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Tuesday, 11 Dec 18 - Tux Machines is a community-driven public service/news site which has been around for over a decade and primarily focuses on GNU/LinuxSubscribe now Syndicate content

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Quick Roundup

Type Title Author Replies Last Postsort icon
Story OSS Leftovers Roy Schestowitz 09/12/2018 - 3:23am
Story today's howtos Roy Schestowitz 09/12/2018 - 2:58am
Story GNOME and GStreamer Roy Schestowitz 09/12/2018 - 2:47am
Story Linux 4.19.8 Released With BLK-MQ Fix To The Recent Data Corruption Bug Roy Schestowitz 1 09/12/2018 - 2:46am
Story ExTiX 19.0 with Deepin 15.5 Desktop, Refracta snapshot, Calamares 3.2.2 Installer, Kodi 18.0 and kernel 4.20.0-rc4-exton – Build 181208 Roy Schestowitz 09/12/2018 - 2:33am
Story AMDGPU Driver Gets Final Batch Of Features For Linux 4.21 Roy Schestowitz 09/12/2018 - 2:29am
Story Security: FUD, SystemD, and Windows Roy Schestowitz 09/12/2018 - 1:52am
Story Android Leftovers Rianne Schestowitz 08/12/2018 - 7:43pm
Story Imagine 128 & Matrox Linux X.Org Display Drivers See Updates For The 2018 Holidays Roy Schestowitz 08/12/2018 - 5:07pm
Story Mageia 7 Beta Finally Rolls Along For Testing Roy Schestowitz 3 08/12/2018 - 5:03pm

Qt 5.12 LTS Released

Filed under
Development

I’m really happy to announce that we will now fully support Qt for Python, making all of the Qt APIs available to Python developers. The tech preview is currently available for you to test, while the official release will follow shortly after Qt 5.12. Qt for Python originates from the PySide project that we have been hosting on qt-project.org for many years. Qt for Python supports most of Qt’s C++ APIs and makes them accessible to Python programmers. In short: Python developers now can also create complex graphical applications and user interfaces. You can find more details in the Qt for Python blog posts.

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Also: Qt 5.12 Released With Many Improvements, Joined By Qt Creator 4.8

Another Linux 4.20 Performance Regression Has Now Been Addressed (THP)

Filed under
Linux

The bumpy Linux 4.19~4.20 road continues but at least another performance regression is now crossed off.

Google's David Rientjes has landed a patch in mainline Linux 4.20 Git as of yesterday that restores node-locale hugepage allocations. Changes to Transparent Huge-Pages, which THP itself was designed to improve performance and make it easier to utilize huge-pages, had caused a performance regression to be introduced back during the 4.20 merge window.

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Security: Windows Back Doors Cost Dearly, Adobe Flash is a Mess, and Microsoft Deals With Defects

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Security

Programming Leftovers (Mostly Python Links)

Filed under
Development
  • Create the third level for this pygame project

    In this article we are going to create the third level for our pygame project after we have created the previous two levels, the reason I create the third game level in this chapter is because this level is different from the second level which is only using the same enemy class to generate different type of enemy ship. In this chapter we are going to create a new enemy class which will act...

  • Python Pandas Groupby Tutorial
  • Everything you need to know about tree data structures

    When you first learn to code, it’s common to learn arrays as the “main data structure.”

  • Introducing Zato public API services

    Most users start to interact with Zato via its web-based admin console. This works very well and is a great way to get started with the platform.

    In terms of automation, the next natural step is to employ enmasse which lets one move data across environments using YAML import/export files.

    The third way is to use the API services - anything that can be done in web-admin or enmasse is also available via dedicated API services. Indeed, both web-admin and enmasse are clients of the same services that users can put to work in their own integration needs.

    The public API is built around a REST endpoint that accepts and produces JSON. Moreover, a purpose-built Python client can access all the services whereas an OpenAPI-based specification lets one generate clients in any language or framework that supports this popular format.

  • 6 steps to optimize software delivery with value stream mapping

    Do your efforts to improve software development fall short due to confusion and too much debate? Does your organization have a clear picture of what is achievable, and are you sure you’re moving in the right direction? Can you determine how much business value you've delivered so far? Are the bottlenecks in your process known? Do you know how to optimize your current process?

    If you are looking for a tool that will help you answer these questions, consider integrating value stream mapping and lean concepts into the way you deliver software.

  • Delete duplicate file with python program

On Linus' Return to Kernel Development

Filed under
Development
Linux

On October 23, 2018, Linus Torvalds came out of his self-imposed isolation, pulling a lot of patches from the git trees of various developers. It was his first appearance on the Linux Kernel Mailing List since September 16, 2018, when he announced he would take a break from kernel development to address his sometimes harsh behavior toward developers. On the 23rd, he announced his return, which I cover here after summarizing some of his pull activities.

For most of his pulls, he just replied with an email that said, "pulled". But in one of them, he noticed that Ingo Molnar had some issues with his email, in particular that Ingo's mail client used the iso-8859-1 character set instead of the more usual UTF-8. Linus said, "using iso-8859-1 instead of utf-8 in this day and age is just all kinds of odd. It looks like it was all fine, but if Mutt has an option to just send as utf-8, I encourage everybody to just use that and try to just have utf-8 everywhere. We've had too many silly issues when people mix locales etc and some point in the chain gets it wrong."

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Linux Mint 19.1 “Tessa” Xfce, MATE and Cinnamon

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GNU
Linux
  • Linux Mint 19.1 “Tessa” Xfce – BETA Release

    Linux Mint 19.1 is a long term support release which will be supported until 2023. It comes with updated software and brings refinements and many new features to make your desktop even more comfortable to use.

  • Linux Mint 19.1 “Tessa” MATE – BETA Release

    Linux Mint 19.1 is a long term support release which will be supported until 2023. It comes with updated software and brings refinements and many new features to make your desktop even more comfortable to use.

  • Linux Mint 19.1 “Tessa” Cinnamon – BETA Release

    Linux Mint 19.1 is a long term support release which will be supported until 2023. It comes with updated software and brings refinements and many new features to make your desktop even more comfortable to use.

Games: Sundered, Two Point Hospital, Dead Cells, Endhall, Grapple Force Rena

Filed under
Gaming
  • Sundered to get a big free update this month, sounds pretty good

    Sundered, the metroidvania action-platform with some fantastic art is going to expand soon and the update will be free.

  • Two Point Hospital: Bigfoot DLC now available with new weird ailments

    Two Point Hospital has expanded already with the first DLC already available and it does sound pretty good.

    Despite some shortcomings, Two Point Hospital is a great game for those who aren't looking for something serious. I enjoyed it a lot and certainly even more with a recent update adding in the extra sandbox mode.

    The new Bigfoot DLC was announced and released at the same time, adding in multiple new ailments to cure like Barking Mad, Mechanical Metropolism, Reptilian Metropolism, Bard Flu, Knightmares and Monster Mishmash. There's also entirely new hospitals for you to run and new decorative items, so there's plenty on offer.

  • Dead Cells, one of my favourite releases this year has a major testing build up

    Dead Cells, the incredibly stylish action-platformer with a sprinkle of metroidvania elements to make up what they call a Roguevania has a new major build out for testing.

  • Endhall, a small and challenging roguelike that's good for quick runs

    HeartBeast Studios L.L.C. just released their "byte sized roguelike" for those with little time on their hands.

  • Action platformer 'Grapple Force Rena' will have you swinging off everything

    Grapple Force Rena from developer GalaxyTrail is a sweet action platformer where your magic bracelets allow you to hook into any surface. That includes enemies too, as you hook into them and throw them out of your way.

    The gameplay and style is very reminiscent of early platformers we might have seen on something like the Sega Mega Drive (Genesis), it feels like a genuinely decent throwback.

6 of the Best Linux Distros for Gaming

Filed under
GNU
Linux
Gaming

Not that many people associate Linux with gaming, but the times are changing and big dogs in the industry are coming up with clever ways to make games tick on the platforms. Wine is compatible with more games than ever these days, and Valve may be on the verge of a Linux gaming revolution with Proton – which lets you run native Windows games in Linux via Steam.

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5 Scanning Tools for Linux Desktop

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Software

From what I have gathered in forums, working with scanners on Linux desktops isn’t a pleasant experience. But things don’t have to be that way because there are actually efficient scanner utility options that you can set up on your machine with ease.

It is for this reason that we bring you our list of the 5 Scanning Tools for the Linux desktop. They are all free and open source so have a field day.

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It Looks Like We Won't See An Open-Source NVIDIA Vulkan Driver This Year (Nouveau)

Filed under
Graphics/Benchmarks

While at the start of the year Nouveau developers expressed their hope to create a basic open-source NVIDIA Vulkan driver this calendar year, it doesn't look like it's panning out.

There is work certainly progressing in that direction thanks to Red Hat's Karol Herbst and others working on SPIR-V/compute support for Nouveau, which is the fundamental IR also needed by Vulkan. In fact, back in August Karol Herbst did publish some early bits of a Nouveau Vulkan driver, but there hasn't been any direct public activity to report on since that point.

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today's leftovers

Filed under
Misc
  • Chrome OS to get Firebase App Indexing for Android apps and keyword search for Linux apps

    One of the key features of Chrome OS is its built-in search capabilities (Google is a search engine company, after all), which can show you web results in addition to matching apps. Now this Chrome OS search box is getting two improvements to make Android apps more dynamic thanks to Firebase App Indexing and make finding your installed Linux apps easier.

    As of today, the Chrome OS search box is extremely capable, showing a healthy mixture of web results, local files, apps, and some other nifty tricks that web search can do like unit conversion. Combined with handy Assistant support, rolling out soon to “all Chromebooks,” Chrome OS tries to have everything you could ever need right at your fingertips, but there will always be room for improvement.

  • The Linux Foundation to Launch New Tooling Project to Improve Open Source Compliance

    The Linux Foundation, the nonprofit organization enabling mass innovation through open source, today announces the formation of the new Automated Compliance Tooling (ACT) project. Using open source code comes with a responsibility to comply with the terms of that code’s license, which can sometimes be challenging for users and organizations to manage. The goal of ACT is to consolidate investment in, and increase interoperability and usability of, open source compliance tooling, which helps organizations manage compliance obligations.

    ACT also welcomes two new projects to be hosted at The Linux Foundation as part of the initiative, in addition to two existing Linux Foundation projects that will become part of the new project. The new projects are complementary to existing Linux Foundation compliance projects such as OpenChain, which identifies key recommended processes to make open source license compliance simpler and more consistent, and the Open Compliance Program, which educates and helps developers and companies understand their license requirements and how to build efficient, frictionless and often automated processes to support compliance.

  • mesa 18.3.0-rc6

    The sixth release candidate for Mesa 18.3.0 is now available.

    With no more bugs blocking the release, this will be the final release candidate and Mesa 18.3.0 final is expected tomorrow around 18:00 GMT.

  • Mesa 18.3 Expected For Release Tomorrow

    The sixth and final release candidate of Mesa 18.3 is now available for last minute testing of this quarterly Mesa3D update.

    Mesa developers have cleared out the lingering blocker bugs while also fixing a few other bugs in this extended development period. Mesa 18.3.0-RC6 was issued today while barring any last minute issues the 18.3.0 release will come out by the end of day tomorrow.

  • Ancient Frontier: Steel Shadows Getting Linux Release

    Fair Weather has been developing the Ancient Frontier series for quite some time, and released the original game last year. It was a far-future turn-based tactical RPG with a heavy sci-fi influence. Anyone who loves Star Trek or Star Wars will get a kick out of the overall look of the game right away - but what set it apart was its gameplay. Using a hexagonal grid formation for combat, you battled enemy ships and forces to explore the vast frontiers of space and help those who need while damaging those who hurt others.

  • The chaos and action of Total War: Warhammer II makes for a gripping strategy title

    Whether it’s dealing with marauding pirates or stuck up elves, it’s fun to conquer the world in WARHAMMER II. There’s plenty to love here with vibrant and varied factions carrying the day. Here's my thoughts after dozens of hours spent fighting everyone.

  • Atcore / Atelier Dec ’18 Progress

    Since I find myself with a bit of down time. I have decided to update you all on the progress of atcore and atelier. We should hopefully be ready soon to start the process of releasing AtCore 2.0. I only have a few things I really want to get merged before I start that process. In the mean time here is what has been landed to AtCore since my last post.

  • Bodhi 3.11.3 released
  • GitKraken Released Official Snap package for Linux

    GitKraken Snap is containerised software package designed to work within most Linux desktop. It bundles its required dependencies and auto-updates itself once a new release package published.

  • Google unveils open source UI toolkit Flutter to speed app building for developers

    Google is aiming to ease cross-platform mobile application development with the Tuesday release of the Flutter toolkit, representing yet another attempt to create a standard to address all possible use cases. That said, Google's position as the creator of Android—and the developer of dozens of iOS apps—puts the company in a much better position to address the needs developers realistically face every day, compared to frameworks such as Apache Cordova.

    [..]

    Lastly, Google highlights the open source BSD-style license, which prevents any future uncertainty about the use of the toolkit. The tech giant has been embroiled in a years-long legal battle with Oracle, as that company claims that Android violates copyrights and patents due to how Android implements Java.

OSS Leftovers

Filed under
OSS
  • Open source predictions for 2019

    Crystal ball? Are you there? Fine. I'll go it alone.

    2018 was a rollicking fun year for open source, filled with highs, lows, and plenty of in-between. But what will 2019 hold for Linux and open source software? Let's shrug off the continued introductory dialog and prognosticate.

  • Why Mozilla Matters

    Mozilla revenue rose by over $40 million USD in 2017 which sounds good until you notice that its expenses went up by over $80 million.

    Mozilla has filed its accounts for the financial year ended December 31st, 2017 and published them along with its annual report, The State of Mozilla 2017.

  • There’s BIG open source news on our 9th birthday

    Since those first days, we’ve frequently seen developers reach the #1 spot in various app stores. We’ve seen apps that have received millions of downloads, and app developers who have made a full time career out of mobile app development. But for many, it’s also a challenging time. The mobile app market has become over saturated. There has been a race-to-the-bottom in app pricing. New challenges extend up the development toolchain and impact the quality of top app engines.

    In this evolving industry landscape and these emerging challenges, change is good and necessary. With that in mind, we would like to introduce a big change for Corona. We have decided to get you — the developer community — more involved in Corona’s development, and open-source most of the engine. There are features you want, updates you need, and it’s simply time to get you more involved in Corona’s future. Corona Labs will continue to support the engine and going open source means more transparency to the process.

    We are certain you will have a lot of questions about how this will work, and as we have more to share, we will be continuously sharing new details with you. Also, feel free to discuss this in our community forums and in the CDN Slack.

  • ETSI Open Source MANO’s Latest Release Equips for 5G

    The European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) today released the latest version of its Open Source MANO (OSM) project. OSM is an operator-led group working on delivering an open source management and network orchestration (MANO) stack that aligns with ETSI NFV models. The latest code release from the group, Release FIVE, extends its capabilities to help operators toward 5G deployments.

    OSM released its first code in 2016 and now has around 110 organizations, namely vendors and operators, participating in the project. This includes Accedian, Aricent, Oracle, Saudi Telecom, University College London — which are just a handful of the 18 that have joined in the last six months.

    The group is developing a technology-agnostic stack that is enabled by a plugin framework. The newest code release furthers this framework toward transport technologies and maintains the project’s consistent modeling of NFV.

  • Why should CSPs embrace open source and OpenStack?

    What are the main motivators for CSPs to embrace open source, and how does OpenStack fit into a multi-cloud and increasingly cloud native architecture? A recent survey from TelecomTV of CSPs found that avoidance of vendor lock-in and decreasing time to market were amongst the main reasons for embracing open source. A comprehensive 91 per cent of CSPs said they are either already using OpenStack or plan to deploy it in the near future. However, a majority felt that working with the open source community is easier for the Tier One operators than it is for the smaller tier two and threes, and almost three-quarters felt there were simply too many open source projects. Given these findings, how should CSPs work with open source and OpenStack in particular? Two of the leading CSPs in North America join the panel to discuss their experiences and give advice to others.

  • Why you should be using open-source crypto wallets

    The last couple of years have been unexpectedly great in terms of popularizing cryptocurrencies as either means of payment or speculative investments. By now, it’s pretty common to find people who store their coins in software wallets. They are quick, easy to use, and very convenient for commerce. However, the issue at stake is that a very small amount of these wallets actually benefit from the security advantages of open source software. Therefore, this article aims to point out these bad choices and highlight the better alternatives.

    The faux-open source choices.

    If you randomly ask casual crypto enthusiasts about the software wallets they’re using, the most common responses you get include Jaxx, Exodus, and Coinomi. Though some of these do include parts that are open-sourced or borrow industry-standard elements, the final versions contain multiple additions to the code that cannot be reviewed by everybody in a GitHub repository.

    There are several reasons why people use an application like Jaxx: the mobility factor (you can have your wallet on your phone as well as on your home computer), the intuitive interface, the advanced functions (such as instant Shapeshift or Changelly conversions), and the effective marketing behind the efforts. Just the idea of managing your entire crypto portfolio within the UI of a single application is appealing to lots of enthusiasts.

  • Create your own free Adobe Creative Cloud with free and open source software

    Earlier this week, I talked about the muscle memory monopoly Adobe and other vendors have on users. As we become more and more experienced with these commercial products, we also become more tied to them.

    But they are expensive. Individual, non-student licenses for Adobe Creative Cloud can be upwards of $600 per year. While there are lower cost alternatives to many of the individual applications included in Creative Cloud, buying them can add up as well.

    A number of you reached out to me asking what you could do if you wanted the capabilities of Creative Cloud, but didn't want to spend the money. In this gallery, we'll look at the 11 main Creative Cloud products and find (mostly) workable substitutes.

  • Docker commits to open source, promises to put users into a ‘state of flow’

    Docker’s CTO said he wants the company’s customers to lose all track of time in a keynote that outlined how the firm plans to reach developers that are nowhere near being cloud native.

  • Docker Inc. Open Sources Kubernetes Configuration Tool

    At the DockerCon Europe 2018 conference, Docker Inc. today announced it will make Docker Compose for Kubernetes available as an open source project. Docker Compose for Kubernetes was developed by Docker Inc. to make it easier to configure Kubernetes clusters running on top of the Docker Enterprise platform; now it is available to the broader Kubernetes community.

    Company CTO Kal De told conference attendees that Docker Inc. would remain committed to leading the development of open source projects even as the company seeks to drive revenue via commercial software and services engagements with enterprise IT organizations. Today, Docker claims it has more than 650 commercial customers and is adding new customers at a rate of over 100 per quarter.

  • Preserving software’s legacy

    All throughout our lives we are reminded of events from the past. History teaches us about what happened before us to help us understand how society came to be as it is today. But today we live in a digital age, and while leaders, laws, wars and other parts of our history will always be important to know; what about software? Technology is everywhere and it is rapidly changing every day. Should we care about where it all started?

    The Software Heritage was launched with a mission to collect, preserve and share all software source code that is publicly available. It is currently working towards building the largest global source code archive ever. The Software Heritage was founded by the French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation Inria, and it is backed by partners and supporters such as Crossminer, Qwant, Microsoft, Intel, Google and GitHub.

  • Living Open Source in Zambia

    In a previous article I've announced my sponsorship project, where I offered to help a motivated young Linux Professional getting certified. I found an ideal candidate, and he has taken the RHCSA exam, and now we're ready to take the next step.

    Santos Chibenga from Zambia is so engaged in the local Linux community in Zambia that we decided to host an event together: https://www.vieo.tv/event/linux-event-lusaka-zambia. In this event we will have local speakers, and I will educate nearly 200 participants to become LFCS certified. As we realised that this event was growing bigger than expected, we have opened the event for sponsors as well.

  • Toyota Builds Open-Source Car-Hacking Tool

    A Toyota security researcher on his flight from Japan here to London carried on-board a portable steel attaché case that houses the carmaker's new vehicle cybersecurity testing tool.

    Takuya Yoshida, a member of Toyota's InfoTechnology Center, along with his Toyota colleague Tsuyoshi Toyama, are part of the team that developed the new tool, called PASTA (Portable Automotive Security Testbed), an open-source testing platform for researchers and budding car hacking experts. The researchers here today demonstrated the tool, and said Toyota plans to share the specifications on Github, as well as sell the fully built system in Japan initially.

  • AWS is fashionably (or frustratingly) late to open source, but ready to party

    To the scowling, sleep-deprived developers sniping at Amazon Web Services Inc. for slacking on open source: AWS is fed up. It’s put together a team devoted to upping open-source activity and is steadily contributing new software.

    “We’re getting criticized for not making enough contributions,” said Adrian Cockcroft ‏(pictured), vice president of cloud architecture strategy at AWS. “But we’ve been making more, and we’re making more, and we’ll just keep making more contributions until people give credit for it.”

  • "Joinup, the ideal dissemination platform for our open source solutions." A testimonial from Francesca Bria from the Barcelona City Council

     

    The Barcelona City Council is actively promoting the use and reuse of free software, open source solutions and open standards beyond their City Hall. This is outlined in the Barcelona Digital City strategy set by the Commissioner for Technology and Digital Innovation. To support this strategy, Barcelona has created an open source team to help internal departments that need to migrate to open source, providing them with digitally clear ethical standards, guidelines and best practices, as well as, supporting them throughout the whole process, including licencing and publishing the solutions on the municipal’s GitHub space. The Barcelona City Council Open Source Team also started to actively promote a citywide FLOSS community and the dissemination of their solutions on platforms such as Joinup, to ensure they reach the maximum number of people and public sector organisations.

  • Highlights from the 2018 NYC DISC Sprint

    DISC Committee members went all out to spread the word for this Sprint and the effort really paid off!

    We reached out to folks across a number of different channels including dev/color, Techqueria, Taiwanese Data Professionals, and PyLadies. Even managed to include a blurb at PyData NYC during the Panel Discussion: My First Open Source Contribution.

  • How to reverse a list in Python
  • Sending Emails With Python

    You probably found this tutorial because you want to send emails using Python. Perhaps you want to receive email reminders from your code, send a confirmation email to users when they create an account, or send emails to members of your organization to remind them to pay their dues. Sending emails manually is a time-consuming and error-prone task, but it’s easy to automate with Python.

BSD: New FreeNAS and HardenedBSD

Filed under
OS
BSD

GNU: Hrishikesh Barman, GNU Press, and Libredwg 0.7 Release

Filed under
GNU
  • Introducing Hrishikesh Barman, intern with the FSF tech team

    Hello everyone! My name is Hrishikesh Barman, and I am a third-year computer science undergraduate student. Growing up, I had an inclination towards computer networks, and in my first year at college I got started with programming properly. Eventually, I got introduced to free software, and it always gave me immense pleasure to be a small part of a bigger project by contributing to it. I realized that tech is made for the people (the society) and not the other way around, and users should have software freedom.

    I came to know about the FSF through a documentary about Aaron Swartz. I greatly appreciated the FSF's ideas and was intrigued to be a part of it, so when I got the mail that I've been selected as a fall tech intern it was truly a great moment for me. The interview process was very smooth and friendly. I am being mentored by Ian, Andrew, and Ruben from the tech team. I am really psyched about the campaigns and the tech things happening at the FSF.

  • Support software freedom: Shop the GNU Press
  • libredwg-0.7 released

Security: NPM, IT Security Lessons from the Marriott Data Breach, and Secure SHell

Filed under
Security
  • event-stream, npm, and trust

    Malware inserted into a popular npm package has put some users at risk of losing Bitcoin, which is certainly worrisome. More concerning, though, is the implications of how the malware got into the package—and how the package got distributed. This is not the first time we have seen package-distribution channels exploited, nor will it be the last, but the underlying problem requires more than a technical solution. It is, fundamentally, a social problem: trust.

    Npm is a registry of JavaScript packages, most of which target the Node.js event-driven JavaScript framework. As with many package repositories, npm helps manage dependencies so that picking up a new version of a package will also pick up new versions of its dependencies. Unlike, say, distribution package repositories, however, npm is not curated—anyone can put a module into npm. Normally, a module that wasn't useful would not become popular and would not get included as a dependency of other npm modules. But once a module is popular, it provides a ready path to deliver malware if the maintainer, or someone they delegate to, wants to go that route.

  • IT Security Lessons from the Marriott Data Breach

    A number of data breaches have been disclosed over the course of 2018, but none have been as big or had as much impact as the one disclosed on Nov. 30 by hotel chain Marriott International.

    A staggering 500 million people are at risk as a result of the breach, placing it among the largest breaches of all time, behind Yahoo at 1 billion. While the investigation and full public disclosure into how the breach occurred is still ongoing, there are lots of facts already available, and some lessons for other organizations hoping to avoid the same outcome.

  • The Dark Side of the ForSSHe: Shedding light on OpenSSH backdoors

    SSH, short for Secure SHell, is a network protocol to connect computers and devices remotely over an encrypted network link. It is generally used to manage Linux servers using a text-mode console. SSH is the most common way for system administrators to manage virtual, cloud, or dedicated, rented Linux servers.

    The de facto implementation, bundled in almost all Linux distributions, is the portable version of OpenSSH. A popular method used by attackers to maintain persistence on compromised Linux servers is to backdoor the OpenSSH server and client already installed.

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