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HowTos

today's howtos

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  • How to use wall command in linux - Unixcop

    wall is (an abbreviation of write to all) is a Unix command-line utility that displays the contents of a computer file or standard input to all logged-in users. It is used by root to send out shutting down message to all users just before poweroff.

    It displays a message on the terminals of all logged-in users. The messages can_be either typed on the terminal or the contents of a file.

    Also usually, system administrators send messages to announce maintenance and ask users to log out and close all open programs.The messages ‘re shown to all logged in users with a terminal open.

  • Any Port in a Storm: Ports and Security, Part 1

    When IT and Security professionals talk about port numbers, we’re referring to the TCP and UDP port numbers a service is running on that are waiting to accept connections. But what exactly is a port?

  • Book Review: Data Science at the Command Line By Jeroen Janssens

    Data Science at the Command Line: Obtain, Scrub, Explore, and Model Data with Unix Power Tools written by Jeroen Janssens is the second edition of the series “Data Science at the Command Line”. This book demonstrates how the flexibility of the command line can help you become a more efficient and productive data scientist. You will learn how to combine small yet powerful command-line tools to quickly obtain, scrub, explore, and model your data. To get you started, author Jeroen Janssens provides a Docker image packed with over 80 tools–useful whether you work with Windows, macOS, or Linux.

  • How to Take a Typing Test on Linux With tt

    In the modern era of technology, typing has become one of the most common activities for a lot of professions. Learning to type faster with accuracy can help you get more things done in the same amount of time.

    However, touch typing is not a skill that you can master overnight. It takes regular practice and testing to improve your speed and accuracy gradually. While there are a lot of websites that help you achieve this, all you essentially need on Linux is a terminal. Let's see how.

  • FIX: Google Chrome doesn’t work on Kali linux
  • How to install OpenToonz on a Chromebook

    Today we are looking at how to install OpenToonz on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

    If you have any questions, please contact us via a YouTube comment and we would be happy to assist you!

today's howtos

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  • How to analyze Linux system boot time with Systemd - Linux Shout

    Systemd is a system and session manager that is responsible for managing all services running on the system over the entire operating time of the computer, from the start-up process to shutdown. Processes are always started in parallel (as far as possible) in order to keep the boot process as short as possible. But how to know which process took how much time while booting your system, well for that we can use the Systemd as well.

  • How To Install Figma on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Figma on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, Figma is a popular tool amongst graphic designers and UI, UX designers. It can be used to create wireframes, high-fidelity interface designs, prototyping, etc. One of the most loved features of Figma is its ability to run inside a browser, which makes it platform-independent.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the Figma on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How To Create and Manage Groups in Linux - ByteXD

    A group is a collection of users in Linux that shares some commonalities for the purpose of security, privilege, etc.

    Linux allows its administrators to create different user groups very easily. This is convenient because you can create a user group and manage all of the user’s permissions at once, instead of individually assigning permissions to each user.
    If you are not familiar with Linux permissions and how to manage them, take a look at this article.

    In this tutorial, we will cover how to create groups in Linux and briefly explain how to manage them.

  • What's the differences between a Docker image vs a container? - Coffee Talk: Java, News, Stories and Opinions

    A container is a collection of one or more processes, organized under a single name and identifying ID that is isolated from the other processes running within a computing environment. That computing environment can be a physical computer or a virtual machine.

    A container image is a template that defines how an image will be realized at runtime.

    While containers started out as a Linux technology, you can create containers within the Windows operating system too.

    The important thing to understand about Docker technology is that it has two main components: the client CLI tool and the container runtime. The CLI tool is used to execute instructions to the Docker runtime at the command line. The job of the Docker runtime is to create containers and run them on the operating system.

  • How To Install Yarn on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Yarn on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, Yarn is a package manager for JavaScript that runs on Node.js, allowing developers to manage their application dependencies. It was created to solve a set of problems with npm, such as speeding up the packages installation process by parallelizing operations and reducing errors related to network connectivity.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Yarn on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • How to Install LaTeX Editor TeXstudio 4.0.0 in Ubuntu 20.04 / 21.10 | UbuntuHandbook

    The open-source LaTeX editor TeXstudio 4.0.0 was released! Here’s how to install it in Ubuntu via PPA repository.

    TeXstudio 4.0.0 offers Qt6 support which should improve HiDPI handling. And the official packages for Windows and macOS are now based on Qt6, while Linux build sticks to Qt5.

    The final release is out after 8 alpha, 3 beta and 2 release candidate tests, though it’s announced only with following changes...

  • How to Setup Passwordless SSH Login in Linux with Keys

    Hello Linux geeks, it is always a good practice that Linux systems should be ssh with keys rather than the password. SSH (Secure Shell) keys gives us a secure way to login to Linux and UNIX like servers. When we access Linux systems with SSH keys then it is also known as passwordless ssh authentication.

    In this post, we will learn how to setup passwordless SSH authentication with keys in Linux.

  • How to prevent a Supply Chain Attack in a Linux Environment

    This is a type of cyberattack that seeks to damage an organization by attacking weaker elements in the supply chain. A supply chain attack can happen across any industry.

    Software supply chain attacks occur when attackers insert malicious code in a poorly secured part of the software supply chain. This causes a ripple effect, in which a lot of consumers of the software are impacted by the attack.

  • Setup Load Balancing with HAProxy, Nginx and Keepalived in Linux

    In the conventional method of hosting a server or website, the server is hosted through a single HTTP server. When the clients hit on the server, they are allowed on the server. But, what happens when multiple users, even more; thousands of clients, hit the site at a time for some query? What will happen if the server crashes? How will the single server balance the load? To answer all these questions, we can use the term ‘Load balancing’. If you’re looking for authentic tools for managing traffic of your server, you can definitely setup the HAProxy, Nginx, and Keepalived on Linux for load balancing.

  • This Will Make You a Command-Line Ninja | by Erik van Baaren | Python Land | Sep, 2021 | Medium

    A well-crafted bash command or script can save hours of manual labor. This tutorial will show you exactly how easy it is to become a command-line ninja and automate those tedious tasks. If you need to polish your basics, head over to Shell Commands Every Developer Must Know.

  • What Is the Linux Command Line and How Do You Use It?

    The interface you use to view and interact with an operating system, whether text-based or graphical, is known as a shell. The first shells were text-based. This is because the earliest electronic computers were not household devices. Instead, they were giant mainframes that occupied entire rooms.

    Back then, computing power was pretty low and network connections were slow. You can store very many files, and many users can sign into a system simultaneously over a very slow connection when you’re only working with text.

    In 1969, Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson at Bell Labs developed the Unix operating system, one of the first mainframe operating systems to gain widespread adoption.

    Unix operated on mainframes as a shared system, with people interacting with the computer from individual terminals consisting of only a keyboard and a screen. Users did everything from creating and navigating files to transmitting data by typing commands using a shell, which the mainframe then interpreted.

    If anything went wrong, a system administrator could check via a console, a dedicated text-entry, and display device used for system-related messages such as those concerning the BIOS, bootloader, or kernel. Linux is a Unix-like system that replicates much of the functionalities of Unix, but as free software available to all.

    The Thompson shell (written by Ken Thompson) was the initial shell for Unix, but a replacement came from Stephen Bourne in 1979 known as the Bourne shell. In 1989, Brian Fox create the Bourne Again shell (bash for short) as a free software replacement of the Bourne shell as part of the GNU Project. This is the default shell for most Linux operating systems.

    Thus we have several of the names that are still commonly used for the command line today: command line, shell, terminal, console, and bash.

How to Change Login Screen Background in Ubuntu

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HowTos

This is how you can get rid of those lifeless login screen background in Ubuntu and set a nice picture to welcome you each time you log on.
Read more

today's howtos

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  • How To Install Ansible on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Ansible on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, Ansible is the simplest way to automate apps and IT infrastructure. Ansible uses port 22 (SSH) to connect to a remote machine and make the necessary changes. It is a cross-platform tool designed to handle system configurations while working with Linux, macOS, and Windows operating systems.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Ansible on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • Getting Kubernetes up and running is one thing. Managing it successfully is quite another [Ed: Sponsored push by SUSE, but with howtos]
  • How to Create SFTP Only User in Debian 11 – TecAdmin

    SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol) is a secure file protocol used to access, manage, and transfer files over an encrypted SSH transport session. Security first is a thumb rule for the system administrators. In some cases, we need to allow remote users to access the filesystem on our system, but you don’t want to allow them to get a shell. This will allow you a secure channel to provide limited access to specific files and directories.

    This tutorial will help you to setup SFTP only access (without shell access) on Debian 11 system. It will create a chroot environment on your system to limit the SFTP user to a specific directory only. Also, it will allow SFTP only access without SSH access to the user.

  • How to List Dependencies of a Package in Ubuntu

    Unlike Windows, macOS, and Android, software on Ubuntu—and Linux in general—is not distributed as a single package. Instead, when you install an application, your system's package manager downloads multiple packages, including the main app package and its dependencies. However, this only stands true for traditional package installation on Linux i.e. using package managers.

    Knowing what additional dependencies are downloaded during an installation can be beneficial for beginner and advanced users alike. This way, one has complete control over the packages installed on their system.

    Let's take a look at how you can check the dependencies of a package on Ubuntu.

  • How to Actually Install Ubuntu on USB

    his tutorial shows the steps for actually installing Ubuntu Linux on an external US drive with the bootloader installed on the USB. It is NOT live USB set up. This USB will work as portable operating system and can be used on any computer system.

    Let me recall a few things.

    A live USB is used for testing the distribution. It is also used for installing Linux on computer hard disk. Normally, any changes you made to your live distribution is lost and this limits the usage of the live USB.

    Several of It’s FOSS readers requested a tutorial on installing Linux on a USB. Not the regular live USB with persistence but the actual Ubuntu installed on a USB disk.

    This means having a portable Ubuntu Linux on a USB that you can plug it in to any computer, use it, save your work on the USB like it was an actual hard disk.

    The procedure does not seem very different from installing Ubuntu on actual hard disk. And this is where people make mistakes.

    The available tutorials on the internet miss the most crucial part: the bootloader.

today's howtos

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  • Bat is Like the cat Command in Linux, But Super-Charged and Written in Rust

    Bat is a cat command clone with advance syntax highlighting for a large number of programming and markup languages.

    Despite the title of this article, we’ll not talk about cats and bats here, but about the cat and bat commands in Linux.

    As you know, the cat (short for concatenate) command is a utility in Linux. One of its most commonly known usages is to print the content of a file onto the standard output stream. But given more time spent in the command line, features like syntax highlighting come in very handy.

  • How To Install pgAdmin on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install pgAdmin on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, pgAdmin is a free and open-source web-based tool that provides a friendly web interface to fully manage PostgreSQL databases, and it includes several features that can help you administer and maintain databases with ease. It’s written in Python and supports many operating systems such as Linux, Windows, and macOS.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of pgAdmin on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • How to configure your Raspberry Pi OS to use it for the first time - LinuxStoney

    Whether it is to set up a personal server, to play retro games, or simply out of curiosity and to learn programming, today we can all get a Raspberry Pi . This microcomputer has earned a great reputation within the IT sector thanks to its construction based on free hardware, the considerable power it offers and, above all, its price. We can install a wide variety of operating systems (especially Linux) on it. But, whatever system we install, we may have to make some configuration to adapt it to our needs. And here the problems can begin.

    Raspberry Pi OS is the official operating system for this microcomputer. This system is based on Debian, and it comes specially prepared and optimized to work in an optimized way on this device. However, depending on the use that we are going to give it, we may have to configure some aspect of it as soon as we start it up.

    In this way, we find two ways to configure this Raspberry Pi OS to adapt it to our needs.

  • rpm2cpio utility fixed

    I downloaded a Fedora rpm file, and was unable to open it. Hmmm, we had this problem ages ago, see this blog post in 2011:
    https://bkhome.org/archive/blog2/201106/busybox-39rpm2cpio39-fails.html
    And a fix for Xarchive in 2018:
    https://bkhome.org/news/201812/fix-rpm-extraction-in-xarchive.html
    EasyOS has the busybox 'rpm2cpio' applet, and that is still broken. The 'exploderpm' script doesn't seem to work either.

  • Fixing choppy video and chunky font quality in Firefox installed via Flathub in openSUSE

    f you've installed the Firefox browser using flatpak on openSUSE, you probably have noticed these two issues:

    - poor video quality with lags (e.g videos on Twitter)
    - funky font display on some pages (e.g Facebook)

    Firefox comes with the ffmpeg extension enabled but the libs need to be installed. At the time of writing this post, the extension for ffmpeg version 20.08 was enabled in the following file if you installed Firefox using the --user flag with Flatpak.

  • How To Install osTicket on AlmaLinux 8 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install osTicket on AlmaLinux 8. For those of you who didn’t know, osTicket is a free and open-source customer support ticketing system and is widely used globally. It is a simple lightweight web-based application that allows one to organize, manage and archive support requests.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the osTicket support ticketing system on an AlmaLinux 8. You can follow the same instructions for CentOS and Rocky Linux.

  • Choose Audio Devices in Ubuntu System Tray Menu via Extension | UbuntuHandbook

    For laptop and desktop PC with more than one audio input and output devices, it’s possible to switch between audio devices quickly with upper right corner system tray menu.

    It’s a common situation that users have more than one audio devices connected to the computer. GNOME, the default Ubuntu Desktop Environment, provides Sound settings to choose which input and/or output device to use.

    To make life easier, a Gnome extension is available to integrate the settings into system tray status menu under volume control slider. So users can quickly choose a speaker, HMDI, microphone or other input device via few clicks.

today's howtos

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  • How To Install Apache Maven on AlmaLinux 8 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Apache Maven on AlmaLinux 8. For those of you who didn’t know, Apache Maven is an open-source software project management and builds a tool that is tailored specifically for Java projects, but due to its plugin-based architecture, it can be used for C#, Ruby, C, C++, etc projects. Apache Maven projects are build around Project Object Model (POM) and use an XML file (pom.xml) to describe its software project configurations.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of Apache Maven on an AlmaLinux 8. You can follow the same instructions for CentOS and Rocky Linux.

  • How to install Darktable on a Chromebook in 2021

    Today we are looking at how to install Darktable on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

  • How to Install Brave Browser AlmaLinux 8 - LinuxCapable

    Brave is a free and open-source web browser developed by Brave Software, Inc. based on the Chromium web browser. Brave is a privacy-focused Internet web browser, which distinguishes itself from other browsers by automatically blocking online advertisements and website trackers in its default settings. Brave has claimed its browser puts less strain on your computer’s performance than Google Chrome, regardless of how much you ask of it. Even with multiple tabs open at once, Brave uses less memory than Google Chrome-like, up to 66% less.

  • How To Install Gparted on CentOS 8 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Gparted on CentOS 8. For those of you who didn’t know, GParted is a free partition manager that enables you to resize, copy, and move partitions without data loss. Furthermore, it provides many features such as one partition mirroring with others. It is to be noted that Gparted supports several filesystems such as btrfs, ext2/ext3/ext4, fat16/fat32, lvm2, ntfs and xfs. Also, you can use a variety of storage devices such as SATA/IDE/SCSI, Flash memory, SSD and RAID with GParted.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Gparted partition manager on a CentOS 8.

  • How to Install MariaDB 10.6 on AlmaLinux 8 - LinuxCapable

    MariaDB is one of the most popular open-source databases next to its originator MySQL. The original creators of MySQL developed MariaDB in response to fears that MySQL would suddenly become a paid service due to Oracle acquiring it in 2010. With its history of doing similar tactics, the developers behind MariaDB have promised to keep it open source and free from such fears as what has happened to MySQL.

    MariaDB has become just as popular as MySQL with developers, with features such as advanced clustering with Galera Cluster 4, faster cache/indexes, storage engines, and features/extensions that you won’t find in MySQL.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install MariaDB 10.6 on AlmaLinux 8.

  • How to Disable Strict Host Key Checking in SSH – TecAdmin

    The SSH server has default enabled the strict host key checking. When the key checking is enabled, the SSH client connects only those hosts, that valid host keys are stored in the known host’s file. You can find the fine at ~/.ssh/known_hosts.

    Once you are connected to a remote host file time via SSH, the SSH clients check for the host key file under the known_hosts file. If the key is found, you will be connected to a remote server after authentication, but if key doesn’t found in the known_hosts file, the command will show a warning message and a prompt to accept or reject the connection request. Once you accepted the by typing “yes”, the key is added in the known_hosts file.

    Here is an example to of command:

    ssh ubuntu@remote-host
    Output

    The authenticity of host 'remote-host (123.45.67.89)' can't be established.
    RSA key fingerprint is 9f:48:89:f5:68:2f:cd:b3:19:95:40:43:98:09:0a:1a.
    Are you sure you wanThe SSH server has default enabled the strict host key checking. When the key checking is enabled, the SSH client connects only those hosts, that valid host keys are stored in the known host’s file. You can find the fine at ~/.ssh/known_hosts.

    Once you are connected to a remote host file time via SSH, the SSH clients check for the host key file under the known_hosts file. If the key is found, you will be connected to a remote server after authentication, but if key doesn’t found in the known_hosts file, the command will show a warning message and a prompt to accept or reject the connection request. Once you accepted the by typing “yes”, the key is added in the known_hosts file.

    Here is an example to of command:

    ssh ubuntu@remote-host
    Output

    The authenticity of host 'remote-host (123.45.67.89)' can't be established.
    RSA key fingerprint is 9f:48:89:f5:68:2f:cd:b3:19:95:40:43:98:09:0a:1a.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
    But in some situations, like shell scripts, we need to disable the strict host check. Continue to read this article to understand the way to disable strict host check in the SSH clients on Linux systems.t to continue connecting (yes/no)?
    But in some situations, like shell scripts, we need to disable the strict host check. Continue to read this article to understand the way to disable strict host check in the SSH clients on Linux systems.

  • How to Install Node.JS 14 LTS / 16 & NPM on Debian 11 Bullseye - LinuxCapable

    Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform, back-end JavaScript runtime environment built on Chrome’s V8 engine to build fast and scalable network applications and back-end APIs. Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking IO module that makes it very lightweight and practical. It is a fantastic choice for data-intensive real-time applications that run across distributed devices.

    NPM is a package manager for the JavaScript programming language maintained by NPM, Inc. NPM is the default package manager for the JavaScript runtime environment Node.js and is arguably the most available repository for Node.JS packages.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install Node.JS in various ways from the app stream and the node source repository on Debian 11 Bullseye.

  • How to Install Latest Nginx Mainline on AlmaLinux 8 - LinuxCapable

    For those using AlmaLinux 8, you might have noticed that installing Nginx directly from its Appresteam does not install the latest stable or mainline version. It is pretty far behind where Nginx is stable, and Mainline is at the current time of its development.

    For most, using the default Nginx that comes bundled with AlmaLinux Appstream will be preferred. Still, the following tutorial will cover the steps needed for those wanting to use newer versions for the latest features.

  • ACENET Basics: Introduction to Linux

    This core session is designed to help new users at ACENET and Compute Canada get up and running.

How to Remove Firefox Snap from Ubuntu (21.10 +)

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Ubuntu
HowTos

Ubuntu 21.10 Impish Indri makes Firefox Snap as a default browser. If you don't like Snap, this is how you can remove it and use the stock version.
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  • Common Apache Commands on Ubuntu & Debian – TecAdmin

    Apache is the most popular web server developed by the Apache Foundation in 1995. It comes under Apache License 2.0. It is a cross-platform application available for most of the older operating systems like Linux, Windows, and macOS systems. With a 45% of market share, Apache is serving almost every second website on the internet. Which tells its popularity between users.

    In this tutorial, we will discuss some commonly used commands for managing Apache servers on Ubuntu and Debian-based systems. This includes how to enable/disable a virtual host, module, or configuration file in the Apache server.

  • Use DVD as Local Repository in CentOS 8

    Appstream (Application Stream) and BaseOS are the two repositories that ship with CentOS 8. Centos 8 has two repositories, and they are different from one another. Among AppStream’s components are software packages such as databases and dependencies. BaseOS repository provides requisite packages, which are useful for an operating system that is minimal. If you also want to use DVD as a Local repository, then go through this article because we have written everything regarding CentOS use DVD as local repo.

  • how to tail logs in kubectl

    For container orchestration, Kubernetes has now become the industry standard. It provides the needed abstraction for successfully administering large-scale containerized systems with clear configurations, a straightforward deployment method, and scalability abilities. Like any other system, Logs allow developers to gain visibility into containers and the Kubernetes clusters they are operating on, and their importance is clear in many Kubernetes failures. However, Kubernetes presents a distinct set of logging issues. Application logs can assist you in figuring out what’s going on inside your app. The logs are very helpful for troubleshooting and tracking cluster activities. A logging feature is present in almost all current programs. Container engines, too, are built to handle logging. Publishing to standard output and standard error streams is the simplest and most often used logging option for containerized applications. These logs show you what’s happening and can be useful for debugging master node issues. Unfortunately, these logs cannot be viewed via the kubectl command; instead, they must be viewed directly from the computer. You may need to SSH into the node directly, based on where you are hosting the computer. This understanding enables you to observe the relationships between these resources and the consequences of one action upon another. In this guide, we are checking different ways to tail logs in kubectl. To execute this whole process, we are utilizing Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. We have installed and started the minikube cluster. Also, kubectl is already installed and configured on our system.

  • Tips to fix your drawing and linearts on Krita

    The Mirror tool in Krita is cruel and reveal the truth... But, once you spot the deformation on a drawing or line-art, what method you can use to fix it? This video shows you my method within all the limit of my actual skill. You'll know at least how I manage my correction pass over the art of Pepper&Carrot. Sorry for my french accent and english mistakes.

  • How to Replace Substring in Bash Natively

    Here's the scenario. You have a big string and you want to replace part of it with another string.

    For example, you want to change "I am writing a line today" to "I am writing a line now".

    In this quick tutorial, I'll show you how to replace a substring natively in Bash. I'll also show the sed command example as an extension.

  • SS Command in Linux with Useful Examples

    The ss tool is a CLI command used to display information about the network socket in Linux. The ss stands for socket statistics. It is a similar tool to netstat, which can display more information such as TCP and state information.

    The ss tool comes with the iproute2 package. It can display stats for PACKET, TCP, UDP, DCCP, RAW, and Unix domain sockets.

    In this tutorial, we learn ss command in Linux with useful examples.

  • Atheros Wireless in Alma, CentOS and Rocky Linux

    Not that long ago, I took AlmaLinux for a second spin, this time for a more detail review of the distro on my brand-newish IdeaPad 3 machine. Things went reasonably well, except one big glaring problem. I didn't have Wireless connectivity, right after the installation. This is major, because you can't really use a modern system without (some) network, especially this early on.

    Soon, I spent a couple of hours trying to fix this. The problem turned out to be rather quirky. Supposedly, I did have all the right drivers and whatnot, but the system couldn't really utilize the hardware. A combination of two factors contributed to the issue, which we will solve in this tutorial.

today's howtos

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  • How To Install AnyDesk on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install AnyDesk on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, Anydesk is a remote desktop application. It is a cross-platform software that provides platform independent remote access to different PCs and other host devices. It provides remote access, file transfer, VPN features. It provides secure and reliable access to IT professionals.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the AnyDesk remote desktop application on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • How Do You Check ZSH History

    As Linux power users, we often come across instances where we need to rerun specific commands. Although some are simple commands that we can retype, some are complex and messy regular expression queries that will take time to reconstruct.

    In such scenarios, we can use our shell command history to scroll through our previous commands or use the reverse search to search for a specific command using the up and down arrows.

    This tutorial will discuss ways to find and reuse our previous commands using the ZSH command history feature.

  • How Do I Zoom In and Out on My Bluestacks Emulator? [Android]

    Over the years, we have seen the rise and fall of many android emulators. However, there is one that has been the king: Bluestacks Emulator.

    Bluestacks is an android emulator that uses virtualization technology to emulate android devices on Windows and macOS systems. It offers modern features to run modern games and applications with minimal or no compatibility issues.

    Zooming in and out of Bluestacks may seem impossible, especially if you are emulating an app or game that requires a touch display.

  • How to Configure Apache Tomcat in Linux

    Apache Tomcat, or simply Tomcat, is a free and open-source web server developed by the Apache Software Foundation to implement Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages, Java Expression Language, and web-socket technologies. It provides a ‘pure Java’ http server.

    Apache Tomcat provides a default HTTP connector on port 8080, allowing you to use it as a web server such as Apache for your Java applications.

  • How to Configure mod_jk in Apache HTTP Server

    Mod_jk is an Apache module or connector that connects the Apache Tomcat Servlet container with web servers such as Apache, IIS, and more. The mod_jk is a complete replacement of the older mod_jser module that handles communication between Tomcat and HTTP servers using Apache JServ Protocol.

    We will not get into the deeper workings of the mod_jk module as it is beyond the scope of this tutorial. Instead, we shall focus on how to integrate it with the Apache HTTP Server.

  • How to Deploy VDO on a Disk | RedHat - Unixcop

    VDO : Short of Virtual Data Optimizer and is a block virtualization technology that provides Deduplication and compression of data at a block level.

  • How to Do a for loop in ZSH Script

    Every sysadmin should know how to implement scripts to automate their workflow. Although we have many automation tools such as Ansible, scripting remains a critical tool to automate tasks in the Linux world.

    This tutorial will look at loops, a fundamental concept in scripting and programming in general. We will specifically focus on how for loops work.

  • How to Enable Debug Logging in Apache

    As a system administrator, you will need to understand what is going on under the hood of various services in your system. Logging is probably the best way to do that.

    Logs allow you to collect information about the services and applications running on your system and save that log to a file for future use.

    This tutorial will learn how to collect detailed information about the Apache Tomcat service by enabling the DEBUG mode.

  • How to Encrypt Storage Drives Using LUKS in Linux

    This article will cover a guide on using the “Linux Unified Key Setup” or LUKS encryption standard that can be used to create encrypted and password protected storage drives. During encryption, LUKS reserves a space on the storage drive and stores necessary information required for encryption and decryption on the storage drive itself. This on-disk encryption methodology ensures near plug and play compatibility across Linux distributions and easy transferability of data drives. As long as you have LUKS installed on your Linux system and you know the password, you will be easily able to decrypt any LUKS encrypted data drive on any Linux distribution.

  • How to Install Apache, MariaDB, PHP7 (LAMP) on openSUSE Leap 15.3 - Unixcop

    In this tutorial, we will explain to you how to install LAMP stack on the latest openSUSE release. Let me just refresh your mind that LAMP is a combination of the words Linux Apache MySQL and Php.

  • How to Install Arch Linux: Beginner's Step-by-Step Installation Guide

    Arch Linux is not difficult to install. In this guide I will going to show you how to easily install Arch Linux with the GNOME Desktop Environment.

    Many Linux users really want to give Arch Linux a try, but the general notion that Arch is difficult to learn stops many of them. When people say it’s “hard,” they really mean that it takes effort. And they’re right – you do have to put a little bit more effort into installing your system, setting everything up, and reading about how to do what you want to do.

    However, you end up with a system you understand very well and set up just the way you want it. Once installed, Arch Linux is as easy to run as any other distro, if not easier.

    You can install Arch Linux directly to your computer by following this guide, but you can also install it on a virtual machine by using VirtualBox. This Arch Linux how to installation guide shows the whole process in easy-to-follow steps.

  • How to Install SQL Server in RHEL, Rocky Linux and AlmaLinux

    On March 7, 2016, Microsoft announced the introduction of the MS SQL server in Linux systems. The goal was to deliver more flexibility for users and to do away with vendor lock-in with the aim of accelerating the adoption of the SQL database server. If you didn’t know already, MS SQL is a relational database server developed by Microsoft.

  • How to Monitor Linux Machine via Nagios - Unixcop

    Nagios is a powerful tools that allows you to monitor your IT infrastructure and notify you if any hosts, service or machine specs are malfunctioning. We will see to monitor a linux machine’s basic health check e.g. Current load, Disk Space and Ram Usage etc. in this tutorial.

  • How to Remove (^M) Characters from a File in Linux

    A common functional uniqueness of different operating system environments is in the way they handle and process data. This functionality is in the way a file’s text data is perceived and processed.

    For instance, you can have a normal text file created and populated under a Windows computing environment but once that same file is transferred to a Linux computing platform, it is processed and displayed differently.

    There is a logical explanation for these transferred text file’s misbehavior. On a Windows computing environment, the OS acknowledges the presence of a new line within a text file through a specific carriage return.

    While the representation of this carriage return (CR) character is hidden from the eyes of these Windows users, transferring this file to a Linux computing environment exposes it as ^M characters.

  • How to Rename Files in Linux (mv and rename Commands)

    Renaming files in Linux is a very common operation.

    In this article, we will discuss how to rename single or multiple files using the mv and rename commands in various Linux distributions.

  • How to Use Rc.local on CentOS 8

    During the boot process of Linux, we start the script using rc.local. Due to the complex init script process, it causes the user to spend a lot of time using it. Many people look for the methods to use rc.local on CentOS 8 easily. That’s why we have written this blog to give you a brief on the ways to use rc.local on CentOS 8.

  • How to Use fdisk Command to Create Partition in Linux

    The fdisk command utility is useful for viewing and editing hard disk or SSD partitions on Linux and its distributions, such as Ubuntu. It is one of the most powerful tools to manage disk partitions on Linux. Other tools are also available to perform disk partition on Linux, but fdisk is one of the most commonly used ones.

    fdisk is a menu-driven command-line utility, and hence new users find this tool confusing and difficult to use. fdisk is not an easy tool to use and should be used with caution. You need to have root access or sudo privileges to make changes to storage partitions.

    So, today in this article, I will give you a tutorial on how to create a partition in Linux using the fdisk command.

  • How to Use nmcli in Ubuntu

    Network manager manages all the network settings of the computer. With which network a machine should be connected, which type of traffic should be allowed and how to save data from the online servers are all managed by the network manager. Network managers have different tools, for example we have nm-connection-editor, nmcli, nm Gnome etc. All the tools or utilities have their own specific functions like nm-connection-editor is used to manage the wired connections of the machine, by Gnome settings we can manage all the network settings easily, by nmcli we can do the setting by the command line mode.

    This write-up will demonstrate the installation of the network manager then in detail we will discuss the nmcli command for what purpose and how it can be used.

  • How to install Apache Tomcat on Debian 11

    This tutorial explains how to install Apache Tomcat on Debian 11, its predecessors, and Debian-based Linux distributions.

    Before writing a tutorial for Linux Hint, I always check other blogs’ content in order to make ours better. This time I was surprised that no available tutorials on installing Apache Tomcat on Debian 11 included the apt-get installation method, which is easier to execute. Therefore I decided to include both methods: Installing Tomcat on Debian 11 using apt and Tomcat manual installation.

  • How to manage local storage using stratis | RedHat - Unixcop

    stratis : is a new technology started in redhat enterprise linux ( RHEL 8 ) used as a local storage-management solution for Linux. It is focused on simplicity and ease of use, and gives you access to advanced storage features.

today's howtos

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HowTos
  • A different take on the NUMA OOM killer story

    I was digging through some notes on old outages tonight and found something potentially useful for other people. It's something I have mentioned before, but it seems like maybe that post didn't have enough specifics to make it really "land" when someone else does a web search.

    So, in the hopes of spreading some knowledge, here is a little story about a crashy service.

  • Installing a Commercial SSL Server Certificate (nginx)

    Since CACert still isn't "Browser Trusted", and I still don't want to use letsencrypt, I decided to give this a try. The company resides inside the European Union and is the cheapest I could find.

  • Installing a Commercial SSL Server Certificate (nginx) | dt.iki.fi

    Since CACert still isn't "Browser Trusted", and I still don't want to use letsencrypt, I decided to give this a try. The company resides inside the European Union and is the cheapest I could find.

  • It's probably not the hardware, a sysadmin lesson

    Once we noticed this, we flailed around looking at various things and wound up reforming the machine's NTP setup to be more standard (it was different for historical reasons). But nothing cured the problem, and last night its clock wound up seriously off again. After all of this we started suspecting that there was something wrong with the machine's hardware, or perhaps with its BIOS settings (I theorized wildly that the BIOS was setting it to go into a low power mode that OpenBSD's timekeeping didn't cope with).

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today's howtos

  • How to use wall command in linux - Unixcop

    wall is (an abbreviation of write to all) is a Unix command-line utility that displays the contents of a computer file or standard input to all logged-in users. It is used by root to send out shutting down message to all users just before poweroff. It displays a message on the terminals of all logged-in users. The messages can_be either typed on the terminal or the contents of a file. Also usually, system administrators send messages to announce maintenance and ask users to log out and close all open programs.The messages ‘re shown to all logged in users with a terminal open.

  • Any Port in a Storm: Ports and Security, Part 1

    When IT and Security professionals talk about port numbers, we’re referring to the TCP and UDP port numbers a service is running on that are waiting to accept connections. But what exactly is a port?

  • Book Review: Data Science at the Command Line By Jeroen Janssens

    Data Science at the Command Line: Obtain, Scrub, Explore, and Model Data with Unix Power Tools written by Jeroen Janssens is the second edition of the series “Data Science at the Command Line”. This book demonstrates how the flexibility of the command line can help you become a more efficient and productive data scientist. You will learn how to combine small yet powerful command-line tools to quickly obtain, scrub, explore, and model your data. To get you started, author Jeroen Janssens provides a Docker image packed with over 80 tools–useful whether you work with Windows, macOS, or Linux.

  • How to Take a Typing Test on Linux With tt

    In the modern era of technology, typing has become one of the most common activities for a lot of professions. Learning to type faster with accuracy can help you get more things done in the same amount of time. However, touch typing is not a skill that you can master overnight. It takes regular practice and testing to improve your speed and accuracy gradually. While there are a lot of websites that help you achieve this, all you essentially need on Linux is a terminal. Let's see how.

  • FIX: Google Chrome doesn’t work on Kali linux
  • How to install OpenToonz on a Chromebook

    Today we are looking at how to install OpenToonz on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below. If you have any questions, please contact us via a YouTube comment and we would be happy to assist you!

Security and DRM Leftovers

Linux 5.15-rc3

So after a somewhat rocky merge window and second rc, things are now
actually looking pretty normal for rc3. Knock wood.

There are fixes all over, and the statistics look fairly regular, with
drivers dominating as they should (since they are most of the tree).
And outside of drivers, we have a fairly usual mix of changes -
architecture fixes, networking, filesystems, and tooling (the latter
being mostly kvm selftests).

Shortlog appended, it's not too long and easy to scan through to get a
flavor for the details if you happen to care.

Please do give it a whirl,

             Linus

Read more Also: Linux 5.15-rc3 Released - Looking "Pretty Normal" Plus Performance Fix - Phoronix

Huawei launches OS openEuler, aims to construct 'ecological base of national digital infrastructure'

Chinese tech giant Huawei launched openEuler operating system (OS) on Saturday, another self-developed OS after the HarmonyOS, as it tries to "solve the domestic stranglehold problem of lacking its homegrown OS in basic technology," and build a full-scenario covered ecosystem to prepare for more US bans. The openEuler OS can be widely deployed in various forms of equipment such as servers, cloud computing and edge computing. Its application scenarios cover Information Technology, Communication Technology and Operational Technology to achieve unifying an operating system with multi-device support, according to the company's introduction. In the ICT field, Huawei provides products and solutions such as servers, storage, cloud services, edge computing, base stations, routers, industrial control among others, all of which need to be equipped with an OS. Huawei has therefore been building capabilities to achieve a unified OS architecture, and meet the demands of different application scenarios, the firm said on Saturday. The openEuler program was initially announced back in 2019 as an open source operating system. Today's launch is an updated one. Read more