arduino Nano Floppy Emulator For When Your Disk Is Not Accessible | Hackaday

    Among the plethora of obsolete removable media there are some which are lamented, but it can be difficult to find those who regret the passing of the floppy disk. These flexible magnetic disks in hard plastic covers were a staple of computing until some time in the early 2000s, and their drives could be found by the crateload in any spares box. But what about today, when there’s a need for a real floppy drive and none is to be found? Enter [Acemi Elektronikci], with an Arduino Nano based floppy emulator, that plugs into the floppy port of a PC old enough to have one, and allows the easy use of virtual floppy disks.

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  • HarmonyOS development board shows up for $11

    Last year, we noted the Hisilicon Hi3861 based HiSpark WiFi IoT development board with supports LiteOS and HarmonyOS that was available in China for just under $10, or as part of a devkit with baseboard and modules for around $60. Although not very practical, buying from Taobao was possible, but there’s now what appears to be a new revision of the Hi3861V100 based HarmonyOS development board in a wider form factor on Banggood for $10.99.

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  • Raspberry Pi CM4 handheld console looks like a Nintendo Switch Lite - CNX Software

    StonedEge and Dmcke5 have come up with an incredibly well-designed Raspberry Pi CM4 handheld console that looks like a Nintendo Switch Lite “clone”, and that can run Dreamcast and PSP emulators at full speed using RetroPie. The RetroLite CM4 The design includes a 5-inch display, speakers, all buttons, joysticks, and D-PAD controlled via a custom Arduino board, a micro HDMI port to connect an external display, and a 4000 mAh LiPo battery charged over the USB Type-C port, and it seems to work, albeit we are told there’s still some more work to do.

  • Lilbits: TCL’s concept smart glasses, PineNote E Ink tablet, and using the Raspberry Pi 400 as a keyboard
  • “Industrial Pi” Use Cases with Ubuntu and AMD

    DFI’s GHF51 mini industrial-grade motherboard, and the EC90A-GH mini fanless industrial computer, are the world’s first industrial computer products that have passed the Ubuntu IoT hardware certification and are equipped with high-performance AMD processors. The 1.8-inch motherboard of the Ryzen R1000 processor has the same small size as the Raspberry Pi but brings unprecedented powerful computing performance, powerful expansion capabilities, and durability tailored for industrial applications. Combining the online update mechanism of the Ubuntu Certified Hardware and the online application store, the breakthrough development of “Industrial Pi” will redefine the future of the Industrial Internet of Things. 

Audiocasts/Shows: WordPress, Linux Action News, Scams, and Fake Security

  • WP Briefing: Episode 18: The Economics of WordPress

    In episode 18 of WP Briefing, Josepha Haden Chomphosy reflects on a recent lecture that she gave to students at Hendrix College in which she explored the economics of WordPress and the principles that sustain the project’s ecosystem.

  • Linux Action News 211

    We cover what's special about Plasma's 25th-anniversary edition, chat with CloudLinux's CEO, and detail why Apple supporting Blender is good for all of us.

  • These Open Source SCAMMERS are getting out of control! - Invidious

    No, Inkscape isn't a scam. In fact, it's the best vector illustration tool on the planet. But, much like Krita just a few weeks ago, scammers have registered official-looking domains that are meant to trick people into downloading and installing ransomware. It's sad to see and I can't think of many ways we can combat this besides raising awareness.

  • Josh Bressers: Episode 293 – Scoring OpenSSF Security Scoring

    Josh and Kurt talk about the release of OpenSSF Security Scorecards version 3. This is a great project that will probably make a huge difference. Most of the things the scorecards are measuring are no brainier activities. We go through the list of metrics being measured. There are only a few that we don’t think are fantastic.

IBM/Red Hat Leftovers

  • Use and contribute to a new Open Source Cloud Guide

    Today, at All Things Open, IBM is releasing the Open Source Cloud Guide, which highlights various use cases that are important in hybrid cloud environments, features the important open source projects in those areas, and discusses how various clouds are using open source in their offerings. By open sourcing the guide, developers are able to both use and contribute to the learnings and use cases

  • Announcing Cryostat 2.0: JDK Flight Recorder for containers

    Cryostat is a container-native JVM application that provides a secure API for profiling and monitoring containers with JDK Flight Recorder (JFR). JDK Flight Recorder collects profiling and diagnostic data from applications using JFR events stored in binary flight recordings. When requested, Cryostat can retrieve, store, and analyze flight recordings from containerized Java virtual machines (JVMs) to assess overall application health. Users can download recording files and upload them to JDK Mission Control (JMC) or Grafana for further analysis. This article introduces Cryostat and shares new features in the 2.0 release, including example use cases, tips for getting started, and additional release notes. For more information about Cryostat fundamentals, visit Introduction to Cryostat: JDK Flight Recorder for containers.

  • Kafka Monthly Digest: September 2021

    Welcome to the 44th edition of the Kafka Monthly Digest. In this edition, I'll cover what happened in the Apache Kafka community in September 2021. For last month’s digest, see Kafka Monthly Digest: August 2021 on IBM Developer.

  • Sensitive information detection using the NVIDIA Morpheus AI framework

    The growth of cloud-native applications has driven an explosion of east-west network traffic within a datacenter where applications can create hundreds of thousands of network connections among virtual machines and containers. As a consequence, the ability to track, monitor, and secure a datacenter in a timely manner has risen above that of any individual or team, thus requiring the help of AI and machine learning (AI/ML) to enable ITOps, infrastructure security, and DevSecOps teams to manage the complexity of modern cloud-native applications and the underlying platforms. Red Hat and NVIDIA have been working together to bring the security analytics capabilities of the NVIDIA Morpheus AI application framework to Red Hat infrastructure platforms for cybersecurity developers. This article provides a set of configuration instructions to Red Hat developers working on applications that use the NVIDIA Morpheus AI application framework and NVIDIA BlueField data processing units (DPUs) to secure interservice communication.

  • DevSecOps: 11 questions to ask about your security strategy now

    It’s the fourth and final quarter of 2021, believe it or not. That makes it time for IT leaders to review and evaluate how things are going – and plan for 2022. Security sometimes gets left out of those conversations. We’re here to make sure that doesn’t happen, with an extensive list of questions worth asking as you assess your security posture and look for ways to improve. We’ll start with a series of topics that are particularly relevant for teams that are considering or already implementing a DevSecOps strategy, then we’ll cover a series of fundamental questions worth asking in any organization – especially those currently struggling to modernize their security approach.

  • How Podman runs on Macs and other container FAQs | Enable Sysadmin

    As the Podman machine function becomes more used—particularly on Macs—there have been many questions about how this all works. Some of what is tossed around on the internet is pure speculation, so this article aims to eliminate any speculation. Many people do not realize that containers are really Linux. As such, Linux containers cannot run natively on macOS. Therefore, the containers must run in a Linux virtual machine (VM), and a Podman client interacts with that VM. This is in line with all solutions for running containers on macOS.

Gentoo-Based Porteus Kiosk 5.3 Released with Hardware Video Decoding, Virtual Keyboard

Porteus Kiosk 5.3 is here about six months after Porteus Kiosk 5.2 to add several new features, including experimental hardware video decoding support and virtual keyboard for both Mozilla Firefox ESR and Google Chrome web browsers. While the hardware decoding feature can be enabled in remote config with the hardware_video_decode parameter, the virtual keyboard feature comes as an extension and will pop-up automatically when clicking an input field on a web page. Users can control the virtual keyboard in remote config with the virtual_keyboard parameter. Read more