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today's howtos

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  • How To Add Shortcuts on Ubuntu Desktop

    The desktop is the first thing that greets the user when they login to their computer. It’s the reference point for all your navigation. Speaking of which, navigation can be made much easier through shortcuts. Most users prefer to put shortcuts to various applications on the desktop to launch applications quickly. This way, they don’t have to go looking for them in their corresponding directories.

    On Windows, many application installers prompt the user to add a shortcut to the application on the desktop. If the user didn’t accept the option, the shortcut could be created simply by navigating the application’s .exe file, right-clicking on it, selecting Send To, and then Desktop (create shortcut). However, executing the same thing on Linux is slightly more complicated.

    Most of the popular Linux desktop environments like KDE Plasma, XFCE, and Cinnamon also allow users to add their favorite application shortcuts on their desktop. On the other hand, GNOME (Ubuntu’s desktop) does not provide this option by default. Fortunately, Canonical ships an extension with Ubuntu out-of-the-box, which allows the user to add desktop shortcuts.

  • How To Install Synfig Studio on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Synfig Studio on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, Synfig Studio is a free and open-source 2D animation software, designed as a powerful industrial-strength solution for creating film-quality animation using vector and bitmap artwork. Synfig Studio is available for Windows, Linux, and macOS.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you the step-by-step installation of the Synfig Studio open-source 2D animation software on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How To Upgrade Ubuntu 21.04 To Ubuntu 21.10 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to upgrade Ubuntu 21.04 to Ubuntu 21.10. For those of you who didn’t know, Ubuntu 21.10 is a non-LTS release, which means it will be supported for 9 months only, until July 2022. If you prefer stability over bleeding edge, then stick with Ubuntu 20.04. But if you want to experience the latest and greatest software, you can follow this tutorial to upgrade.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step upgrading from Ubuntu 21.04 (Hirsute Hippo) to Ubuntu 21.10 (Impish Indri).

  • How to Backup Ext2, Ext3, or Ext4 File Systems in Linux

    The file systems used in Linux are its primary distinction from other operating system environments. At a glance, we have Ext2 (second extended), Ext3 (third extended), and Ext4 (fourth extended) file systems.

    The implementation of the Ext2 file system overcame the limitations posed by Ext; the original Linux file system. Ext2 does not support any journaling feature, has 16GB to 2TB maximum individual file size, and 2TB to 32TB being its overall file system size.

    Ext3 file system availability and support are from Linux Kernel 2.4.15 to earlier versions. It accommodates the journaling feature; absent on Ext2. It also has 16GB to 2TB maximum individual file size and 2TB to 32TB overall file system size.

  • How to Check Disk Space in Ubuntu – TecAdmin

    Disk space is used to refer to the computer space amount on the hard drive, floppy, USB, etc, and is usually measured in large units like kilobytes, megabytes. We can also simply say that disk space is the maximum amount of data that a disk is capable of holding and any type of media that can hold some data have disk capacity.

    As we save data to a disk, the disk usage increases day by day and it is important to monitor that data so our disk capacity or disk space doesn’t reach its limit. We can monitor data on any device including computers, mobiles, laptops as well as Linux servers. Suppose you have a 200GB hard disk and you are going to install PubG game on your computer which requires at least 30GB of free space on your hard drive. In this case, first, you are going to check the disk space and make sure that 30GB is available to download and install the pubg game.

    In this article, all the necessary steps will be taken to teach you how to check disk space in Ubuntu 20.04 with two methods which are graphical user interface (GUI) and also via command line/ terminal.

  • How to Check/Repair Linux File System on Boot

    An operating system user that is still a learner in the OS world can never escape the challenges the current elite users have overcome. The user impact of such challenges depends on the operating system flavor or distribution you are under.

    For Linux users, you might think you are facing an impossible challenge only to realize that there are multiple valid solutions for every single OS problem faced.

  • How to Disable (or Enable) Firewall in Ubuntu 20.04 - Linux Nightly

    Ubuntu comes with ufw (uncomplicated firewall) installed by default. This is a frontend for iptables/nftables, the built-in Linux firewall, and is meant to make firewall management a bit easier.

  • How to Install & Configure Linux Malware Detect (Maldet) on AlmaLinux 8 - LinuxCapable

    Linux Malware Detect (LMD), also known as Maldet, is a malware scanner for Linux released under the GNU GPLv2 license. Maldet is quite popular amongst sysadmins and website devs due to its focus on the detection of PHP backdoors, dark mailers, and many other malicious files that can be uploaded on a compromised website using threat data from network edge intrusion detection systems to extract malware that is actively being used in attacks and generates signatures for detection.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install and use Maldet on AlmaLinux 8.

  • How to Install Asterisk 18 on Ubuntu 20.04

    Asterisk is a popular open-source PBX framework for VoIP gateway development. It is an online telephone solution used by individuals, small and large businesses, enterprises, and various governments.

    Asterisk uses a VoIP protocol to make calls over the internet using the TCP/IP instead of the traditional land telephone line. Its features include voicemail, music on hold, conference calling, call queuing, call recording, interactive voice response, SMS messaging, automatic call distribution, and more. Asterisk can be installed on multiple operating systems, including Linux, NetBSD, macOS, and Solaris, among others.

  • How to Install GNOME 40 Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 - LinuxCapable

    GNOME 40 introduces many changes from visual changes, new apps and overhaul back-end changes to improve performance. Overall, it is vastly different from what previous Gnome versions have looked before.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install the new GNOME 40 on your Ubuntu desktop.

  • How to Install ModSecurity for Nginx on Debian/Ubuntu

    It is every developer’s desire to deploy secure web applications which are safe from threats. On most occasions, this is effortless said than done. The frequency of websites being hacked keeps rising as hackers continue to exploit all attack vectors at their disposal.

    WebApp security can be a huge challenge especially with the prevalence of malicious tools such as rootkits, scanners, bots, and other malware. Although getting breached may seem a matter of when if not if, it is prudent to implement some decent security measures to safeguard your web applications.

  • How to Install Rust and Cargo on Ubuntu & Other Linux

    Ever since Mozilla dumped Rust, it has gained even more prominence and popularity. Don’t just take my words for it. Rust is going to be included in the Linux kernel, only the second programming language after C.

  • How to Install Snap & Snap-Store (Snapcraft) on Fedora 35 - LinuxCapable

    By default, Fedora does not come with Snap or Snap Store installed as this is a feature that was built by developed by Canonical as a faster and easier way to get the latest versions of software installed on Ubuntu systems, and Snap packages are installed from a central SNAP server operated by Canonical.

    Snap can be installed and, for the most part, work with most packages on Fedora-based systems that are currently actively supported. There are a few conflicts with specific packages. The issue with Snaps VS DNF package manager is that Snaps are self-contained, which results in an increased .snap due to having all its dependencies included along with various degrees of slight performance degradation compared to a natively installed application. In contrast, DNF is much lighter than its snap counterpart because it doesn’t need to bundle dependencies.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install Snapcraft and have the ability to use this feature going forward in Fedora 35.

  • How to Install Telegram on Debian 11 Bullseye - LinuxCapable

    Telegram is a popular free cross-platform, cloud-based instant messaging system. Telegram is famous for providing end-to-end encrypted video calling, VoIP, file sharing, amongst many other features. One of the main attractions of Telegram, it is unique in having no ties or shared interests with the big social media giants such as Facebook or Twitter. The application is also cross-platform, with app versions available for most operating systems for desktops and mobile/tablet devices.

    In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install the Telegram client on Debian 11 Bullseye.

  • How to check ZFS File system storage pool on Linux/Unix - nixCraft

    First, there is no fsck command for ZFS, which Linux and Unix use for file system repair. However, ZFS comes with a scrub option. This subcommand is a root-initiated dynamic consistency check. It runs in the background on a mounted live filesystem. Hence, we use the zpool scrub command for ZFS storage and test file system integrity. Let us see how to check ZFS File system storage pool on Linux, FreeBSD or Unix-like systems using the command-line option.

  • Linux Iptables List and Show All NAT IPTables Rules Command - nixCraft

    I am using /sbin/iptables -L -v -n | more command. However, I am unable to list NAT rules. How do I use the iptables command to view or list NAT rules stored in NAT tables? How do I see all the rules in NAT tables under CentOS / RHEL / Debian / Ubuntu Linux based server?

    /sbin/iptables command for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT. Network address translation (NAT) imodifyies IP address information in IP packet headers while in transit across a routing device.

  • How to install Yourls in CentOS 8 - Unixcop

    YOURLS (Your Own URL Shortener) is an open source URL shortening and data analytics application.

    We will cover the process of installing YOURLS on a CentOS 8 server.

  • How to install and configure docker on Debian 11 – Citizix

    In this guide we are going to learn how to install docker on Debian 11 (Bullseye).

    Docker is an open source containerization platform. It enables developers to package applications into containers—standardized executable components combining application source code with the operating system (OS) libraries and dependencies required to run that code in any environment.

    Docker is a set of platform as a service products that use OS-level virtualization to deliver software in packages called containers. Containers are isolated from one another and bundle their own software, libraries and configuration files; they can communicate with each other through well-defined channels.

  • How to install pip on Debian 11 – Citizix

    Pip is a package-management system written in Python used to install and manage software packages. It is a package management system that simplifies installation and management of software packages written in Python such as those found in the Python Package Index (PyPI). Pip is not installed by default on Debian 11.

    In this guide we will learn how to install Python Pip on Debian 11 using the apt package manager.

  • Difference Between “su” and “su -” Commands in Linux - Unixcop

    As a new Linux user, you may always face confusion regarding the difference between su command and su – command.

    This article will help you to understand the difference between “su” and “su -“ in Linux.

  • How to manage Jenkins plugins - Anto ./ Online

    Jenkins uses plugins extensively. Most Jenkins features are all implemented as plugins. Jenkins plugins provide features to support building, deploying, and automating any project. Believe it or not, but there are over 1800+ community-contributed Jenkins plugins available. This guide will show you how to manage Jenkins plugins.

    Jenkins plugins are Java Archive (JAR) files with either an .hpi or .jpi extension. The jpi plugin gets precedence over the hpi plugin in case both are present.

  • 19 Commands to monitor the Network Activity in Linux - ByteXD

    To manage all network activities you should have detailed knowledge about how to check network load, bandwidth usage, active connections, connections sockets, and how much bandwidth is used by processes on your Linux system.

    In this article, we will discuss 19 useful commands that help monitor your network activity on Linux. The commands are executed on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. We will also show how to install these command-line tools or utilities in Ubuntu / Debian systems.

  • Migrate containers from Raspberry Pi OS to Fedora Linux

    This article explains how to transition a typical container setup from Raspberry Pi OS to Fedora Linux at the example of the Traefik reverse-proxy. We start with an already setup Fedora Linux to keep this one to the point, which is getting to know fundamental differences and options when first touching down on Fedora Linux and podman.

  • Where are Docker Images, Containers and Volumes Stored?

    Want to know where Docker images, containers and volumes are located?

    In a typical Linux environment, you can find the Docker image and container data in:

    If your server is running out of space, you should definitely take a look into this directory.

    Primarily, all Docker related entities are located at /var/lib/docker. But let us look into it more specifically, with the Alpine image and container as a hands-on example.

    Note: Please note that this information is for educational purpose only. Manipulating with host system Docker directories/files are never actually recommended. The docker and docker-compose commands should be the preferred method always. Physically located Docker directories/files should be accessed or manipulated only as a last resort during emergency situations.

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today's leftovers

  • Mesa's Classic Drivers Have Been Retired - Affecting ATI R100/R200 & More - Phoronix

    The day has finally come that Mesa's classic OpenGL drivers (non-Gallium3D) have been cleared out of the code-base as part of their modernization effort for mainline. After a half-year pending, the "Delete Mesa Classic" merge request was honored today in eliminating the Mesa "classic" OpenGL drivers from the code-base. The drivers will still be maintained in an "Amber" branch, but considering how little focus these drivers have been receiving by upstream Mesa developers currently, don't expect much (or, if any) real changes moving ahead.

  • Steam support for Chromebooks could surface this week

    After months and months and even more months of waiting, it appears that we may finally get our first look at native Steam gaming on Chrome OS in the very near future. Affectionately known as project ‘Borealis’, the containerized version of Steam has been in the works for nearly two years and it was initially thought that Google was targeting mid to late 2022 for a release. With Chrome OS 96 just rolling out and the next iteration of Google’s desktop operating system not due until January of 2022, it’s fairly clear that this target was missed but that’s okay. I’d rather see a fully baked product released than a buggy piece of software that sours users to Chrome OS. Anyway, in its early development, I presumed that ‘Borealis’, a.k.a. Steam on Chrome OS, would simply be an optimized version of the Steam application that would install and run inside the current Linux container. Over time, we learned that Google was actually creating an entirely new container designed specifically to house Borealis and that it should run independently from the Debian container currently available in Stable Chrome OS. This makes more sense as Google can retain control of the Borealis container and keep it neat and clean for running Steam. Presumably, users will never actually interact with the container like you can with the Linux terminal.

  • iXsystems Recognized in 11th Annual Best in Biz Awards for Most Innovative Product Line of the Year

    TrueNAS by iXsystems is the world’s most popular Open Source storage operating system and is the most efficient solution for managing and sharing data over a network. TrueNAS Open Storage provides unified storage for file, block, object, and application data – making it an exceptionally flexible storage platform for business. All TrueNAS editions -- CORE, Enterprise, and SCALE -- leverage the enterprise-grade OpenZFS file system to provide an all-inclusive data management solution that protects customer data with features like Copy-on-Write, Snapshots, Checksums, Scrubbing, and 2-Copy Metadata.

today's howtos

  • 2 ways to install Chrome Browser on Ubuntu 22.04 | 20.04 Linux

    Looking for an answer to how do I install Google Chrome browser in Ubuntu 22.04 Jammy Jelly Fish or Ubuntu 20.04 Focal fossa? Then here are the commands to follow. Chrome is the free internet browser from Google and with its search engine as default. It is currently one of the popular and most widely used browsers in the world, ahead of Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Internet Explorer (Edge). In terms of function and security, Google Chrome is well-positioned. Although Firefox is the default browser in Ubuntu, those who are not a fan of it and want Chrome can switch to it any time. The easiest possible methods are here.

  • How To Install Glances on AlmaLinux 8 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Glances on AlmaLinux 8. For those of you who didn’t know, Glances is a cross-platform curses-based system monitoring tool written in Python. Glances provide information regarding memory, CPU, Disk IO, file system, Uptime, processes, interfaces, alerts & many other system information. This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of Glances real-time Linux server monitoring on an AlmaLinux 8. You can follow the same instructions for Fedora, RHEL, CentOS, and Rocky Linux distributions.

  • Add Second Disk to Existing TrueNAS Pool in Mirror Configuration (RAID1)

    We are using the TrueNAS homelab server that we created some time ago to provide a share storage solution for Kubernetes. When we built the TrueNAS server, we went for the most basic and least expensive ZFS pool with a single disk. It worked well but did not provide any redundancy. While we didn’t store any important data in Kubernetes at the time, we do now. We’ve got ElasticSearch logs, WordPress MySQL databases, Prometheus metrics etc. We’ve purchased a second hard drive that is of the same size, and we want to use it as a mirror disk, also known as RAID1, to ensure that no data loss occurs in a case of a single drive failure.

  • Install AnyDesk on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Jammy via Command terminal

    AnyDesk is an alternative to Teamviewer kind of application that enables the users to establish a connection for accessing remote Dekstop or Laptop via the Internet. Just like TeamViewer, it is also free for personal usage while commercial users need to buy licenses. Apart from Linux, AnyDesk is also available for Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, FreeBSD, Raspberry Pi, and Chrome OS. Here we will see how to install AnyDesk on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Jammy JellyFish using its repository and command terminal.

  • How to Use the du Command to Find Disk Usage in Linux - ByteXD

    The du (Disk Usage) command reports the estimated amount of disk space used by files and directories on a machine. It allows you to gain disk usage information quickly, and it can be used for things like tracking files and directories that are using up too much space on your disk drive. The du command accepts many options, which allow you to customize the disk usage results output in a variety of formats to meet your needs.

  • FinalCrypt

    Installation (Sparky 6 & 7 amd64): sudo apt update sudo apt install finalcrypt