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Reiser

Awkward History of Linux and Latest of Reiser5

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Linux
Reiser
  • Linux in 2020 [Ed: This is clearly conflating the kernel (Linux) with GNU, which predates it by almost one decade. It also perpetuates the myth that only Ubuntu brought GNU/Linux to the masses.]

    Hello. Today I would like to share with you, my perspective of Linux. Please take note that this is all my opinions and the way I see it. If you feel that I missed something very important or have a fact or two wrong, please let me know.

    So Linux was announced for the first time, on the 25 of August 1991 by a Finnish student, called Linus Torvalds. Little did he know, and the world knows that 30 years later the world would be using it on a daily basis.

    So From 1991, Linux has been maturing several Linux Distros (operating systems) came and went away, with a few of the first ones still around today. But it was mainly/only for those who are computer "geeks" and not for everyday users. But that all changed in October 2004, when the first version of Ubuntu was released.

  • Reiser5 Logical Volume Management - Updates
      Reiser5 Logical Volume Management - Updates
    
    
    I am happy to inform, that Logical Volumes stuff has become more
    stable. Also we introduce the following changes, which make logical
    volumes administration more flexible and simple:
    
    
                      1. No balancing by default
    
    
    Now all volume operations except brick removal don't invoke balancing
    by default. Instead, they mark volume as "unbalanced". To complete any
    operation with balancing specify option -B (--with-balance), or run
    volume.reiser4(8) utility with the option -b (--balance) later.
    
    This allows to speed up more than one operations over logical volume
    being performed at once. For example, if you want to add more than one
    brick to your volume at once, first add all the bricks, then run
    balancing. There is no need to balance a volume between the addition
    operations.
    
    
                        2. Removal completion
    
    
    Operation of brick removal always includes balancing procedure as its
    part. This procedure moves out all data block from the brick to be
    removed to remaining bricks of the volume. Thus, brick removal is
    usually a long operation, which may be interrupted for various reasons
    In such cases the volume is automatically marked with an "incomplete
    removal" flag.
    
    It is not allowed to perform essential volume operations on a volume
    marked as "with incomplete removal": first, user should complete
    removal by running volume.reiser4 utility with option
    -R (--finish-removal). Otherwise, the operation will return error
    (-EBUSY).
    
    There is no other restrictions: you are allowed to add a brick to
    unbalanced volume, and even remove a brick from an unbalanced volume
    (assuming it is not incomplete removal).
    
    Comment. "--finish-removal" is a temporary option. In the future the
    file system will detect incomplete removal and automatically perform
    removal completion by itself.
    
    
                    3. Balancing is always defined
    
    
    Operation of volume balancing (regardless of its balanced status) is
    always defined, and can be launched at any moment. If the volume is
    balanced, then the balancing procedure just scans the volume without
    any useful work.
    
    It is allowed to run more than one balancing threads on the same
    volume, however currently it will be inefficient: other threads will
    be always going after the single leader without doing useful work.
    Efficient volume balancing by many threads (true parallelism) is not a
    trivial task. We estimate its complexity as 2/5.
    
    
              4. Restore regular distribution on the volume
    
    
    Custom (defined by user) file migration can break fairness of data
    distribution among the bricks. To restore regular (fair) distribution
    on the volume, run volume.reiser4 utility with the option -S
    (--restore-regular). It launches a balancing procedure, which performs
    mandatory data migration of all files (including the ones marked as
    "immobile") in accordance with regular distribution policy on the
    volume. Moreover, when the balancing procedure encounters a file
    marked as "immobile", its "immobile" flag is cleared up.
    
    
                             5. How to test
    
    
    The new functionality is available starting with the kernel patch
    reiser4-for-linux-5.10-rc3 and reiser4progs-2.0.4 (Software Framework
    Release number of both is 5.1.3).
    
  • Reiser5 Stabilizing Its Logical Volume Functionality - Phoronix

    This New Year's Eve will mark one year since the announcement of the in-development Reiser5 file-system. While the outlook for getting Reiser5 upstreamed into the mainline kernel remains murky given the out-of-tree status of Reiser4, Edward Shishkin does continue advancing this latest Reiser file-system iteration.

    Since last year's initial Reiser5 announcement, more features continue to be ironed out for this evolution of Reiser4. The latest Reiser5 functionality hitting a point of stability is its logical volume management.

Reiser4/Reiser5 Updated For Linux 5.8

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Reiser

Edward Shishkin continues pushing ahead with not only maintaining the existing out-of-tree Reiser4 file-system code but also developing Reiser5 seemingly without any major corporate support. Reiser4 and the experimental Reiser5 file-system code were updated on Monday for Linux 5.8 kernel compatibility.

The Reiser4 kernel driver along with the unstable Reiser5 kernel code saw new patch releases for supporting them on the Linux 5.8 stable kernel (Linux 5.8.1 target to be exact).

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Reiser4/Reiser5 Updated For Linux 5.7 Kernel Compatibility

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Reiser

It was just over a week ago that Reiser4 was updated for Linux 5.6 support while now it's been updated for the newly-minted Linux 5.7 stable kernel along with updating the experimental Reiser5 file-system for this latest kernel series.

Uploaded today by Edward Shishkin was Reiser4 for Linux 5.7.1. Though given the minimal changes with 5.7.1 compared to last week's 5.7 release, the patch presumably should apply cleanly there as well. There are no reports of any other functional Reiser4 changes besides re-basing to the new kernel series.

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Reiser5 Updates For Linux 5.5 Along With Reiser4

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Reiser

The out-of-tree Reiser4 and Reiser5 (Reiser4 v5) patches have been updated against the recently stabilized Linux 5.5 kernel.

Main Reiser4 developer Edward Shishkin re-based the Reiser4 file-system patch against Linux 5.5.1 along with the experimental Reiser5.

At the end of 2019 is when Shishkin announced Reiser5 file-system development with introducing the concepts of local volumes capable of parallel scaling out and other key iterations over the current Reiser4 design.

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Reiser4 File-System Is Still Ticking In 2019 - Now Updated For Linux 5.3 Compatibility

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Linux
Reiser

Edward Shishkin continues near single-handedly maintaining the out-of-tree Reiser4 code that at this point still has no apparent trajectory towards mainline. The former Namesys developer previously indicated it's unlikely to see Reiser4 merged unless there is a company backing it to get it through the review process for merging into mainline. While Reiser4 was quite promising for its early time, it's only getting more difficult with Reiser4 effectively stagnating for years now while SUSE/openSUSE continues backing Btrfs, Ubuntu increasingly investing in ZFS support, Red Hat developing Stratis, XFS continuing to be advanced by Red Hat and others as well, Google continuing to invest in the likes of EXT4/F2FS, and there also being Bcachefs and other open-source storage solutions that are more promising than Reiser4 in 2019. Nevertheless, the out-of-tree kernel patches continue to be updated.

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Reiser4 Brought To The Linux 5.0 Kernel

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Reiser

For those still using the out-of-tree Reiser4 file-system, it may be about time to consider alternatives like Btrfs, XFS, ZFS On Linux, F2FS, or even the likes of Stratis and Bcachefs. But should you still be using this once promising file-system, the out-of-tree patches have been revised to now work with the Linux 5.0 kernel.

There still is no trajectory for Reiser4 to the mainline Linux kernel with no major companies or other stakeholders backing Reiser4 but just a small group of developers and enthusiasts left working on this successor to ReiserFS. With the latest code posted on Friday by former Namesys developer Edward Shishkin, the Reiser4 kernel driver has been re-based to the Linux 5.0 kernel but with no other changes to the file-system noted.

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Reiser4 File-System Benchmarks With Linux 4.17

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Graphics/Benchmarks
Linux
Reiser

It's been about three years since last carrying out any file-system performance benchmarks of Reiser4, but being curious how it stacks up against the current state of today's mainline Linux file-systems, here are some fresh performance tests of Reiser4 using the Linux 4.17 kernel. The Reiser4 performance was compared to Reiserfs, EXT4, Btrfs, XFS, and F2FS.

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Reiser4 Updated For Linux 4.14 & Introduces Zstd Compression Support

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Reiser

The out-of-tree Reiser4 file-system driver has been updated with compatibility for the latest Linux 4.14 stable series. Besides reworking the code to run on Linux 4.14, this controversial file-system has also added support for Zstd file-system compression.

Linux 4.14 introduced Zstd support in the mainline kernel and wired it in for SquashFS and Btrfs. Our Btrfs Zstd benchmarks have been promising for transparent file-system compression compared to the other supported algorithms. Reiser4 has now picked up Zstd compression as an eventual replacement to their Gzip compression support.

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Reiser4 Is Now Ready For Linux 4.13

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Reiser

For those wanting to use the Reiser4 file-system with the just-released Linux 4.13 kernel, patches are already available.

Less than one week after the release of the Linux 4.13 stable kernel, Edward Shishkin has already released an updated patch for the out-of-tree Reiser4 file-system for working with this new stable series.

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Reiser4 Updated For Linux 4.12, Experimental Data Striping Support

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Reiser

Those using the Reiser4 file-system in some capacity can now safely upgrade to the Linux 4.12 kernel.

Edward Shishkin has updated this out-of-tree file-system for the Linux 4.12 kernel so it can be built with the latest mainline stable release.

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Programming Leftovers

  • Announcement : An AArch64 (Arm64) Darwin port is planned for GCC12

    As many of you know, Apple has now released an AArch64-based version of macOS and desktop/laptop platforms using the ‘M1’ chip to support it. This is in addition to the existing iOS mobile platforms (but shares some of their constraints). There is considerable interest in the user-base for a GCC port (starting with https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=96168) - and, of great kudos to the gfortran team, one of the main drivers is folks using Fortran. Fortunately, I was able to obtain access to one of the DTKs, courtesy of the OSS folks, and using that managed to draft an initial attempt at the port last year (however, nowhere near ready for presentation in GCC11). Nevertheless (as an aside) despite being a prototype, the port is in use with many via hombrew, macports or self-builds - which has shaken out some of the fixable bugs. The work done in the prototype identified three issues that could not be coded around without work on generic parts of the compiler. I am very happy to say that two of our colleagues, Andrew Burgess and Maxim Blinov (both from embecosm) have joined me in drafting a postable version of the port and we are seeking sponsorship to finish this in the GCC12 timeframe. Maxim has a lightning talk on the GNU tools track at LPC (right after the steering committee session) that will focus on the two generic issues that we’re tackling (1 and 2 below). Here is a short summary of the issues and proposed solutions (detailed discussion of any of the parts below would better be in new threads).

  • Apple Silicon / M1 Port Planned For GCC 12 - Phoronix

    Developers are hoping for next year's GCC 12 release they will have Apple AArch64 support on Darwin in place for being able to support Apple Silicon -- initially the M1 SoC -- on macOS with GCC. LLVM/Clang has long been supporting AArch64 on macOS given that Apple leverages LLVM/Clang as part of their official Xcode toolchain as the basis for their compiler across macOS to iOS and other products. While the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) supports AArch64 and macOS/Darwin, it hasn't supported the two of them together but there is a port in progress to change it.

  • Dirk Eddelbuettel: tidyCpp 0.0.5 on CRAN: More Protect’ion

    Another small release of the tidyCpp package arrived on CRAN overnight. The packages offers a clean C++ layer (as well as one small C++ helper class) on top of the C API for R which aims to make use of this robust (if awkward) C API a little easier and more consistent. See the vignette for motivating examples. The Protect class now uses the default methods for copy and move constructors and assignment allowing for wide use of the class. The small NumVec class now uses it for its data member.

  • QML Modules in Qt 6.2

    With Qt 6.2 there is, for the first time, a comprehensive build system API that allows you to specify a QML module as a complete, encapsulated unit. This is a significant improvement, but as the concept of QML modules was rather under-developed in Qt 5, even seasoned QML developers might now ask "What exactly is a QML module". In our previous post we have scratched the surface by introducing the CMake API used to define them. We'll take a closer look in this post.

  • Santiago Zarate: So you want to recover and old git branch because it has been overwritten?
  • Start using YAML now | Opensource.com

    YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language) is a human-readable data serialization language. Its syntax is simple and human-readable. It does not contain quotation marks, opening and closing tags, or braces. It does not contain anything which might make it harder for humans to parse nesting rules. You can scan your YAML document and immediately know what's going on. [...] At this point, you know enough YAML to get started. You can play around with the online YAML parser to test yourself. If you work with YAML daily, then this handy cheatsheet will be helpful.

  • 40 C programming examples

    C programming language is one of the popular programming languages for novice programmers. It is a structured programming language that was mainly developed for UNIX operating system. It supports different types of operating systems, and it is very easy to learn. 40 useful C programming examples have been shown in this tutorial for the users who want to learn C programming from the beginning.

Devices/Embedded: Asus Tinker Board 2 and More

  • Asus Tinker Board 2 single-board computer now available for $94 and up - Liliputing

    The Asus Tinker Board 2 is a Raspberry Pi-shaped single-board computer powered by a Rockchip RK3399 hexa-core processor and featuring 2GB to 4GB of RAM. First announced almost a year ago, the Tinker Board 2 is finally available for $99 and up. Asus also offers a Tinker Board 2S model that’s pretty similar except that it has 16GB of eMMC storage. Prices for that model start at about $120.

  • Raspberry Pi Weekly Issue #371 - Sir Clive Sinclair, 1940 – 2021

    This week ended with the incredibly sad news of the passing of Sir Clive Sinclair. He was one of the founding fathers of home computing and got many of us at Raspberry Pi hooked on programming as kids. Join us in sharing your Sinclair computing memories with us on Twitter and our blog, and we’ll see you next week.

  • cuplTag battery-powered NFC tag logs temperature and humidity (Crowdfunding) - CNX Software

    Temperature and humidity sensors would normally connect to a gateway sending data to the cloud, the coin-cell battery-powered cuplTag NFC tag instead sends data to your smartphone after a tap. CulpTag is controlled by an MSP430 16-bit microcontroller from Texas Instruments which reads and stores sensor data regularly into an EEPROM, and the data can then be read over NFC with the tag returning an URL with the data from the sensor and battery, then display everything on the phone’s web browser (no app needed).

  • A first look at Microchip PolarFire SoC FPGA Icicle RISC-V development board - CNX Software

    Formally launched on Crowd Supply a little over a year ago, Microchip PolarFire SoC FPGA Icicle (codenamed MPFS-ICICLE-KIT-ES) was one of the first Linux & FreeBSD capable RISC-V development boards. The system is equipped with PolarFire SoC FPGA comprised a RISC-V CPU subsystem with four 64-bit RISC-V (RV64GC) application cores, one 64-bit RISC-V real-time core (RV64IMAC), as well as FPGA fabric. Backers of the board have been able to play with it for several months ago, but Microchip is now sending the board to more people for evaluation/review, and I got one of my own to experiment with. That’s good to have a higher-end development board instead of the usual hobbyist-grade board. Today, I’ll just have a look at the kit content and main components on the board before playing with Linux and FPGA development tools in an upcoming or two posts.

  • What is IoT device management?

    Smart devices are everywhere around us. We carry one in our pocket, watch movies on another while a third cooks us dinner. Every day there are thousands of new devices connecting to the Internet. Research shows that by 2025, more than 150,000 IoT devices will come online every minute. With such vast numbers it is impossible to keep everything in working order just on your own. This brings the need for IoT device management. But what is IoT device management? To answer this question we first need to understand what the Internet of Things (IoT) is.

  • Beelink U59 mini PC with Intel Celeron N5095 Jasper Lake coming soon - Liliputing

    Beelink says the system ships with Windows 10, but it should also supports Linux.

  • Beelink U59 Celeron N5095 Jasper Lake mini PC to ship with 16GB RAM, 512GB SSD - CNX Software

    Beelink U59 is an upcoming Jasper Lake mini PC based on the Intel Celeron N5095 15W quad-core processor that will ship with up to 16GB RAM, and 512 GB M.2 SSD storage. The mini PC will also offer two 4K HDMI 2.0 ports, a Gigabit Ethernet port, WiFi 5, as well as four USB 3.0 ports, and support for 2.5-inch SATA drives up to 7mm thick.

Graphics: Mesa, KWinFT, and RADV

  • Experimenting Is Underway For Rust Code Within Mesa - Phoronix

    Longtime Mesa developer Karol Herbst who has worked extensively on the open-source NVIDIA "Nouveau" driver as well as the OpenCL/compute stack while being employed by Red Hat is now toying with the idea of Rust code inside Mesa.  Karol Herbst has begun investigating how Rust code, which is known for its memory safety and concurrency benefits, could be used within Mesa. Ultimately he's evaluating how Rust could be used inside Mesa as an API implementation as well as for leveraging existing Mesa code by Rust. 

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  • KWinFT Continues Working On WLROOTS Render, Library Split

    KWinFT as a fork of KDE's KWin X11/Wayland compositor code continues making progress on driving fundamental display improvements and ironing out the Wayland support.  KWinFT has been transitioning to use WLROOTS for its Wayland heavy-lifting and that process remains ongoing. KWinFT has also been working on splitting up its library code to make it more manageable and robust.  Among the features still desired by KWinFT and to be worked on include input methods, graphical tablet support, and PipeWire video stream integration. Currently there are two full-time developers working on the project but they hope to scale up to four to five full-time developers. 

  • Raytracing Starting to Come Together – Bas Nieuwenhuizen – Open Source GPU Drivers

    I am back with another status update on raytracing in RADV. And the good news is that things are finally starting to come together. After ~9 months of on and off work we’re now having games working with raytracing.

  • Multiple Games Are Now Working With RADV's Ray-Tracing Code - Phoronix

    Not only is Intel progressing with its open-source ray-tracing driver support but the Mesa Radeon Vulkan driver "RADV" has been rounding out its RT code too and now has multiple games correctly rendering. Bas Nieuwenhuizen has been spearheading the RADV work on Vulkan ray-tracing support and after more than a half-year tackling it things are starting to fall into place nicely.Games such as Quake II RTX with native Vulkan ray-tracing are working along with the game control via VKD3D-Proton for going from Direct3D 12 DXR to Vulkan RT. Metro Exodus is also working while Ghostrunner and Doom Eternal are two games tested that are not yet working.

Audiocasts/Shows: Full Circle Weekly News, Juno Computers, Kali Linux 2021.3