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20 Best Operating Systems You Can Run on Raspberry Pi in 2020

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OS
Linux

We haven’t covered any major thing on the Raspberry Pi since our article on the 8 New Raspbian Features to Start Using on Your Raspberry Pi close to a year ago. No one needs to state how successful the Raspberry Pi has been since its inception till date, thus, the factor behind this article.

Today, we bring you a list of the best Linux distributions you can run on the Raspberry Pi perfectly. But before we delve into that list, let me brief you on NOOBS

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EndeavourOS 2020.04.11

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OS
Reviews

EndeavourOS is based on Arch Linux and is considered a spiritual follow-up to the Antergos distribution. Like Antergos, Endeavour provides a live desktop along with a friendly, graphical installer to assist users in getting started with the distribution. Beyond the initial set up, Endeavour mostly tries to provide a vanilla Arch experience with just a few custom tools. I reviewed Endeavour last year and, at the time, it performed fairly well. Back then one of the main features which set Endeavour apart from Antergos was the former used an off-line installer and automatically set up the Xfce desktop environment. Antergos, on the other hand, used an on-line installer and could configure one of about a dozen desktop environments.

Endeavour's latest snapshot, 2020.04.11 at the time of writing, now provides two main installation methods. We can choose an on-line or off-line installer. The latter still sets up Xfce as the default desktop while the on-line installer can download and configure nine different desktops (Budgie, Cinnamon, Deepin, GNOME, i3, KDE Plasma, LXQt, MATE, and Xfce). We can choose any number of these to install in case we want to try more than one. I wanted to try the new, live version of the distribution, along with some of its new custom utilities. With this in mind I downloaded the 1.7GB ISO file. Endeavour runs on 64-bit (x86_64) machines exclusively and provides one live edition.

Booting from the live disc provides us with the option of booting into the Xfce desktop normally or doing the same with non-free NVIDIA drivers enabled. Once Xfce loads a small welcome window appears. The window is packed with buttons that open links or programs. For example, some links open a web browser and point us to the distribution's install tips or other on-line support resources. One link updates and relaunches the welcome window. One button is labelled "Initialize pacman keys" and appears to re-fetch verification keys for packages. There is a button for launching the GParted partition manager and another for launching the system installer. There is a Help button, but it only shows command line usage for launching the welcome window, no information about the distribution or the welcome window's features are mentioned.

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5 reasons you might want to run Linux on your Chromebook

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OS
Linux

Although much of my day is spent using the browser on my Chromebooks, I also end up using Linux apps quite a bit. Not everyone does, and that’s fine: Use the tools you need to use, I say.

But I still get email questions or reader comments essentially asking “Why would (or do) I want to use Linux apps on a Chromebook? It just complicates what’s a simple device.”

That’s a fair question. After all, one of the three pillars — or “S’s” — of Chrome OS is simplicity. The other two are security and speed in case you’re ever on Jeopardy, by the way.

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Getting started with FreeBSD as a desktop operating system

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OS
BSD

FreeBSD is a great operating system, but, by design, it does not come with a desktop environment. Without installing additional software from FreeBSD's ports and packages collection, FreeBSD is a command-line only experience. The screenshot below shows what logging into FreeBSD 12.1 looks like when every one of the "optional system components" is selected during installation.

FreeBSD can be turned into a desktop operating system with any of a wide selection of desktop environments, but it takes time, effort, and following a lot of written instructions. Using the desktop-installer package, which provides the user with options in a text-based menu and helps automate much of the process, is still time-consuming. The biggest problem with either of these methods is that users might find out that their system is not fully compatible with FreeBSD after they have taken all the time to set things up.

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postmarketOS now boots on over 200 phones and tablets

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OS
Linux

In its first three years of life, postmarketOS has gotten considerable popularity over time, partly thanks to the rising interest in the field after the huge press coverage of projects like the Librem 5 and the PinePhone, partly thanks to its wide range of supported devices and extremely easy porting process, which made running Linux on most phones a breeze.

The news is that postmarketOS just reached the milestone of 200 booting devices, which is a somewhat incredible achievement considering the aura of mystery Linux on phones and other ARM devices had until years (if not months) ago.

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Also: Linux Slowly Conquering Phones, postmarketOS Now on 200 Mobile Devices

Unix and Adversarial Interoperability: The ‘One Weird Antitrust Trick’ That Defined Computing

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OS
Development

The Unix operating system was created at Bell Labs in 1969. Today, it rules the world. Both Android and iOS are flavors of Unix. So is MacOS. So is GNU/Linux in all its flavors, like Ubuntu and Debian. So is Chrome OS. Virtually every "smart" gadget you own is running some flavor of Unix, from the no-name programmable Christmas lights you put up in December to the smart light-bulb and smart-speaker in your living room.

Over the years, many companies have marketed versions of Unix: Apple and Microsoft, HP and IBM, Silicon Graphics and Digital. Some of the most popular Unixes that came from universities (like BSD, from UC Berkeley) and from hobbyists (the Linux kernel was created by a 22-year-old hobbyist named Linus Torvalds).

But there's one company that never marketed Unix: AT&T, the company that paid for Unix's development. They never got into the Unix business.

In 1949, Harry Truman's Department of Justice launched an antitrust complaint against AT&T, alleging that the company had engaged in anticompetitive conduct to secure a monopoly for its hardware division, Western Electric.

But when the US entered the Korean War, AT&T was able to secure a break by citing its centrality to the US military. With the Pentagon fighting to keep AT&T intact, the Eisenhower administration let AT&T off the hook: in 1956 the US dropped its lawsuit in exchange for a "consent decree," through which AT&T promised to get out of the general electronics business and to share its patents and technical documentation with existing and new competitors.

Despite the consent decree, AT&T continued to fund a large and rollicking research and development department, the Bell Telephone Laboratories (BTL) in New Jersey. BTL was home to some of computing history's most storied pioneers, including Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie, the principal inventors of Unix, who basically created the project out of intellectual curiosity.

Thanks to the consent decree, AT&T couldn't do much with Unix, and so it remained an internal project until Ken Thompson gave a talk on his work at a 1973 Association for Computing Machinery conference. His paper stirred interest from academic and commercial computer science, and AT&T's lawyers decided that the consent decree meant that they couldn't start a new business based on Unix.

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What other Linux distributions could learn from Pop!_OS 20.04

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OS
Linux

It's only been a few short days, but Pop!_OS 20.04 has quickly made its way up my list of all-time favorite Linux distributions. Although the operating system, created by System76, is based on Ubuntu 20.04 and contains a (mostly) generic GNOME desktop interface, there are certain things Pop!_OS does that keep it from being just another spin on Canonical's baby.

Sure, Pop!_OS starts with the usual updates to Ubuntu 20.04: There's the new kernel, GNOME, and all of the other bits that come along with the latest iteration. But System76 has taken 20.04 to a completely different level.

It all starts with System76 truly knowing its audience. That alone sets this company—and the Linux distribution it creates—apart from all others. System76 fully understands who they serve: Developers, creators, and anyone who demands a highly productive environment.

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GNU Guix Collective Update and Grafts

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OS
GNU
  • GNU Guix maintainer collective update

    This blog post is to announce a change of hands in the Guix co-maintainer collective: Ricardo Wurmus is stepping down from his role, and Mathieu Othacehe will be filling in to ensure continuity, after being elected by the other Guix co-maintainers.

    Ricardo has been around since the start, and has been invaluable to the project. He has been key in maintaining the infrastructure Guix runs on, contributed countless packages, core APIs and tools (importers, build systems, and Docker image creation to name a few). Over the years, he's also brought us a fair share of cool hacks such as a nifty issue tracker, and generously spent time helping Guix users in the IRC channel and mailing lists. Equally important was his taking care of many administrative tasks such as expanding the build farm and organizing Outreachy participation. We're sad to let him go, and hope he'll stick around as time permits Smile.

  • Grafts, continued

    Guix includes a mechanism called grafts that allows us to provide users with security updates in a timely fashion, even for core packages deep down in the dependency graph. Most users value the benefits of grafts, but newcomers were also unavoidably struck by what turned out to be the undesirable side effect of our graft implementation on user experience. This had been a well-known problem for a while, but 1.1.0 finally addressed these issues.

    This article recaps how grafts are implemented, what problems that caused, and how we solved it. It’s a deep dive into core Guix, and I hope it’ll be insightful to all and intriguing to the functional programming geeks among us!

OpenIndiana Hipster 2020.04 is here

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OS

We have released a new OpenIndiana Hipster snapshot 2020.04.

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Also: OpenIndiana Hipster 2020.04 Released To Phase Out Python 2, GCC7 As Base Compiler

Windows 10 is losing users to macOS

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OS
GNU
Linux

Popular Linux distro Ubuntu has also seen a significant increase over the past few months.

It now boasts 1.89% market share – over double the 0.81% it had in January, and significantly higher than the 1.18% it had last month.

Non-Ubuntu Linux distros have decreased their market share, however, falling below 1%.

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More in Tux Machines

Beelink GT-R Review – An AMD Ryzen 5 Mini PC Tested with Windows 10 and Ubuntu 20.04

One issue I did encounter both in Windows and in Ubuntu was that my 4-port KVM was not properly recognized. I did get a rather poor HDMI signal to the monitor however the USB port was not working and by extension neither were my wireless keyboard and mouse. However, using a USB-C hub (2 x USB 3.0 and 1 x HDMI) worked fine as did using the various HDMI and USB ports directly including wirelessly connected peripherals. Another point to note is that the power cord from the device to the power adapter is slightly shorter than most and the power adapter itself is quite large meaning care needs to be taken when using a US/EU to AU adapter for example. Overall this is a powerful mini PC (relative to similar form factor devices but excluding the higher-end Intel NUCs and comparable models) and the addition of capable graphics makes gaming possible together with light video editing. Equipped with a very good selection of ports and features including multiple configurable storage options, the GT-R makes a great impression as one of the first AMD based mini PCs. The only negative is that the fans are quite noisy when the processor is under load. Read more

today's leftovers

  • Mesa To Join Other Open-Source Projects With "Main" For Primary Code Branch

    This week Mesa developers began drafting plans for transitioning their primary Git branch to "main", following the naming plans of other open-source projects using Git. With Git now allowing a configurable default branch and GitHub working to transition from "master" to "main" as their default Git branch name, various other open-source projects have also been working to change their default Git branch name. Most open-source projects have been settling for "main" as the best and most descriptive default branch name rather than alternatives like trunk, default, etc. Mesa developers are similarly aiming for a "main" transition.

  • Linux Weekly Roundup: Ubuntu 20.04.1, LibreOffice 7, Pinta – Aug 8, 2020

    Here’s a recap for the week in the form of weekly roundup, curated for you from the Linux and opensource world on application updates, new releases, distribution updates, major news, and upcoming trends. This week there has been plenty of app updates, distribution release announced. With so many moving items happening all around the Linux and the open-source world, it is not always possible to cover the updates, especially the minor releases of news.

  • How to Apply Blur Effect in Ubuntu 20.04 Gnome Desktop
  • Install latest version apache on ubuntu from source
  • Setting Up Amavis and ClamAV on Ubuntu Mail Server
  • The weekend round-up: tell us what play button you've been clicking recently

    What's that? It's the weekend? It can't be already can it? Yes. It's time for the weekend chat about what we've been playing and what you've been playing. There's been so many good Linux supported releases lately I've been a bit spoilt for choice including these just in the last week: DemonCrawl, UnderMine, The Battle of Polytopia, Littlewood, Monster Crown, Core Defense and Hellpoint (plus plenty more I've missed).

  • A Plague Tale: Innocence | Linux Gaming | Ubuntu 20.04 | Steam Play

    A Plague Tale: Innocence running through Steam Play on Linux.

  • Recovering 2.11BSD, fighting the patches

    Well, if we have patch 195, and all 195 patches, what's the problem? Why can't you do a simple for loop and patch -R to get back to original? And for that matter, why were no copies of the original saved?

    Turns out the root of both of these problems can be summarized as 'resource shortage'. Back in the day when this was released, 100MB disks were large. The release came on 2 mag tapes that held 40MB each. Saving a copy of these required a substantial amount of space. And it was more important to have the latest release, not the original release, for running the system. It was more efficient and better anyway.

    In addition to small disk space, these small systems were connected via USENET or UUCP. These connections tended to be slow. Coupled with the small size of the storage on the PDP-11s running 2.11BSD, the patches weren't what we think of as modern patches. The patches started before the newer unified diff format was created. That format is much more efficient that the traditional context diffs. In addition, compress(1) was the only thing that could compress things, giving poor compression ratios. The UUCP transport of usenet messages also mean that the messages had to be relatively short. So, this mean that the 'patches' were really an upgrade process, that often included patches. But just as often, it included instructions like this from patch 4: [...]

  • NetBSD on the NanoPi NEO2

    The NanoPi NEO2 from FriendlyARM has been serving me well since 2018, being my test machine for OpenBSD/arm64 related things.

    As NetBSD/evbarm finally gained support for AArch64 in NetBSD 9.0, released back in February, I decided to give it a try on this device. The board only has 512MB of RAM, and this is where NetBSD really shines. Things have become a lot easier since jmcneill@ now provides bootable ARM images for a variety of devices, including the NanoPi NEO2.

  • Linux kmod tools on macOS

    First, this does not mean you can load Linux kernel modules on macOS. This port is far more boring than that. Recently I migrated from Travis-CI over to GitHub Actions for rpminspect. I took some time to understand how GitHub Actions worked and expanded the CI tests to run across Fedora rawhide, the latest release of Fedora, Debian Testing, Ubuntu, OpenSUSE Leap, OpenSUSE Tumbleweed, CentOS 8, CentOS 7, and Arch Linux. I wanted to prove that the software was portable across different distributions, but then that had me thinking about non-Linux platforms. GitHub Actions offers macOS as a platform, so what if I built things there too? Gaining access to a remote macOS VM (thanks, jbair), I was able to start working on porting rpminspect. The first problem I hit was the lack of libkmod from the Linux kmod project. Makes sense that this would not exist on macOS. All rpminspect does with libkmod is open and read Linux kernel modules, so porting it to macOS is technically possible. So I decided to give that a try.

  • We may wind up significantly delaying or mostly skipping Ubuntu 20.04

    The highest priority machines to upgrade are our remaining Ubuntu 16.04 machines, which will be going out of support in April of next year. Fortunately we don't have very many of them compared to our 18.04 machines, so there is not a huge amount of work to do. Unfortunately, most of our Exim based mail machines are 16.04 and the 20.04 version of Exim is a significantly disruptive upgrade, plus a number of the remaining machines are delicate to upgrade (our Samba server, for example).

    This opens up the issue of what Ubuntu version to upgrade these 16.04 machines to. Normally we'd upgrade them to Ubuntu 20.04, but normally we'd already be running less critical machines on 20.04 and getting experience with it; this time they'd be among our first 20.04 machines. On the other side, we're already running Ubuntu 18.04 in general and in some cases running the same services on 18.04 as we currently do on 16.04 (we have a couple of 18.04 Exim machines, for example). This makes upgrading most or all of our 16.04 machines to 18.04 instead of 20.04 a reasonably attractive proposition, especially for Exim based machines. We'd have to upgrade them again in two years when 22.04 comes out and 18.04 starts going out of support, but hopefully in two years the situation will be a lot different.

  • DebConf8

    Also this is my 6th post in this series of posts about DebConfs and for the last two days for the first time I failed my plan to do one post per day. And while two days ago I still planned to catch up on this by doing more than one post in a day, I have now decided to give in to realities, which mostly translates to sudden fantastic weather in Hamburg and other summer related changes in life. So yeah, I still plan to do short posts about all the DebConfs I was lucky to attend, but there might be days without a blog post. Anyhow, Mar de la Plata. When we held DebConf in Argentina it was winter there, meaning locals and other folks would wear jackets, scarfs, probably gloves, while many Debian folks not so much. Andreas Tille freaked out and/or amazed local people by going swimming in the sea every morning. And when I told Stephen Gran that even I would find it a bit cold with just a tshirt he replied "na, the weather is fine, just like british summer", while it was 14 celcius and mildly raining. DebConf8 was the first time I've met Valessio Brito, who I had worked together since at least DebConf6. That meeting was really super nice, Valessio is such a lovely person. Back in 2008 however, there was just one problem: his spoken English was worse than his written one, and that was already hard to parse sometimes. Fast forward eleven years to Curitiba last year and boom, Valessio speaks really nice English now.

  • 9 of the Best Firefox Addons for Social Media Enthusiasts

    Are you active in social media? If you’re using the Firefox browser, there are many extensions that will save you time, connect better with your audience, and boost your overall experience. The following is our shortlisted selection of some of the best Firefox addons for social media enthusiasts. Each has been verified for delivering what it promises and is quite easy to use. 1. Facebook Container For those active on the social scene, using Facebook is easier as a login option. [...] Love them or hate them, emojis may have become the official language of the Internet. If you’re running out of emoji styles to describe a specific mood or reaction, Emoji Cheatsheet just may give you the perfect idea. The emojis you click are automatically saved to your clipboard so that you can paste it on any social media site.

  • U is for Unreliable UI (or: Why Firefox's "Do this automatically this from now on" checkbox is so flaky, and how to work around it)

    It's been a frustration with Firefox for years. You click on a link and get the "What should Firefox do with this file?" dialog, even though it's a file type you view all the time -- PDF, say, or JPEG. You click "View in browser" or "Save file" or whatever ... then you check the "Do this automatically for files like this from now on" checkbox, thinking, I'm sure I checked this last time. Then a few minutes later, you go to a file of the exact same time, and you get the dialog again. That damn checkbox is like the button on street crossings or elevators: a no-op to make you think you're doing something.

NanoPi and Raspberry Pi

  • NanoPi NEO3

    A tiny, headless SBC based on the 64-bit quad-core RockChip RK3328 SoC along with up to 2GB RAM. I/O includes GbE and 3x USB (2x 3.0 + 1x 2.0), plus a 26-pin expansion header various GPIO signals.

  • Raspberry Pi makes Japanese keyboard

    It’s quite a complex keyboard, with three different character sets to deal with.

    ‘Figuring out how the USB keyboard controller maps to all the special keys on a Japanese keyboard was particularly challenging, with most web searches leading to non-English websites,’ say the Pi people, ‘we ended up reverse-engineering generic Japanese keyboards to see how they work, and mapping the keycodes to key matrix locations. We are fortunate that we have a very patient keyboard IC vendor, called Holtek, which produces the custom firmware for the controller.’

  • Raspberry Pi Release Japanese Keyboard Variant

    The Japanese keyboard is the latest layout available. Last month we saw the release of Swedish, Portuguese, Danish and Norwegian layouts of the official keyboard. All of the keyboards come with three USB 2.0 type-A ports, adding much needed extra ports to your Raspberry Pi. Available in two color choices, red and white or black and grey, this new keyboard has been designed to work with all three Japanese character sets.

  • The fastest USB storage options for Raspberry Pi

    After posting my tests concerning UASP support in USB SATA adapters, I got an email from Rob Logan mentioning the performance of some other types of drives he had with him. And he even offered to ship a few drives to me for comparisons!

Programming Leftovers

  • Fujitsu Begins Adding A64FX Support To GCC Compiler

    The Fujitsu A64FX ARM processor that has 48 cores per node and 32GB of HBM2 memory that currently powers the fastest supercomputer is beginning to see GCC compiler support. Fujitsu months ago upstreamed A64FX support to the LLVM/Clang compiler. It appears this ARMv8.2-based chip with 512-bit SIMD is using LLVM/Clang as its preferred compiler. But now Fujitsu is also upstreaming GCC support for their high performance A64FX.

  • Jussi Pakkanen: The second edition of the Meson manual is out

    I have just uploaded the second edition of the Meson manual to the web store for your purchasing pleasure.

  • Junichi Uekawa: Started writing some golang code.

    Started writing some golang code. Trying to rewrite some of the tools as a daily driver for machine management tool. It's easier than rust in that having a good rust compiler is a hassle though golang preinstalled on systems can build and run. go run is simple enough to invoke on most Debian systems.

  • Url Shortner in Golang

    I decided to write my own URL shortner and the reason for doing that was to dive a little more into golang and to learn more about systems. I have planned to not only document my learning but also find and point our different ways in which this application can be made scalable, resilient and robust.

  • LLVM Clang 11 Has A Nice Build Speed Improvement With New Feature For Pre-Compiled Headers

    There are many improvements in LLVM/Clang 11.0 due out in the weeks ahead though an interesting change merged prior to last month's code branching that slipped under our radar... If using the clang-cl driver for MSVC or when otherwise making use of pre-compiled headers (PCH) functionality, there is a new option that can offer significant build time speed-ups. When making use of Clang PCH functionality for leveraging pre-compiled headers, Clang 11.0 is introducing the -fpch-instantiate-templates option separate from the existing PCH options. This -fpch-instantiate-templates option instantiates templates already while generating a precompiled header instead of instantiating every time the pre-compiled header is used. Avoiding the instantiation each time the pre-compiled header is used can provide measurable build time improvements. Aside from the MSVC clang-cl drop-in, this feature though isn't enabled by default since it can result in errors if the source header file is not self-contained.

  • Call for Code Daily: open source projects and answered calls

    The power of Call for Code® is in the global community that we have built around this major #TechforGood initiative. Whether it is the deployments that are underway across pivotal projects, developers leveraging the starter kits in the cloud, or ecosystem partners joining the fight, everyone has a story to tell. Call for Code Daily highlights all the amazing #TechforGood stories taking place around the world. Every day, you can count on us to share these stories with you. Check out the stories from the week of August 3rd:

  • PSF GSoC students blogs: Week 6 Check-in

    Works towards analyzing multistage dockerfile. I combined the draft PR and the review from my mentors, the new commit is the first step of my plan. We split the multistage dockerfile into seperate dockefiles for build. Here are the changes in the new commit. 1. Modified function check_multistage_dockerfile() to return. 2. Remove function split_multistage_dockerfile() since we are working on the building stage. split_multistage_dockerfile() can be improved on analyze stage.

  • Weekly Python StackOverflow Report: (ccxxxix) stackoverflow python report
  • Send WhatsApp media/message using Python.

    Though there are many scripts available which are almost free but later on leads to getting blocked by Whatsapp. We can use Twilio Library for sending and receiving whatsapp messages even for WhatsApp bussiness.

  • Generate a random number in Java

    Java contains many ways to generate random numbers. The random number can be int, long, float, double, and Boolean. Math.random class and Random class are mostly used to generate random numbers in Java. The uses of these classes are shown in this tutorial by using various examples. [...] The random class has many methods to generate different types of random numbers, such as nextInt(), nextDouble(), nextLong, etc. So, the integer and fractional numbers can be generated by using the appropriate method of this class. You have to create an object to use in this class.

  • Open Source Jenkins CI/CD Project Graduates From CD Foundation

    Officially launched by the Linux Foundation in March 2019, the CD Foundation includes in its project portfolio some of the most widely used and deployed CI/CD tools, including Jenkins, Spinnaker and Tekton. The open source Jenkins CI/CD project gains more community participation and a roadmap for future improvements.