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Linux

Leftovers: Kernel

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Linux

How Linux was born, as told by Linus Torvalds himself

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Linux

Many people have read that post by Linus Torvalds in the comp.os.minix newsgroup on Usenet, or at least heard about it. Many more are aware of how that (free) operating system ended up taking over vast swathes of the computing world, and becoming both "big" and "professional." But what about before that famous moment? What were the key events that led to Linus creating that first public release of Linux?

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Also: 24 years young: The best of Linux is yet to come

Happy 24th birthday, Linux kernel

LinuxCon 2015 in Seattle: It's all about the servers

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GNU
Linux
Server

Then again, I always have a good time at Linux conferences. Whether they be the more community-driven events like the Southern California Linux Expo and LinuxFest Northwest or the more company-run expos like SUSECon and LinuxCon, these moments give me an opportunity to, quite simply, be around Linux nerds. Lots and lots of Linux nerds. These are my people.

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Why is Linux So Great? Because It’s Open Source!

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GNU
Linux
OSS

What can’t Linux do? Nowadays you hear Linux powering just about any device imaginable — all the way from dime-sized computers via the Raspberry Pi all the way to most of the top 100 supercomputers in the world. We interact with it daily, whether it be on our personal computers, Android devices, Steam boxes (gaming), flight entertainment systems, web servers that power behemoths such as Google, Facebook, and Wikipedia, or more.

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Collabora contributions to Linux Kernel 4.2

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Linux

A total of 63 patches were contributed upsteam by Collabora engineers as part of our current projects.

In the ARM multi_v7_defconfig we have the addition of support for Exynos Chromebooks, all options that had a tristate Kconfig option were added as module. After this change it was found that a few drivers weren’t working properly when built as module, so this was fixed. This work was done by Javier Martinez.

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Compare PDF Files With DiffPDF In Ubuntu Linux, Debian, Fedora & Other Derivatives

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Linux
Ubuntu
HowTos


Compare PDF Files With DiffPDF In Ubuntu Linux, Debian, Fedora & Other Derivatives

DiffPDF is  a small but useful tool that compares two PDF files and let you know the differences. This easy to use tool is free for Linux. If you often read books then you can compare for changes in the paragraph and other deep aspects. Let's see how to install and useDiffPDF in Linux distributions including UbuntuDebian, PCLinuxOS and Fedora.

Read At LinuxAndUbuntu

Linus Torvalds: Security is never going to be perfect

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Linux
Security

One of the best kept secrets at this week’s LinuxCon was the presence of Linus Torvalds. I’ve never not seen Linus at any of the LinuxCons I’ve attended since 2009, whether in Europe or North America, but no matter who you asked, the answer was, “He’s not here.” This morning, though, a little bird sang that the surprise guest for the upcoming keynote was none other than Torvalds.

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Also: ​Securing the Internet: Let's Encrypt to release first security certificates September 7

Linux Foundation to Launch New Security-Focused Badge Program for Open-Source Software

IoT server is loaded with Linux “Candi”

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Linux

Logic Supply’s Atom N2800 based “CC150″ industrial IoT gateway is loaded with a version of the Linux-based IoT Server software from Candi Controls.

The CC150 Internet of Things Gateway with Candi IoT Server is designed for “managing and controlling energy and operational data in commercial buildings and industrial sites with Internet of Things devices,” says Logic Supply. The hardware vendor teamed up with Candi, whose Linux-based IoT gateway software of the same name stands for Cloud-Assisted Network Device Integration. The preconfigured server enables connections to hundreds of IoT devices,” says Logic Supply

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Linux Turns 24, Happy Birthday!

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Linux

Dear all, today is August 25, 2015, and the time has come for us, Linux users, to party in celebration of the 24th anniversary of the Linux project, announced by none other than its creator, Linus Torvalds, on the sunny day of Sunday, August 25, 1991.

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OpenELEC 6.0 Beta 4 released

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Linux

The OpenELEC team is proud to announce the fourth beta of OpenELEC 6.0 (v5.95.4)

The most visible change is Kodi 15.1 (Isengard). Beginning with Kodi 15.0 most audio encoder, audio decoder, PVR and visualisation addons are no longer pre-bundled into OpenELEC but can be downloaded from the Kodi addon repo if required. PVR backends such as VDR and TVHeadend will install needed dependencies automatically. For further information on Kodi 15.1 please read http://kodi.tv/kodi-15-1-isengard-maintenance-release/.

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More in Tux Machines

Kernel Coverage at LWN (Outside Paywall Now)

  • XArray and the mainline
    The XArray data structure was the topic of the final filesystem track session at the 2018 Linux Storage, Filesystem, and Memory-Management Summit (LSFMM). XArray is a new API for the kernel's radix-tree data structure; the session was led by Matthew Wilcox, who created XArray. When asked by Dave Chinner if the session was intended to be a live review of the patches, Wilcox admitted with a grin that it might be "the only way to get a review on this damn patch set". In fact, the session was about the status of the patch set and its progress toward the mainline. Andrew Morton has taken the first eight cleanup patches, Wilcox said, which is great because there was a lot of churn there. The next set has a lot of churn as well, mostly due to renaming. The 15 patches after that actually implement XArray and apply it to the page cache. Those could be buggy, but they pass the radix-tree tests so, if they are, more tests are needed, he said.
  • Filesystem test suites
    While the 2018 Linux Storage, Filesystem, and Memory-Management Summit (LSFMM) filesystem track session was advertised as being a filesystem test suite "bakeoff", it actually focused on how to make the existing test suites more accessible. Kent Overstreet said that he has learned over the years that various filesystem developers have their own scripts for testing using QEMU and other tools. He and Ted Ts'o put the session together to try to share some of that information (and code) more widely. Most of the scripts and other code has not been polished or turned into a project, Overstreet continued. Bringing new people up to speed on the tests and how they are run takes time, but developers want to know how to run the tests before they send code to the maintainer.
  • Messiness in removing directories
    In the filesystem track at the 2018 Linux Storage, Filesystem, and Memory-Management Summit (LSFMM), Al Viro discussed some problems he has recently spotted in the implementation of rmdir(). He covered some of the history of that implementation and how things got to where they are now. He also described areas that needed to be checked because the problem may be present in different places in multiple filesystems. The fundamental problem is a race condition where operations can end up being performed on directories that have already been removed, which can lead to some rather "unpleasant" outcomes, Viro said. One warning, however: it was a difficult session to follow, with lots of gory details from deep inside the VFS, so it is quite possible that I have some (many?) of the details wrong here. Since LSFMM there has been no real discussion of the problem and its solution on the mailing lists that I have found.
  • Handling I/O errors in the kernel
    The kernel's handling of I/O errors was the topic of a discussion led by Matthew Wilcox at the 2018 Linux Storage, Filesystem, and Memory-Management Summit (LSFMM) in a combined storage and filesystem track session. At the start, he asked: "how is our error handling and what do we plan to do about it?" That led to a discussion between the developers present on the kinds of errors that can occur and on ways to handle them. Jeff Layton said that one basic problem occurs when there is an error during writeback; an application can read the block where the error occurred and get the old data without any kind of error. If the error was transient, data is lost. And if it is a permanent error, different filesystems handle it differently, which he thinks is a problem. Dave Chinner said that in order to have consistent behavior across filesystems, there needs to be a definition of what that behavior should be. There is a need to distinguish between transient and permanent failures and to create a taxonomy of how to deal with each type.
  • 4.18 Merge window, part 1
    As of this writing, 7,515 non-merge changesets have been pulled into the mainline repository for the 4.18 merge window. Things are clearly off to a strong start. The changes pulled this time around include more than the usual number of interesting new features; read on for the details.
  • Year-2038 work in 4.18
    We now have less than 20 years to wait until the time_t value used on 32-bit systems will overflow and create time-related mayhem across the planet. The grand plan for solving this problem was posted over three years ago now; progress since then has seemed slow. But quite a bit of work has happened deep inside the kernel and, in 4.18, some of the first work that will be visible to user space has been merged. The year-2038 problem is not yet solved, but things are moving in that direction. If 32-bit systems are to be able to handle times after January 2038, they will need to switch to a 64-bit version of the time_t type; the kernel will obviously need to support applications using that new type. Doing so in a way that doesn't break existing applications is going to require some careful work, though. In particular, the kernel must be able to successfully run a system where applications have been rebuilt to use a 64-bit time_t, but ancient binaries stuck on 32-bit time_t still exist; both applications should continue to work (though the old code may fail to handle times correctly). The first step is to recognize that most architectures already have support for applications running in both 64-bit and 32-bit modes in the form of the compatibility code used to run 32-bit applications on 64-bit systems. At some point, all systems will be 64-bit systems when it comes to time handling, so it makes sense to use the compatibility calls for older applications even on 32-bit systems. To that end, with 4.18, work has been done to allow both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of the time-related system calls to be built on all architectures. The CONFIG_64BIT_TIME configuration symbol controls the building of the 64-bit versions on 32-bit systems, while CONFIG_COMPAT_32BIT_TIME controls the 32-bit versions.

today's leftovers

GNOME 3.29.3 Released

  • GNOME 3.29.3 released
    GNOME 3.29.3 is now available. This release is primarily notable in that all modules are buildable in this release, which is historically very rare for our development releases. This is an accomplishment! I hope we can keep this up going forward.
  • GNOME 3.29.3 Released As The Latest Step Towards GNOME 3.30
    GNOME 3.29.3 is out today as the latest development release in the road to this September's GNOME 3.30 desktop update. Highlights of the incorporated GNOME changes over the past few weeks include: - Epiphany 3.29.3 and its many notable improvements already covered on Phoronix from a reader mode to disabling NPAPI plugins by default.

Android Leftovers