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Why Debian Is the Gold Standard of Upstream Desktop Linux

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Linux
Debian

If you don’t follow the fortunes of Linux distributions, you might think that the days of Debian’s dominance are long since gone. However, superficial appearances can be deceiving. Not only does Debian consistently appear in the top ten of Distrowatch’s page hit ranking, it’s used as the base of the majority of other distributions as well, far eclipsing rivals like Fedora and Red Hat or openSuse. In fact, Debian might be said to be the most influential distro ever.

That may seem an overstatement, but the figures are hard to argue with. For at least eight years, Debian has been by far the most dominant distribution. Some details of its dominance have changed, but the overall pattern has been constant. Without Debian, modern Linux would be vastly different.

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Linux commands to display your hardware information

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Linux

There are many reasons you might need to find out details about your computer hardware. For example, if you need help fixing something and post a plea in an online forum, people will immediately ask you for specifics about your computer. Or, if you want to upgrade your computer, you'll need to know what you have and what you can have. You need to interrogate your computer to discover its specifications.

Alternatively, you could open up the box and read the labels on the disks, memory, and other devices. Or you could enter the boot-time panels—the so-called UEFI or BIOS panels. Just hit the proper program function key during the boot process to access them. These two methods give you hardware details but omit software information.

Or, you could issue a Linux line command. Wait a minute… that sounds difficult. Why would you do this?

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Feh is a light-weight command-line image viewer for Linux

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Linux

The default image viewer in most Linux distros is a fine option for many users, but if you want a distraction free alternative, Feh is a good option.

Feh's interface is as barebones as it gets as it does not have any toolbars or buttons but is a command line interface application; because of that, it is very light on resources and still easy enough to use even for users who shy away from using the command line whenever possible.

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Hyperledger and Financing FOSS

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Linux
OSS
  • ConsenSys joins Hyperledger to help build enterprise blockchains

    Ethereum-focused development firm ConsenSys has joined Hyperledger as a premium member. Hyperledger—run by the Linux Foundation—is an open-source project focused on open-source technologies, particularly around enterprise blockchains.

  • ConsenSys Joins Hyperledger as a Premier Member

    ConsenSys and Hyperledger announced today that ConsenSys has become the newest Premier Member of Hyperledger, an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies, hosted by the Linux Foundation. Additionally, ConsenSys's PegaSys protocol engineering group submitted its Ethereum client, formerly known as Pantheon, as the project Hyperledger Besu, the first public chain compatible blockchain submission to Hyperledger.

  • Square Crypto Grants $100,000 to Open-Source Crypto Payment Processor

    Bitcoin (BTC)-supporting payments service Square Crypto is giving the first of what will be many grants to support open-source Bitcoin projects to BTCPay Foundation.

  • CasperLabs Raises $14.5M Series A Round, Aims to Scale Blockchain Opportunities for Everyone

    CasperLabs, the open-source blockchain platform powered by the Correct-by-Construction (CBC) Casper proof-of-stake consensus protocol, today announced it has raised $14.5M in Series A funding led by Terren Piezer, the "Zelig of Wall Street," through his personal holding company, Acuitas Group Holdings. Other major investors include Arrington XRP Capital, Consensus Capital, Axiom Holdings Group, Digital Strategies, MW Partners, Blockchange Ventures, Hashkey Capital, and Distributed Global. The new investment will be used to accelerate product development and expand hiring of world-class engineers.

  • Akeneo raises $46 million for its product information management service

    Akeneo started as an open-source PIM application. Today, thousands of companies actively use that open-source version. But Akeneo also offers an enterprise edition with a more traditional software-as-a-service approach. The startup has managed to attract 300 clients, such as Sephora, Fossil and Auchan.

  • Where have all the seed deals gone?

    When it comes to big business, the numbers rarely lie, and the ones PitchBook and other sources have pulled together on the state of seed investing aren’t pretty. The total number of seed deals, funds raised and dollars invested in seed deals were all down in the 2015-2018 time frame, a period too long to be considered a correctable glitch.

    [...]

    Gone were the days of investing millions of dollars in tech infrastructure before writing the first line of code. At the same time, the proliferation of increasingly sophisticated and freely available open-source software provided many of the building blocks upon which to build a startup. And we can’t forget the launch of the iPhone in 2007 and, more importantly for startups, the App Store in 2008.

  • Is Open Source licensing irretrievably broken?

    Jonathan Ellis is the CTO and Founder of DataStax. At ApacheCon 2019 in Las Vegas, he gave a keynote that will make many in the industry uncomfortable. The focus of that keynote was the state of open source licensing. Ellis believes that there is a problem, if not what some would call a looming crisis in how open source software licences are being used.

    He believes that the last 10 years, in particular, have seen a significant change in attitudes around what open source means. One of the big changes has been the shift from a hobbyist, part-time code development role to venture capital funded companies. Many of these like the open source model. As Ellis told Enterprise Times, making something open source is about instant exposure to a wider audience.

New Distro Releases: EasyOS Buster 2.1.3, EasyOS Pyro 1.2.3 and IPFire 2.23 - Core Update 136

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GNU
Linux
Security
Debian
  • EasyOS Buster version 2.1.3 released

    EasyOS version 2.1.3, latest in the "Buster" series, has been released. This is another incremental upgrade, however, as the last release announced on Distrowatch is version 2.1, the bug fixes, improvements and upgrades have been considerable since then. So much, that I might request the guys at Distrowatch to announce version 2.1.3.

  • EasyOS Pyro version 1.2.3 released

    Another incremental release of the Pyro series. Although this series is considered to be in maintenance mode, it does have all of the improvements as in the latest Buster release.

  • IPFire 2.23 - Core Update 136 is available for testing

    the summer has been a quiet time for us with a little relaxation, but also some shifted focus on our infrastructure and other things. But now we are back with a large update which is packed with important new features and fixes.

Linux 5.3

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Linux

  • Linux 5.3
    So we've had a fairly quiet last week, but I think it was good that we
    ended up having that extra week and the final rc8.
    
    Even if the reason for that extra week was my travel schedule rather
    than any pending issues, we ended up having a few good fixes come in,
    including some for some bad btrfs behavior. Yeah, there's some
    unnecessary noise in there too (like the speling fixes), but we also
    had several last-minute reverts for things that caused issues.
    
    One _particularly_ last-minute revert is the top-most commit (ignoring
    the version change itself) done just before the release, and while
    it's very annoying, it's perhaps also instructive.
    
    What's instructive about it is that I reverted a commit that wasn't
    actually buggy. In fact, it was doing exactly what it set out to do,
    and did it very well. In fact it did it _so_ well that the much
    improved IO patterns it caused then ended up revealing a user-visible
    regression due to a real bug in a completely unrelated area.
    
    The actual details of that regression are not the reason I point that
    revert out as instructive, though. It's more that it's an instructive
    example of what counts as a regression, and what the whole "no
    regressions" kernel rule means. The reverted commit didn't change any
    API's, and it didn't introduce any new bugs. But it ended up exposing
    another problem, and as such caused a kernel upgrade to fail for a
    user. So it got reverted.
    
    The point here being that we revert based on user-reported _behavior_,
    not based on some "it changes the ABI" or "it caused a bug" concept.
    The problem was really pre-existing, and it just didn't happen to
    trigger before. The better IO patterns introduced by the change just
    happened to expose an old bug, and people had grown to depend on the
    previously benign behavior of that old issue.
    
    And never fear, we'll re-introduce the fix that improved on the IO
    patterns once we've decided just how to handle the fact that we had a
    bad interaction with an interface that people had then just happened
    to rely on incidental behavior for before. It's just that we'll have
    to hash through how to do that (there are no less than three different
    patches by three different developers being discussed, and there might
    be more coming...). In the meantime, I reverted the thing that exposed
    the problem to users for this release, even if I hope it will be
    re-introduced (perhaps even backported as a stable patch) once we have
    consensus about the issue it exposed.
    
    Take-away from the whole thing: it's not about whether you change the
    kernel-userspace ABI, or fix a bug, or about whether the old code
    "should never have worked in the first place". It's about whether
    something breaks existing users' workflow.
    
    Anyway, that was my little aside on the whole regression thing.  Since
    it's that "first rule of kernel programming", I felt it is perhaps
    worth just bringing it up every once in a while.
    
    Other than that aside, I don't find a lot to really talk about last
    week. Drivers, networking (and network drivers), arch updates,
    selftests. And a few random fixes in various other corners. The
    appended shortlog is not overly long, and gives a flavor for the
    changes.
    
    And this obviously means that the merge window for 5.4 is open, and
    I'll start doing pull requests for that tomorrow. I already have a
    number of them in my inbox, and I appreciate all the people who got
    that over and done with early,
    
                    Linus
    
  • Linux Kernel 5.3 Officially Released, Here's What's New

    Linus Torvalds announced today the release of the Linux 5.3 kernel series, a major that brings several new features, dozens of improvements, and updated drivers.

    Two months in the works and eight RC (Release Candidate) builds later, the final Linux 5.3 kernel is now available, bringing quite some interesting additions to improve hardware support, but also the overall performance. Linux kernel 5.3 had an extra Release Candidate because of Linus Torvalds' travel schedule, but it also brought in a few needed fixes.

    "Even if the reason for that extra week was my travel schedule rather than any pending issues, we ended up having a few good fixes come in, including some for some bad Btrfs behavior. Yeah, there's some unnecessary noise in there too (like the speling fixes), but we also had several last-minute reverts for things that caused issues," said Linus Torvalds.

  • Linux 5.3 Kernel Released With AMD Navi Support, Intel Speed Select & More

    Linus Torvalds just went ahead and released the Linux 5.3 kernel as stable while now opening the Linux 5.4 merge window.

    There was some uncertainty whether Linux 5.3 would have to go into extra overtime due to a getrandom() system call issue uncovered by an unrelated EXT4 commit. Linus ended up reverting the EXT4 commit for the time being.

Kernel: Mesa, Linux 5.4 and More

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Linux
  • Mesa Vulkan Drivers Now Tracking Game Engine/Version For Handling More Workarounds

    Currently the Mesa OpenGL/Vulkan drivers have relied upon matching executable names for applying game/application-specific workarounds. But with Vulkan as part of the instance creation information and VkApplicationInfo it's possible to optionally advertise the rendering engine and version in use. The Mesa Vulkan drivers are now making use of that information to allow for more uniform workarounds.

    Rather than having to match and apply workarounds to each specific game in the case of broad game engine defects, the Radeon RADV and Intel ANV drivers have introduced the infrastructure for tracking the exposed engine name and version for allowing workarounds to be applied at that higher-level rather than just each executable name.

  • Intel Continues Investing In Execute-Only Memory Support For The Linux Kernel

    One of the steps Intel's open-source developers continue working on for Linux is supporting "execute only memory" that will already work with some of today's processors and serve as another defense for bettering the security of systems particularly in a virtualized environment.

    Ultimately they have been working on an implementation to create execute-only memory for user-space programs similar to work already done for other architectures as well as the kernel itself. This "not-readable" memory would help when paired with other precautions like address space layout randomization (ASLR) for leaking less data about the system (i.e. where different bits are in memory) to make other exploits more difficult.

  • AMD Dali APU Spotted On Linux Patch, Mobile Devices Could Have Budget APU in 2020

    Salvador Dali apparently is going to be the inspiration for the next generation of APUs besides the Renoir APUs that have already been discussed because we’re actually finding out in Linux drivers that there is potentially a new AMD APU class called Dali. It’s not clear what this is going to be, especially since Renoir is supposed to be Zen 2 CPU with Vega graphics. Maybe, potentially this is nice pit balling Dali is likely going to be Zen + CPU with Nova graphics and they’re just gonna complicate everything in differentiating APUs. Last week updated Linux patch appeared on Freedesktop.

  • Linux 5.4 Cycle To Begin With exFAT Driver, EPYC Improvements & New GPU Support

    The Linux 5.3 kernel is expected to be released as stable today and that will mark the opening of the two-week Linux 5.4 merge window. Here is a look ahead at some of the material expected to make it into this next version of the Linux kernel that will also be the last major stable release of 2019.

  • This PPA Lets You Try an exFat Kernel Module Based on Samsung Code

    A new PPA gives Ubuntu users the opportunity to try an alternative exFAT kernel module based on the latest Samsung code.

    You may recall that, back in August, Microsoft announced it would help bring exFAT to the Linux kernel under a permissible license. This move ended years of legal uncertainty and should allow exFAT to be fully supported in the mainline Linux kernel.

  • An Alternative exFAT Linux File-System Driver Based On Samsung's sdFAT

    While the upcoming Linux 5.4 kernel cycle is finally bringing a driver for Microsoft exFAT file-system read/write support, it's dated on an old Samsung code drop that has seen little public work over the years. Since queued for staging-next, there has been a big uptick in clean-ups and other activity, but there also exists another alternative out-of-tree exFAT Linux driver.

Raspberry Pi 4 vs Raspberry Pi 3: Which is Faster in Kali Linux Booting?

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Linux

Everyone already knows that Pi 4 is obviously more powerful than Pi 3 but we would like to see how fast it is. Therefore we are expecting that Kali Linux can boot faster on Pi 4. Young Youtube channel CyberJunkie would like to challenge both single-board computers with Kali Linux booting. Before seeing results it would be great to see a comparison between Pi 3 and Pi 4.

Which one is the quickest? As we can see on the image Pi 4 executed the booting faster than its prequel. Around extra 3 seconds needed for Pi 3 to catch up with the opponent. Again the sequel proves its superiority.

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Linux VR Headset

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Linux
Hardware

Since most VR Headsets support Windows platforms today, there are very few options for Linux users. Despite its support, many people have faced troubles setting up and running their Headsets on Linux. However, not anymore. The VR gaming experience is now getting better!

The all-new Xrdesktop is an open-source development that lets you work with various desktop environments like GNOME and KDE. Since this project is under progress right now, we can hope for more features like Steam, Valve and other platforms for gaming and Virtual Reality experience.

In addition, the Xrdesktop will also offer integration with Windows as well. Once completed, it will be a great step towards traditional Linux desktop environments. The program is available for installation in both packages for Ubuntu Linux and Arch Linux.

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Linux Kernel and Linux Foundation Leftovers

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Linux
  • Improve memset
    
    since the merge window is closing in and y'all are on a conference, I
    thought I should take another stab at it. It being something which Ingo,
    Linus and Peter have suggested in the past at least once.
    
  • An Improved Linux MEMSET Is Being Tackled For Possibly Better Performance

    Borislav Petkov has taken to improve the Linux kernel's memset function with it being an area previously criticzed by Linus Torvalds and other prominent developers.

    Petkov this week published his initial patch for better optimizing the memset function that is used for filling memory with a constant byte.

  • Kernel Address Space Isolation Still Baking To Limit Data Leaks From Foreshadow & Co

    In addition to the work being led by DigitalOcean on core scheduling to make Hyper Threading safer in light of security vulnerabilities, IBM and Oracle engineers continue working on Kernel Address Space Isolation to help prevent data leaks during attacks.

    Complementing the "Core Scheduling" work, Kernel Address Space Isolation was also talked about at this week's Linux Plumbers Conference in Lisbon, Portugal. The address space isolation work for the kernel was RFC'ed a few months ago as a feature to prevent leaking sensitive data during attacks like L1 Terminal Fault and MDS. The focus on this Kernel ASI is for pairing with hypervisors like KVM as well as being a generic address space isolation framework.

  • The Linux Kernel Is Preparing To Enable 5-Level Paging By Default

    While Intel CPUs aren't shipping with 5-level paging support, they are expected to be soon and distribution kernels are preparing to enable the kernel's functionality for this feature to extend the addressable memory supported. With that, the mainline kernel is also looking at flipping on 5-level paging by default for its default kernel configuration.

    Intel's Linux developers have been working for several years on the 5-level paging support for increasing the virtual/physical address space for supporting large servers with vast amounts of RAM. The 5-level paging increases the virtual address space from 256 TiB to 128 PiB and the physical address space from 64 TiB to 4 PiB. Intel's 5-level paging works by extending the size of virtual addresses to 57 bits from 48 bits.

  • Interview with the Cloud Foundry Foundation CTO

    In this interview, Chip Childers, the CTO of the Cloud Foundry Foundation talks about some hot topics.

  • Research Shows Open Source Program Offices Improve Software Practices

    Using open source software is commonplace, with only a minority of companies preferring a proprietary-first software policy. Proponents of free and open source software (FOSS) have moved to the next phases of open source adoption, widening FOSS usage within the enterprise as well as gaining the “digital transformation” benefits associated with open source and cloud native best practices.

    Companies, as well as FOSS advocates, are determining the best ways to promote these business goals, while at the same time keeping alive the spirit and ethos of the non-commercial communities that have embodied the open source movement for years.

  • Linux Foundation Survey Proves Open-Source Offices Work Better
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More in Tux Machines

Android Leftovers

When Diverse Network ASICs Meet A Unifying Operating System

And it has also been a decade since switch upstart Arista Networks launched its Extensible Operating System, or EOS, which is derived from Linux. [...] The cross-platform nature of ArcOS, coupled with its ability to run in any function on the network, could turn out to be the key differentiator. A lot of these other NOSes were point solutions that could only be deployed in certain parts of the network, and that just creates animosity with the incumbent vendors that dominate the rest of the networking stack. Given the mission-critical nature of networking in the modern datacenter, it costs a great deal to qualify a new network operating system, and it can take a lot of time. If ArcOS can run across more platforms, qualify faster, and do more jobs in the network, then, says Garg, it has a good chance of shaking up switching and routing. “That totally changes the business conversation and the TCO advantages that we can bring to a customer across the entirety of their network.” Read more

Server: Kubernetes/OpenShift, OpenStack, and Red Hat's Ansible

  • 9 steps to awesome with Kubernetes/OpenShift presented by Burr Sutter

    Burr Sutter gave a terrific talk in India in July, where he laid out the terms, systems and processes needed to setup Kubernetes for developers. This is an introductory presentation, which may be useful for your larger community of Kubernetes users once you’ve already setup User Provisioned Infrastructure (UPI) in Red Hat OpenShift for them, though it does go into the deeper details of actually running the a cluster. To follow along, Burr created an accompanying GitHub repository, so you too can learn how to setup an awesome Kubernetes cluster in just 9 steps.

  • Weaveworks Named a Top Kubernetes Contributor

    But anyone who knows the history of Weaveworks might not be too surprised by this. Weaveworks has been a major champion of Kubernetes since the very beginning. It might not be too much of a coincidence that Weaveworks was incorporated only a few weeks after Kubernetes was open sourced, five years ago. In addition to this, the very first elected chair of the CNCF’s Technical Oversight Committee, responsible for technical leadership to the Cloud Native Foundation was also headed up by our CEO, Alexis Richardson(@monadic) (soon to be replaced by the awesome Liz Rice (@lizrice) of Aqua Security).

  • Improving trust in the cloud with OpenStack and AMD SEV

    This post contains an exciting announcement, but first I need to provide some context! Ever heard that joke “the cloud is just someone else’s computer”? Of course it’s a gross over-simplification, but there’s more than a grain of truth in it. And that raises the question: if your applications are running in someone else’s data-centre, how can you trust that they’re not being snooped upon, or worse, invasively tampered with?

  • Red Hat OpenStack Platform 15 Enhances Infrastructure Security and Cloud-Native Integration Across the Open Hybrid Cloud

    Red Hat, Inc., the world's leading provider of open source solutions, today announced the general availability of Red Hat OpenStack Platform 15, the latest version of its highly scalable and agile cloud Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) solution. Based on the OpenStack community’s "Stein" release, Red Hat OpenStack Platform 15 adds performance and cloud security enhancements and expands the platform’s ecosystem of supported hardware, helping IT organizations to more quickly and more securely support demanding production workloads. Given the role of Linux as the foundation for hybrid cloud, customers can also benefit from a more secure, flexible and intelligent Linux operating system underpinning their private cloud deployments with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

  • Red Hat Ansible Automation Accelerates Past Major Adoption Milestone, Now Manages More Than Four Million Customer Systems Worldwide

    Red Hat, Inc., the world's leading provider of open source solutions, today announced that more than four million customer systems worldwide are now automated by Red Hat Ansible Automation. Customers, including Energy Market Company, Microsoft, Reserve Bank of New Zealand and Surescripts all use Red Hat Ansible Automation to automate and orchestrate their IT operations, helping to expand automation across IT stacks. According to a blog post by Chris Gardner with Forrester Research, who was the author of The Forrester Wave™: Infrastructure Automation Platforms, Q3 2019, "Infrastructure automation isn’t just on-premises or the cloud. It’s at the edge and everywhere in between."1 Since its launch in 2013, Red Hat Ansible Automation has provided a single tool to help organizations automate across IT operations and development, including infrastructure, networks, cloud, security and beyond.

Top 15+ Best Script Writing Software for Linux in 2019

Script writing software is designed to play a vital role for writers from different writing sectors. As a newbie, it may not be simple to use. But, after a certain period, it comes handy for creating scripts for films, novels, and television programs. Linux has to offer a bunch of tools for script writing for both beginners and professionals. There is a wide range of applications that are open source and free. Moreover, if you want to get some extra bit of advanced features, you may need to spend some bucks. Read more