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today's howtos

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HowTos
  • How to Use Sudo Command in Linux? – Linux Hint

    Among the different concepts of an operating system, the most crucial one is access control, which specifies the level of access that is granted to each user of that operating system. The access control policies ensure that no user is allowed to perform those activities for which he has not been granted any privileges. The two most common types of users in any operating system are the root user (has administrative level privileges) and the guest user (only has a limited set of privileges).

  • Settings to Try with Firefox

    There are various stories about Firefox not respecting user privacy. Some suggest certain settings to reduce the information Firefox sends out (such as this one from Mozilla). Over time, I have collected a lot of them into a user.js file. For those who do not know, a user.js file may be dropped into a Firefox profile directory as a convenient way to force certain settings every time Firefox starts up. This can reset changes made by the user during a previous session, but is also a convenient way to initialize desired settings in a fresh profile.

    In an IRC discussion, Martyb suggested I share the settings I have collected. Below is a sample user.js that I sometimes use as a template for disabling many potential privacy and/or security holes in Firefox. Some, like HTML pings, are probably features that most privacy-minded individuals do not want (and may not have even known about). Others, like disabling cookies and/or javascript, can break how sites work (sometimes, amusingly, they only break the advertisements). Others, like disabling tracker protection, are double-edged in that disabling them exposes you to being tracked by known trackers, while enabling them might cause Firefox to phone home to get updated lists of known trackers. The comments in the user.js point out some, but definitely not all, of the potential pitfalls. The settings are definitely not set the way everybody should use them, but having them listed out at least provides a convenient starting point. I highly recommend against dropping them directly into your main Firefox profile, as they may undo changes you have made for yourself. Instead, either try them in a fresh profile and copy over things that work for you, or research the settings and only copy over the ones you want that will not break your browser.

  • How To check LXD container BTRFS disk usage on Linux

    Find LXD container disk size and how much space they are using when storage back end set to BTRFS.

  • How to Install Perl Modules on Debian Linux? – Linux Hint

    Perl is a very popular high-level programming language. It is a scripting language, in fact, whose syntax resembles closely with C and C++. A Perl module is defined as a collection of related functions. It is very much similar to the concept of libraries is C++ and Java. This means that if you intend to run a function in Perl, you must have the respective module for that function installed on your system. That is why in this article, we will be learning the method of installing Perl modules on Debian 10.

  • How to Format a Drive in Linux – Linux Hint

    Formatting a drive is necessary whenever you are trying to erase data on a drive or partition or to create a new partition. Before formatting a partition or drive, it is strongly recommended to make sure that there is nothing important there, as formatting may erase the data for good.

  • How to Install and Configure OpenVPN Server in CentOS 8/7

    In this article, we will explain how to set up a VPN server using OpenVPN with two remote clients (a Linux box and a Windows machine) on an RHEL/CentOS 8/7 box.

  • How to set up a Kubernetes cluster in Ubuntu 20.04 > Tux-Techie

    In this tutorial, we are going to set up a Kubernetes cluster with two Ubuntu 20.04 servers. Learn how to set up for master and worker nodes.

  • How to find Linux distribution name and Version? – Linux Hint

    While you are working on new Linux distribution, you might not know which Linux version is installed on your system. Sometimes, you need to meet a few system requirements while running an application on your system. However, different ways are available to check the Version of installed Linux distribution. Linux Mint 20 is the most growing Linux distribution and has a number of available graphical user interfaces that may vary from one user to the other. Hence, each user may also have a different running procedure. For this purpose, the recommended solution is to access and open the terminal command-line application.

  • How To Safely Remove PPA Repositories in Ubuntu – Linux Hint

    PPA is popularly known as Personal Package Archives, it provide Ubuntu users to get new and updated software regularly. Some are officials and provided by Ubuntu developers.

  • How to Change or Reset Root Password in Linux – Linux Hint

    If you have not logged in as a root user for a long time and have not saved the login information anywhere, there is a chance that you may lose access to the credentials for your system. It is not an unusual occurrence, but rather, a common issue, which most Linux users have probably encountered before. If this happens, you can easily change or reset the password via the command-line or the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

    But what do you do if the root password must be modified or reset?

    This article shows you how to change the root password for your Linux Mint 20 system via three different methods.

  • Use mobile numbers for user authentication in Keycloak - Red Hat Developer

    Use Keycloak's authentication service provider interface to develop a custom MobileAuthenticator class that you can run in your JBoss EAP container.

  • How to List All Users in a Linux System – Linux Hint

    At any given time, multiple users can operate a single computer system. However, with such shared systems, a system administrator must take the proper security measures so that one user cannot breach the privacy of another by, for example, applying an access control mechanism that specifies the privileges of each user.

    At times, a change in user privileges might be necessary. For example, a user might need his or her privileges extended for a certain task, or a ability of a certain user to access the system may have to be revoked entirely. In such scenarios, it is important for the system administrator to have complete knowledge of all users of the system.

    In this article, we explore the methods used to list the users of a Linux system. Both graphical user interface (GUI)-based methods and command line interface (CLI)-based methods can be used for this task; however, this article focuses on four terminal-based methods.

  • iSH Shell app lets you locally run a Linux shell environment on iPhone and iPad - 9to5Mac

    If you always wanted to have a fully functional Terminal on your iPhone or iPad, now you can. Today the new iSH Shell app was officially released on the App Store to let iOS users locally interact with a Linux shell environment.

    The iSH project started a few months ago with a beta app, but now the developer was able to release it on the App Store for everyone. iSH Shell runs on usermode x86 emulation, and it uses syscall translation so it can run locally on iOS.

  • How to Merge PDF Files on the Command Line? – Linux Hint

    PDF is the most frequently used file format all over the world. This file format is not only used for personal documents but also for professional documents. At times, you might have multiple inter-related PDF files, and you wish to integrate them all as a single PDF file. Therefore, today we will be explaining to you the different methods of merging PDF files on the command line.

  • Making Docker Work in Your Computer Infrastructure | Mind Matters

    By itself, Docker makes great use of filesystem space. Because each container only holds the changes from the images, a little bit of image bloat doesn’t directly impact the server adversely. However, this doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t worry about bloat at all. Not only should we not waste space without reason, images that are too big cause other problems that you need to be aware of.

    The most important consideration is attack surface. Every program that you have on your image is a potential hole for a hacker to exploit. Keeping unneeded software off of your container is the easiest first step to maintaining secure containers.

    However, in more general terms, everything on your container will wind up needing maintenance at some point. The more software you have installed, the more maintenance you will be subject to. You might think, “If I don’t use it, how does it cause maintenance issues?” Well, most software is written by a software team, not just a single individual. I have noticed that, if something is available to use, some member of the team will eventually find an excuse to use it. So, the more software that you leave on your container, the more tools your team will eventually make use of. Additionally, those team members may not even remember to document which operating system tools they are using. Therefore, it is best to start off with the most minimal set of tools you can, and then only add when absolutely necessary. Then your team will think twice before adding something, and— more importantly—it will be added explicitly to your Dockerfile, which makes it easier to spot.

  • What is LVM (Logical Volume Management), and what are its Benefits? – Linux Hint

    Logical Volume Management or LVM is a framework of the Linux operating system that has been introduced for the easier management of physical storage devices. The concept of logical volume management is very much similar to the concept of virtualization, i.e. you can create as many virtual storage volumes on top of a single storage device as you want. The logical storage volumes thus created can be expanded or shrunk according to your growing or reducing storage needs.

  • How to Search for Files on Linux from the Command Line? – Linux Hint

    In any computer system, you have got tons of different files. Some of them are system files that are there since the very beginning, whereas some of them are user files that you create on your own as per your needs. However, when there is a large bulk of files, and you only wish to search for a particular file or set of files for any specific task, then the process of looking for that file or files manually can be extremely tedious as you have to go to each and every directory in search of that file or files that you need. And even then, it is not assured that you will be effectively able to find all those files.

    Thankfully, our operating systems these days are efficient enough that they present us with different ways in which we can automate this task and make it more speedy. Like other operating systems, Linux also enables us to search for files automatically via terminal commands. Therefore, today, our discussion will revolve around exploring the different methods of searching for files on Linux from the command line.

More in Tux Machines

Zotero: An Open Source App to Help You Collect & Share Research

Zotero is a completely open-source project that you can find on GitHub. It aims to help you easily collect, organize, add notes, and share your research. And, all of that without being a cloud-based service, it is completely offline. So, your research notes belong to you. Of course, unless you want to sync it for collaboration purpose, for which you may have to refer the documentation. To give you a head start, you can either opt for a WebDAV storage or just create a Zotero account to sync and share your research easily. Read more

GhostBSD 20.11.28 Release Announcement

I am happy to announce the availability of GhostBSD 20.11.28. This release comes with a new live system that leverages ZFS, compression, and replication first introduced in FuryBSD by Joe Maloney. The 20.11.28 release contains numerous improvements, including OS fixes for linuxulator to improve Linux Steam performance, an updated kernel, and GhostBSD userland updates. Userland updates include a MATE desktop upgrade to version 1.24.1, Software Station performance improvements, and numerous application updates. Read more

Linux 5.10-rc6

For the first part of the week, it really looked like things were
calming down quite nicely, and I mentally already went "Ahh,
Thanksgiving week, this is going to be a nice small, calm rc".

And then Friday rolled around, and everybody sent me their pull
requests for the week, and it all looks very normal again.

But at least this week isn't unusually bigger than normal - it's a
pretty normal rc6 stat-wise.  So unless we have some big surprising
left-overs coming up, I think we're in good shape.

And the diffstat looks nice and flat too,  which is a sign of just
widespread small fixes, rather than some big last-minute changes. The
exception is a chunk of fixes to the new vidtv driver, but that is not
only a new driver, it's a virtual test-driver for validation and
development rather than something that would affect users.

That vidtv driver shows up very clearly in the patch stats too, but
other than that it all looks very normal: mostly driver updates (even
ignoring the vidtv ones), with the usual smattering of small fixes
elsewhere - architecture code, networking, some filesystem stuff.

So I'm feeling pretty good about 5.10, and I hope I won't be proven
wrong about that. But please do test,

                 Linus

Read more

Review: Trisquel GNU/Linux 9.0

Trisquel GNU/Linux is an entirely free (libre) distribution based on Ubuntu. Trisquel offers a variety of desktop editions, all of which are stripped of non-free software components. The project is one of the few Linux distributions endorsed by the Free Software Foundation and a rare project that attempts to both be entirely free and friendly to less experienced Linux users. The Trisquel website lists several desktop editions. The main edition (which is a 2.5GB download) features the MATE desktop environment while the Mini edition is about half the size and runs LXDE. There is also a KDE Plasma edition (called Triskel) along with Trisquel TOAST which runs the Sugar learning platform. Finally, there is a minimal net-install option for people who are comfortable building their system from the ground up using a command line interface. The release announcement for Trisquel 9.0 is fairly brief and does not mention many features. The bulk of the information is provided in this paragraph: "The default web browser Abrowser, our freedom and privacy respecting take on Mozilla's browser, provides the latest updates from upstream for a great browsing experience. Backports provide extended hardware support." Though it does not appear to be mentioned specifically in the release announcement, Trisquel 9.0 looks to be based on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS packages, with some applications backported. [...] On the whole I found Trisquel to be pleasant to use, easy to set up, and pretty capable out of the box. I really like how fast it performed tasks and how uncluttered/unbusy the desktop felt. The one problem I had with Trisquel was the lack of wireless networking support. The distribution strives for software freedom (as defined by the Free Software Foundation) and this means no non-free firmware, drivers, or applications. This slightly limits its hardware support compared to most Linux distributions. It also means no easy access to applications such as Steam, Chrome, Spotify, and so on. This may make Trisquel a less practical operating system to some, but that is sort of the point: Trisquel takes a hard stance in favour of software freedom over convenience. If you are a person who does not use non-free software and doesn't need non-free wireless support, then Trisquel is probably the best experience you can have with an entirely free Linux distribution. It is painless to set up, offers several desktop flavours, and runs quickly. For free software enthusiasts I would highly recommend giving Trisquel a try. Read more