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today's howtos

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  • [Old] ISO Compromise

    Engineering is about trade-offs and compromises. One of the most fundamental trade-offs to be made when designing a storage format is whether multi-byte numbers will be encoded as little or big endian numbers. But have you ever studied the data structures involved in ISO-9660, the standard filesystem format for optical discs? It seems that the committee tasked with developing this standard were unwilling to make this one tough decision and specified all multi-byte numbers as omni-endian. I just made that term up. Maybe it could be called bi-endian or multi-endian. The raw detail is that multi-byte numbers are stored in little endian format and then in big endian. For example, 0x11223344 is stored using 8 bytes: 0x44 0x33 0x22 0x11 0x11 0x22 0x33 0x44.

  • ISO-9660 Compromise, Part 2: Finding Root

    I recently discovered another bit of compromise in the ISO-9660 spec: It seems that there are 2 different methods for processing the directory structure. That means it’s incumbent upon ISO-9660 creation software to fill in the data structures to support both methods, because about some ISO-reading programs out there rely on one set of data structures while the rest prefer to read the other set.

  • Migrate CentOS 7 to 8 of AlmaLinux / CentOS Stream/ Rocky Linux / Oracle Linux

    Elevate is an open-source project developed by the AlmaLinux team that allows the migration of CentOS 7 to newer and major versions of RHEL-based distributions such as AlmaLinux 8, Rocky Linux 8, Oracle Linux 8, and CentOS Stream 8. It combines RedHat's Leapp framework with a community-developed library to assist with the migration.

    This instructional guide provides you with the steps to upgrade/migrate CentOS 7 to AlmaLinux 8 using Elevate.

  • How to use Here Document in bash programming

    A block of code or text which can be redirected to the command script or interactive program is called here document or HereDoc. Different types of scripting languages like bash, sh, csh, ksh, etc., can take text input directly using here-document without using any text file. So when the coder needs less amount of text data, then using code and data in the same file is the better option, and it can be done easily by using here-document in the script. Without scripting language, here document can also be used in various high-level languages like php, perl, etc. How you can use here-document in the bash script is shown in this tutorial.

    To use here-document in any bash script, you have to use the symbol << followed by any delimiting identifier after any bash command and close the HereDoc by using the same delimiting identifier at the end of the text. The syntax of writing HereDoc is shown below.

  • How to use single and multiple line comments in BASH

    Using comments in any script or code is very important to make the script more readable. Comments work as documentation for the script. The reader can easily understand each step of the script if the author properly comments on it. Comments are ignored when the script executes. The single line can be commented on very easily in the bash script. But there are multiple ways to comment on multiple lines in the bash script. How you can use single and multiple lines comments in bash scripts is shown in this tutorial.

  • How to install Oracle Database 21C on CentOS 8 - Unixcop

    Oracle DBMS is a multi-model database management system Basically it’s a SQL DB System.

    It is a database commonly used for running online transaction processing (OLTP), data warehousing (DW) and mixed (OLTP & DW) database workloads. Oracle Database is available by several service providers on-prem, on-cloud, or as hybrid cloud installation. It may be run on third party servers as well as on Oracle hardware (Exadata on-prem, on Oracle Cloud or at Cloud at Customer.

    Hello Guys ! We will discuss about Oracle DB today, surely, like every other tutorials, we will go through hands on ! But before that, some boring description about the Oracle DB, Hope you will get some important staffs from this.

    Oracle Database is the first database designed for enterprise grid computing, the most flexible and cost effective way to manage information and applications. Enterprise grid computing creates large pools of industry-standard, modular storage and servers. With this architecture, each new system can_be rapidly provisioned from the pool of components. There is no need for peak workloads, because capacity canbe easily added or reallocated from the resource pools as needed.

  • How to Install Nvidia 495.xx Beta Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye - LinuxCapable

    Most modern Linux Desktop systems such as Debian come with an Nvidia driver pre-installed in the Nouveau open-source graphics device driver for Nvidia video cards. For the most part, this is acceptable; however, if you are using your Linux system for graphical design or gaming, you may get better drivers.

    Historically, the Nouveau proprietary drivers are slower than Nvidia’s proprietary drivers, along with lacking the newest features, software technology, and support for the latest graphics card hardware. In most situations, upgrading your Nvidia Drivers using the following guide is more beneficial than not doing it. In some cases, you may see some substantial improvements overall.

    The following tutorial will teach you to install the latest bleeding-edge Nvidia Beta Graphic drivers for Debian 11 Bullseye.

  • How to download and Play Sid Meier’s Civilization VI on Linux

    Civilization 6 is a modern take on the classic RTS concept introduced in games like Age of Empires, StarCraft, etc. games.
    The idea of RTS games is fairly simple; you start in the basic era where farming and agriculture are the biggest keys to survival, and your army is not well equipped to handle situations as well. Then as your base focuses on research, your knowledge advances, and with enough research, you could transition into a different era of civilization which would bring numerous wonders for your base and your people.

  • Guide to using Apple Music on Linux with/without ‘Hack’

    If you are a music freak, there is no way you haven’t heard of Apple Music. Known as one of the best music streaming services platforms developed by Apple Inc. 4 years ago, offers over 50 million songs for streaming over several connected devices. Users have an option to stream their favorite songs on-demand and listen to curated playlists from all across the world.

  • How To Install Prometheus on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Prometheus on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, Prometheus is an open-source monitoring system with a dimensional data model, flexible query language, efficient time-series database, and a modern alerting approach.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Prometheus monitoring system on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • How To Use Mkdir Command on Linux - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to use the mkdir command on Linux. For those of you who didn’t know, mkdir command stands for make directory allows the user to create an empty directory on Linux operating system. This command can also create multiple folders at once as well as set permissions for folders. It is important to note that the user executing this command must have enough permissions to create a directory in the parent directory, or he/she may receive a ‘permission denied error.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the use of mkdir (Make Directory Command) on Linux. You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • Guide to Installing Linux on a Mac

    In modern times, Linux-based distributions have become one of the most widely used operating systems, competing with the likes of Windows and macOS. If you’re someone working in the field of Networking or anything related to Information Technology, the chances are that your workspace system uses a Linux distribution.

    This is because Linux provides a plethora of advanced features related to security, networking, privacy, ease of access, and adaptability that aren’t readily available in its competitors.

    With advantages like these, no doubt you’d want to switch to Linux as your go-to operating system.

    This guide is meant to help you learn how to install Linux on a Mac PC. The tutorial will help you run a Linux-based operating system on your Mac. Bear in mind this will completely overwrite the original OS.

  • How to Add Multiple Time Zones in Linux

    Are you tired of keeping track of different time zones for your work? Have you experienced time mix-ups and missed committed online meetings because of the time difference? If the answer to the above questions is yes, this article will show you how you can set the multiple time zones right there on your desktop bar.

    Gnome-clocks is an extremely simple and easy-to-use utility that can help you set up multiple time zones with just a few clicks.

  • How to Beautify Dynamic HTML5 Web App Using Online Tools

    As I begin the last article in this series, it is my hope that you have been able to grasp the importance of HTML 5 and mobile-friendly / responsive web development.

    Regardless of your desktop distribution of choice, Netbeans is a powerful IDE and when used together with basic Linux command-line skills and the tools discussed in Part 3, can help you to create outstanding applications without much hassle.

  • Configure Linux system auditing with auditd | Enable Sysadmin

    Sysadmins use audits to discover security violations and track security-relevant information on their systems. Based on preconfigured rules and properties, the audit daemon (auditd) generates log entries to record information about the events happening on the system. Administrators use this information to analyze what went wrong with the security policies and improve them further by taking additional measures.

    This article covers how to install, configure, and manage the audit service. It also shows how to define audit rules, search audit logs, and create audit reports. If you are new to system auditing, this article helps you gain a basic understanding and usage of audits on your system.

  • Configuring Java applications to use Cryostat | Red Hat Developer

    Cryostat is a profiling and monitoring tool that leverages the JDK Flight Recorder (JFR) framework already present in your HotSpot JVM applications. Cryostat provides an in-cluster collection hub for easy and secure access to your JDK Flight Recorder data from outside of the cluster.

    This article follows our recent announcement of Cryostat 2.0. It is the first of several hands-on guides to using Cryostat 2.0 in your Java applications. In this article, we'll explore how to set up and configure a Quarkus-based Java application to use Cryostat on Red Hat OpenShift.

  • How to Deploy HTML5 Website on a LAMP Server in Ubuntu

    In the previous two articles of this series, we explained how to set up Netbeans in a Linux desktop distribution as an IDE to develop web applications. We then proceeded to add two core components, jQuery and Bootstrap, in order to make your pages mobile-friendly and responsive.

    In this article, we will create a dynamic HTML5 web application using PHP/MySQL and jQuery in our development and deploy it to a remote web server in Ubuntu.

  • How to Install Bitwarden Password Manager on Debian 11

    Bitwarden is a free and open-source password manager that stores website credentials in an encrypted vault. It allows you to store all of your login credentials and keep them synced between all of your devices. It is designed for individuals, teams, and business organizations to manage their credentials from a centralized location. Bitwarden provides a client application for Desktop PC as well as, smartphones and tablets. It also provides a password generator for generating strong and secure passwords.

    In this post, we will show you how to install the Bitwarden password manager on Debian 11.

  • How to Install CyberPanel on Ubuntu 20.04 – VITUX

    CyberPanel is a control panel designed with the main purpose of being user-friendly for non-technical users. CyberPanel is very easy to learn because it uses a simple layout that most hosting companies are already familiar with. CyberPanel also has several features that most other control panels don’t have.

    CyberPanel offers an advanced interface that can be used instead of having to use FTP or SSH to upload files via the command line from your computer. CyberPanel also provides a service script installer so you can easily install scripts such as WordPress and Joomla without having to research how each script needs to be installed individually through FTP/ssh.

    CyberPanel has a fantastic feature called CSF Firewall which protects from brute force attacks, CyberPanel also allows you to manage the firewall through a dashboard along with many other management options CyberPanel offers a lot of different features that running your own control panel does not come with. CyberPanel also provides an API that can be used by hosting companies or developers for custom development projects. CyberPanel works on all major platforms such as Windows, Linux, BSD, FreeBSD, and Mac OS X.

  • How to Install NumPy on Ubuntu - Unixcop

    NumPy(Numerical Python) is a library for the Python programming language, adding support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a large collection of high-levelmathematicalfunctions to operate on these arrays.

    The ancestor of NumPy, Numeric, was originally created by Jim Hugunin with contributions from several other developers. In 2005, Travis Oliphant created NumPy by incorporating features of the competing Numarray into Numeric, with extensive modifications. NumPy is open-source software and has many contributors. NumPy is a NumFOCUS fiscally sponsored project.

    Apart from its multi dimensional array object, it also provides high-level functioning tools for working with arrays.

  • How to Write a Mobile-Friendly App Using JQuery & Bootstrap

    In Part 1 of this series, we set up a basic HTML 5 project using Netbeans as our IDE, and we also presented a few elements that have been added in this new specification of the language.

    In a few words, you can think of jQuery as a cross-browser and cross-platform Javascript library that can greatly simplify client-side scripting in HTML pages. On the other hand, Bootstrap can be described as a complete framework that integrates HTML, CSS, and Javascript tools to create mobile-friendly and responsive web pages.

    In this article, we will introduce you to jQuery and Bootstrap, two priceless utilities to write HTML 5 code more easily. Both jQuery and Bootstrap are licensed under the MIT and Apache 2.0 licenses, which are compatible with the GPL and are thus free software.

  • How to install and configure Apache on Debian 11?

    Apache is one of the most popular web servers out there but it is also the subject of many questions. Today we will try to answer two how to install and configure Apache web server on Debian 11.

    We’ve already talked about the Apache web server on Debian 11, but it’s always good to remember that it’s a software-level web server from the Apache Foundation. That is, it is open source and we can use it in almost any circumstances.

    For this reason, any users want to know how to configure it to serve their websites. Although this varies greatly according to the site and its needs, at least have a gateway to Apache.

    In addition to this, Apache has a lot of documentation that will help us in case we have doubts in the process. This documentation should be read before working with the application.

  • How to use Cloudformation to create a VPC on AWS

    Using Cloudformation, we can create and manage AWS resources very easily. Cloudformation can be used to manage all AWS resources using a text file. Cloudformation allows us to create and model our infrastructure and applications without having to perform actions manually. Cloudformation helps us to manage our complete infrastructure in a text file, or template. Cloudformation template is a formatted text file in JSON or YAML language that describes our AWS infrastructure.

    In this article, we will see a Cloudformation to create a VPC with 2 Public and 2 Private Subnets.

  • How to use and install Rofi on Linux tutorial

    Rofi is a free and open source application typically used in the context of very minimal graphical environments on Linux (simple windows manager like i3, instead of full fledged desktop environments like GNOME or KDE). Rofi has multiple functions: it can work as a window switcher, an application launcher or a run dialog, and can be used as a replacement for dmenu. In this tutorial we see how to install it on some of the most used Linux distributions, and how to use it.

  • Gentoo Linux: Building/rebuilding a kernel and Intel CPU microcode in an installation without initramfs | Fitzcarraldo's Blog

    In a 2016 post I explained how to update the Intel CPU microcode in a Gentoo Linux Stable Branch installation without an initramfs (I do not use sys-kernel/genkernel to build the kernel in the installation on my Clevo W230SS laptop). The behaviour of the tool sys-apps/iucode_tool for updating the Intel CPU microcode has changed since that post, hence this update.

    Although not essential I normally perform the microcode upgrade procedure when I either rebuild or upgrade the Linux kernel, therefore I explain both procedures contiguously here.

    These days the grub-mkconfig command edits the file /boot/grub/grub.cfg to add a line to the GRUB menu entries, to load the CPU microcode at boot, but nevertheless I prefer to follow a slightly different method that works reliably for me.

  • Bash Case Statement - OSTechNix

    In the previous article, we have seen how to work with conditional statements in bash to evaluate conditions and take decisions based on the results. Similarly, in this article, we will learn how to use case statement in Bash scripts, which is also used to evaluate conditions. You can use a Bash case statement instead of writing a long list of if..elif..else statement. If you have no idea about conditional statements, we have a detailed article on the topic. I suggest you take a look at it before reading this article.

  • File Searching on Kubuntu

    This tutorial explains how a user can search for files and folders on a Kubuntu computer. This tutorial applies to Dolphin, the file manager of Kubuntu, thus also applies to any other systems that use Dolphin like KaOS and openSUSE.

  • Tee Command in Linux with Examples – TecAdmin

    Whenever the user executes some command in the terminal, the output is displayed there in the terminal as an output. We can change this behavior through the use of the command “tee”.

    The Tee command in Linux is mostly used in combination with other commands, it reads the input and in response to that writes the output to one or more files. It does this so that the output can be displayed as well as saved to a file at the same time. In this article, we will learn more about the tee command, from its syntax to its use along with examples to help you understand better.

More in Tux Machines

Security Leftovers

  • Linux Fixes Spectre V1 SWAPGS Mitigation After Being Partially Borked Since Last Year - Phoronix

    This week's set of "x86/urgent" changes for the Linux 5.16-rc4 kernel due out later today has some Spectre V1 fixes after kernel commits last year ended up partially messing things up around its SWAPGS handling. These fixes in turn will also likely be back-ported to relevant stable kernel series. Thanks to an Alibaba engineer, Lai Jiangshan, are some important fixes around the Spectre V1 SWAPGS mitigation that are landing today in the mainline kernel.

  • Reproducible Builds: Reproducible Builds in November 2021

    As a quick recap, whilst anyone may inspect the source code of free software for malicious flaws, almost all software is distributed to end users as pre-compiled binaries. The motivation behind the reproducible builds effort is therefore to ensure no flaws have been introduced during this compilation process by promising identical results are always generated from a given source, thus allowing multiple third-parties to come to a consensus on whether a build was compromised. If you are interested in contributing to our project, please visit our Contribute page on our website.

  • Reproducible Builds (diffoscope): diffoscope 195 released

    The diffoscope maintainers are pleased to announce the release of diffoscope version 195. This version includes the following changes:

    [ Chris Lamb ]
    * Don't use the runtime platform's native endianness when unpacking .pyc
      files to fix test failures on big-endian machines.
    

Linux 5.16-rc4

Fairly small rc4 this week. Three areas stand out in the diff: some
kvm fixes (and tests), network driver fixes, and the tegra SoC sound
fixes.

The rest is fairly spread out: drm fixes, some filesystem stuff,
various arch updates, and some smattering of random driver fixes.

Nothing looks all that scary, although I certainly hope the kvm side
will calm down.

                  Linus
Read more Also: Linux 5.16-rc4 Released - "Nothing Looks All That Scary"

EFF Argument in Patent Troll Case to Be Livestreamed on Monday

At 10 am Monday, FOSS folks and others interested in software patent litigation will have a chance to have a firsthand look at how our courts address patent cases. The case involves a “notorious patent troll,” according to Electronic Frontiers Foundation, that is trying to hide information from Apple, which it’s suing. “At a federal appeals court hearing that will be livestreamed, attorney Alexandra H. Moss, Executive Director at Public Interest Patent Law Institute, who is assisting EFF in the case, will argue that a judge’s order to unseal all documents and preserve public access in the case of Uniloc USA, Inc. v. Apple Inc. should be upheld,” EFF said in a statement on Thursday. “Uniloc is entitled to resolve its patent dispute in publicly-funded courts, Moss will argue, but it’s not entitled to do so secretly.” EFF said that this is the second time the plaintiff, Uniloc, has appealed an order to be more transparent in this case. Read more

Gnuastro 0.16 released

Dear all,

I am happy to announce the 16th official release of GNU Astronomy
Utilities (Gnuastro version 0.16).

Gnuastro is an official GNU package, consisting of various
command-line programs and library functions for the manipulation and
analysis of (astronomical) data. All the programs share the same basic
command-line user interface (modeled on GNU Coreutils). For the full
list of Gnuastro's library, programs, and a comprehensive general
tutorial (recommended place to start using Gnuastro), please see the
links below respectively:

https://www.gnu.org/s/gnuastro/manual/html_node/Gnuastro-library.html
https://www.gnu.org/s/gnuastro/manual/html_node/Gnuastro-programs-list.html
https://www.gnu.org/s/gnuastro/manual/html_node/General-program-usage-tutorial.html

For a complete review of the new/changed features in this release,
please see [1] below (also available in the 'NEWS' file within the
source code tarball).

Here is the compressed source and the GPG detached signature for this
release. To uncompress Lzip tarballs, see [2]. To check the validity
of the tarballs using the GPG detached signature (*.sig) see [3]:

  https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gnuastro/gnuastro-0.16.tar.lz    (3.7MB)
  https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gnuastro/gnuastro-0.16.tar.gz    (5.9MB)
  https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gnuastro/gnuastro-0.16.tar.gz.sig (833B)
  https://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gnuastro/gnuastro-0.16.tar.lz.sig (833B)

Here are the SHA1 and SHA256 checksums (other ways to check if the
tarball you download is what we distributed). Just note that the
SHA256 checksum is base64 encoded, instead of the hexadecimal encoding
that most checksum tools default to.

fe1f84bf1be270f1a62091e9a5f89bb94b182154  gnuastro-0.16.tar.lz
B4hftfYuyc7x3I6aEJ2SQlkp6x7zOOrPz/bK2koGuR8  gnuastro-0.16.tar.lz
1ae00673648fe8db5630f1de9d70b49fadb42d7d  gnuastro-0.16.tar.gz
kMEdJbsFrRNxDLX4EXntgXNgikJv3/2LIEWGLV/e4i0  gnuastro-0.16.tar.gz

For this release, Pedram Ashofteh Ardakani, Natáli D. Anzanello,
Sepideh Eskandarlou, Raúl Infante-Sainz, Vladimir Markelov and Zahra
Sharbaf directly contributed to the source of Gnuastro, I am very
grateful to all of them. I should also thank Alejandro Serrano
Borlaff, Fernando Buitrago, Mark Calabretta, Zohreh Ghaffari, Giulia
Golini, Leslie Hunt, Raúl Infante-Sainz, Matthias Kluge, Juan Miro,
Juan Molina Tobar, Markus Schaney, Zahra Sharbaf, Vincenzo Testa,
Ignacio Trujillo and Aaron Watkins for their very good suggestions or
bug reports that have been implemented in Gnuastro 0.16.

If any of Gnuastro's programs or libraries are useful in your work,
please cite _and_ acknowledge them. For citation and acknowledgment
guidelines, run the relevant programs with a `--cite' option (it can
be different for different programs, so run it for all the programs
you use). Citations _and_ acknowledgments are vital for the continued
work on Gnuastro, so please don't forget to support us by doing so.

This tarball was bootstrapped (created) with the tools below. Note
that you don't need these to build Gnuastro from the tarball, these
are the tools that were used to make the tarball itself. They are only
mentioned here to be able to reproduce/recreate this tarball later.
  Texinfo 6.8
  Autoconf 2.71
  Automake 1.16.4
  Help2man 1.48.5
  ImageMagick 7.1.0-9
  Gnulib v0.1-4944-g7fc3219bc
  Autoconf archives v2021.02.19-29-g0fbee2a

The dependencies to build Gnuastro from this tarball on your system
are described here:
  https://www.gnu.org/s/gnuastro/manual/html_node/Dependencies.html

Best wishes,
Mohammad
Read more