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May 2020

Ubuntu/Debian/Misc. Leftovers

Filed under
Debian
Ubuntu
  • Free software activities in May 2020

    The Open Source Initiative held their twice-annual multi-day 'face-to-face' board meeting — this time held virtually — and participated in the accompanying conversations on strategy, tactical and governance issues, as well as the usual discussions regarding licensing and policy (minutes pending). I also attended the regular monthly meeting for Software in the Public Interest (minutes).

  • Sparky news 2020/05

    The 5th monthly report of 2020 of the Sparky project:

    • Linux kernel updated up to version 5.6.15 & 5.7-rc7
    • added to repos: Riot-desktop which replaces Riot-web, Xdman, RadioStation (a fork off Radiotray-Lite), Beaker Browser
    • Sparky 2020.05 of the rolling line released
    • Sparky 2020.05 Special Editions released
    • new app: ‘spterm’ (Sparky Terminal) – a very simple terminal emulator (a fork of k3rmit) which will be used by Sparky tools
    • new desktop: Openbox Noir – a variant of the Openbox, which provides dark and modern looks and feel of a lightweight desktop; by lami07

  • OpenOCD snapshot uploaded to Debian experimental

    One of the things I maintain in Debian is OpenOCD. I say maintain, but it’s so far required very little work, as it’s been 3 years since a release (0.10.0). I’ve talked about doing a git snapshot package for some time (I have an email from last DebConf in my inbox about it, and that wasn’t the first time someone had asked), but never got around to it. Spurred on by some moves towards a 0.11.0 release I’ve built a recent snapshot and uploaded it to the experimental suite in Debian.

  • Full Circle Magazine: Full Circle Magazine #157

    This month:
    * Command & Conquer
    * How-To : Python, LivePatch, and Rawtherapee
    * Graphics : Inkscape
    * Graphics : Krita for Old Photos
    * Linux Loopback
    * Everyday Ubuntu : Turbogfx 16
    * Ubports Touch : OTA-12
    * Review : Ubuntu, Lubuntu and Budgie 20.04
    * Ubuntu Games : Eagle Island
    plus: News, My Story, The Daily Waddle, Q&A, and more.

  • May 2020: OpenSMTPD 6.7.1p1 release, table-procexec and many PoCs

    TL;DR: Worked on the OpenSMTPD 6.7 release; Did a lot of work on the new table API; Wrote several PoCs;

OSS Leftovers

Filed under
OSS
  • Stop ‘Reinventing The Wheel’: Almanac Creates Open-Source Templates Library With $9M Seed Round

    Almanac, a cloud-based platform for professionals to create, collaborate and share open-source work documents, announced a $9 million seed round of funding on Thursday led by Mike Maples Jr., a Floodgate partner.

  • How open source fostered the community spirit in the tech world
  • RudderStack raises $5M seed round for its open-source Segment competitor
  • The Apache Software Foundation Announces Apache® CloudStack® v 4.14
  • Five Ways Open-Source Software Can Benefit You and Your Research
  • 10 Best Open Source and Free App Builders -- Plus, The Top App Development Agencies to Hire in 2020, According to App Developers Rating Platform
  • Beyond Linux and macOS: The best alternatives to Windows

    FreeDOS is, as its name allows us to guess, an heir to MS DOS. A free and free version If you are looking for alternatives to Windows pro, you don’t want multitasking or a graphical interface. Here you can run all MS-DOS programs and enjoy the classic adapted to the times. It receives continuous updates and works on any standard PC if you want to use any of the old code and classic operating system programs.

    [...]

    Among the best alternatives to Windows is ReactOS and so much so that from their website they promise that you wouldn’t notice the change. It came in the late nineties to imitate the windows operating system and it is an open source system compatible with most Windows applications and drivers. It was launched in 1996 as a clone of Microsoft and now, more than twenty years later it is still a good free option and with continuous updates, with a window system … it may seem retro algo’And obsolete at times but it can be a good option if you are looking for something new. You can download it from its website and, like most of this list, you will find the instructions and all doubts about its operation from the website itself. community behind ReactOS.

  • Welcome to ChefConf Online Week

    Welcome to ChefConf Online week! On the surface, this year’s event looks a lot different than years past. While we’ve moved to a new online format, what hasn’t changed is creating the opportunity for the Chef community to gather in one place, learn about what’s new in the DevSecOps and Automation space, get best practices and expert guidance from your peers, and have some fun and celebrate what makes our community so special.

  • Open Source Vet Joins Taylor English IP Team In San Antonio

    Taylor English Duma LLP announced this week it has hired a veteran intellectual property attorney from Dykema Gossett PLLC who is experienced with open source software to the firm's intellectual property practice in San Antonio, Texas.

    Van Lindberg joined Atlanta-based Taylor English as partner in March after serving as a member at Dykema Gossett for about three years, where he represented companies in high-stakes litigation and inter partes reviews.

    Before that, Lindberg made his name in the open source community by serving as general counsel, vice president of technology and vice president of intellectual property at cloud computing service company Rackspace,...

  • How open standards guide us in a world of change

    As I write this article in my home office in Beaverton, Oregon, a Portland suburb, I'm relying (and reflecting) on years of work that went into standards like TCP/IP, HTTP, NTP, XMPP, SAML, and many others, as well as open source implementations of these standards from organizations such as the Apache Software Foundation. The combination of these standards and technologies is literally saving lives, as many of us are able to work from home while "flattening the curve."

    Nothing has dominated the news more in 2020 than COVID-19. Yet, in the midst of challenging time, I've found opportunities for personal and industrial renewal. By fortunate (some may say unfortunate) timing, I found myself switching roles in the middle of this crisis from helping to build and run Open Source Program Offices (OSPOs) to becoming the executive director at OASIS Open, a standards development organization that is helping bring standards and open source together in practical and productive ways.

    Looking through the many articles on Opensource.com related to standards (and there are quite a few), I went on an interesting journey through the different thought processes—and sometimes biases—that people involved in each community have. What stood out most was this: both standards professionals and open source advocates want the same thing—better technology that we all can rely on.

    As I was transitioning to this new role at OASIS, some colleagues and friends in the open source world that I've been a part of for many years questioned my motivations for making this move. In explaining why I took this job, I reflected on the larger role I think the intersection of standards and open source can play, especially in the current crisis we all face.

Openwashing and Entrapment (Microsoft GitHub)

Filed under
Misc

Red Hat Fluff and News

Filed under
Red Hat
  • Q&A: How open source made Kubernetes appealing to enterprise app developers

    A: We are at an interesting inflection point right now with computing. We went from physical hardware to virtual machines to containers and to concepts like serverless computing. And we’re asking questions like, “Can it get even smaller?”

    We’re trying to make the underlying platform more powerful, but less and less visible. So if it’s invisible to developers, do we just stop caring about it?

    But you could make the same argument with Linux, right? If the application is done well, and Linux is doing its job, you shouldn't care about it. It's just running, it’s fast, it’s scalable. Kubernetes probably follows that path more than anything.

  • How open source communities work and what enterprises can learn
  • Inside Red Hat: Its open source heritage means big opportunity in cloud computing

    The open source proposition has been embedded in Red Hat’s roots since the company’s founding in 1993 and has since remained at the core of its guiding principles, with Linux operating system (OS) at the heart of all its innovations. Vendor loyalty and clearly charted paths were the mantras many companies operated on for years, while “digital transformation” was barely on an enterprise’s short-term road map.

    Then a decade ago, cloud adoption surged, creating the impetus to embrace more agile and flexible development models, and open source technologies emerged.

    [...]

    While the topic of COVID-19 did not overtly dominate the discussions or significantly color the overarching Red Hat messaging, it became clear that the ability to pivot rapidly, embrace change and remain flexible will underscore Red Hat’s efforts to successfully promote transformation amid the pandemic. Red Hat’s reputation has historically been predicated on its open and agile approach to development and deployment, long before such attributes were considered valuable, let alone essential.

  • Red Hat: Holding Its Own and Fueling Open Source Innovation

    When IBM acquired Red Hat for $34 billion in 2019, it was considered the industry’s largest software acquisition. The synergy between the two companies led them to become one of the leading hybrid multi-cloud providers globally.

    In most acquisitions, the acquired entity sometimes loses momentum and sheds some of its original luster. This does not seem to be the case with Red Hat.

Audio and Video: GNU World Order, Test and Code, More

Filed under
Development
GNU
Linux
  • GNU World Order 356

    Learn a little Postscript in this episode about **Ghostscript**.

  • Test and Code: 115: Catching up with Nina Zakharenko

    One of the great things about attending in person coding conferences, such as PyCon, is the hallway track, where you can catch up with people you haven't seen for possibly a year, or maybe even the first time you've met in person.

    Nina is starting something like the hallway track, online, on twitch, and it's already going, so check out the first episode of Python Tea.

    Interesting coincidence is that this episode is kind of like a hallway track discussion between Nina and Brian.

  • How to install Google Chrome on Pop!_OS 20.04
  • Are Custom Linux Kernels Faster than Stock?

    Are Custom Linux Kernels Faster than Stock? Benchmarks are done and will be compared using phoronix test suite. We will be analyzing 3 kernels, Liquorix, Mainline, and Xanmod.

Linux Lite 5.0 Final Released

Filed under
Linux

Linux Lite 5.0 Final Codename Emerald is now available for download and installation.

This is the most feature rich, complete Linux Lite release to date. This is the release many people have been waiting for.
See below for details.

Read more

Also new: Whonix VirtualBox 15.0.1.3.4 - Point Release!

Open Data and GIS

Filed under
OSS
  • How Open-Source Data Can Drive Automotive Innovation
  • LiDAR-Captured Road Data Now Publicly Available in Open-Source Machine Learning Dataset

    Scale AI says COVID-19 has shown the value of autonomous vehicles for no-contact delivery. They're making real-world road data available to train machine learning models to this end.

    Last week, Scale AI released PandaSet to the open-source community. According to Scale AI, PandaSet is the world’s first publicly-available machine learning dataset to include images from forward-facing solid-state LiDARs and mechanical spinning LiDARs. These two LiDAR technologies from Hesai will allow ML development teams to reap complex, real-world road data.

  • Podcast: Why should you take a closer look into Open Source GIS?
  • This German town replicated itself in VR to keep its tourism alive

    Nicolai Reith, Head of the Control and Communication department and advisor to the Mayor of Herrenberg, told Cities Today: “You don’t have to make a decision and then see [what happens]; you can see before you make the decision what the effect will be via the digital twin. This makes it easier to make the right decision for our city council, politicians, and citizens.”Herrenberg is already using the digital twin, which incorporates super-computing and technologies typically deployed in advanced aerospace, to visualize city data and citizens’ emotional responses to inform better decision-making.

    There are now plans to develop the emerging area of virtual tourism for the town, which has a population of around 31,000.

    “We have a very beautiful city center so tourists can explore it in a digital way with VR glasses before they come to Herrenberg, which is an interesting benefit for the future,” Reith said.

    [...]

    The team then added in geographic information system (GIS) data and traffic control systems data to incorporate topography, road geometry , and detailed traffic flows. Using the open-source fluid dynamics code OpenFOAM — which is typically used for modeling fuel injector sprays or airplane aerodynamics —they also created realistic models of the movement of wind and emissions through the city.

Development Boards and Open Hardware/Modding

Filed under
Hardware
  • Cucumber ESP32-S2 Development Board Comes with USB OTG Port, Optional Sensors

    Yesterday, I wrote about LilyGO TTGO ESP32-S2 WiFi IoT board, but one commenter mentioned it missed one of the key features of ESP32-S2 chip: a USB OTG port. While USB OTG is accessible through the header pins, it’s not the most convenient to use.

    I also quickly mentioned Cucumber ESP32-S2 development board in that post, but I did not expand too much since I thought it should only ship within Thailand. But the board does include two USB Type-C ports, one for the usual USB UART connector, and the other for USB OTG, and I found out the board is available worldwide.

  • TTGO ESP32-S2 WiFi IoT Board Comes with Optional MicroSD Card and Battery Support

    All ESP32-S2 boards I’ve seen so far were from Espressif Systems themselves including ESP32-S2-Saola-1 and ESP32-S2-Kaluga-1, but LilyGO TTGO ESP32-S2 is the first third-party board for sale so far.

    The tiny board is somewhat similar to ESP32-S2-Saola-1 board and comes in two versions with a similar form factor, but a completely different pinout and the presence of a MicroSD card socket and a battery connector on one of the boards.

    [...]

    The boards are a bit more different than I expected at first look. Please note that specifications should be seen as preliminary, as there were obvious mistakes such as Bluetooth support (not available for ESP32-S2) which I did not included in the specs above, but there may be others which I missed.

  • CR Deck Mk.1 Is An Open Source AR Headset Based On Project North Star With Ultraleap Hand-Tracking
  • Open Source Ventilators Helped by Electronic Design Software

    In the early days of the pandemic, the first major challenge facing nations was a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) and ventilators. The former helps safeguard hospital personnel from potential contamination; the latter are necessary to keep the most critically ill patients breathing once the virus attacks their respiratory systems.

    Ventilators are traditionally large and very costly devices; smaller ventilators—known as field emergency ventilators (FEVs) have been used in emergency settings, including combat missions and in Third World nations for decades to help keep patients alive as they await transport to hospitals for intubation.

  • NASA JPL Team Fires up Open Source PPE Respirator Designs

    Does it really take a team of rocket scientists to rapidly engineer a top-notch line of personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect against COVID-19 spread? And then to open source its production designs for the benefit of anyone with access to a 3D printer?

    The answer: not necessarily, but it sure can help.

    That’s the latest good news on the pandemic front from the technology and innovation team at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  • NASA and other innovators work to redesign ventilators for Covid-19 patients

    NASA scientists as well as other innovators are busy developing alternatives to the traditional ventilator being used worldwide to treat severe cases of Covid-19. The movement is in response to growing evidence that in some cases ventilators can cause more harm than good in some patients with low oxygen levels. Statistics tell the story: 80% of patients with the coronavirus die on such machines.

    This comes just a few months since the early days of the coronavirus pandemic, when U.S. healthcare providers said that they needed ventilators to accommodate the flood of new patients, and lots of them. The crisis triggered the Trump administration to activate the Defense Production Act so manufacturers including Ford, GM and GE could start ventilator production to produce these medical devices for the U.S. government.

Software: NetworkManager, Google's Chrome/Chromium, Best Linux Remote Desktop Tools, RapidDisk and Mastodon

Filed under
Software
  • NetworkManager 1.26 Development Progressing With New Functionality

    NetworkManager 1.25.2-dev is the latest development version of this important Linux networking component in the road towards NetworkManager 1.26.

    NetworkManager 1.25.2-dev was bumped this weekend as another milestone towards the upcoming 1.26 stable release of this widely used component for configuring wired and wireless networking on Linux and other platforms. Some of the changes building up so far for NetworkManager 1.26 include:

    - A new "firewalld-zone" option that is enabled by default that will install a firewalld zone for connection sharing and put the IPv4/IPv6 shared mode interfaces in this zone.

  • Chrome Is Reaching The Point Of Good X11 + Wayland Support In Same Build

    Google's Chrome/Chromium web browser is finally reaching the stage where having both the X11 support and Ozone abstraction layer for Wayland can be enabled concurrently in the same build.

    Thanks to the work by Google, Igalia, and others, the Chrome/Chromium code-base is nearly at the stage where the traditional X11 support can be built along with the Ozone platform support concurrently. Ozone is the platform abstraction layer being worked on for years for handling low-level input/graphics and necessary for Wayland support as well as various embedded use-cases and other platform abstraction capabilities. An overview of the Ozone code can be found here.

  • Best Linux Remote Desktop Tools For Ubuntu 20.04 LTS To Share Your Desktop In 2020

    7. KDE Connect
    KDE Connect helps you to enable remote desktop sharing with the help of Android and Linux applications.

    8. VNC Connect
    VNC Connect is a simple and secure remote desktop sharing tool for Linux. VNC Connect is equipped with 256 bit AES session encryption and it uses Remote Frame Buffer protocol to remotely control another computer.

  • RapidDisk version 6.1 released

    RapidDisk is an advanced Linux RAM Disk which consists of a collection of modules and an administration tool. Features include: Dynamically allocate RAM as block device. Use them as stand alone disk drives or even map them as caching nodes to slower local disk drives.

  • Experience With Mastodon
  • Share PeerTube Videos on Mastodon

Security and Proprietary Issues

Filed under
Security
  • 10 open source cloud security tools to know [Ed: The moment you choose 'clown computing' you've already disowned your own infrastructure and lost privacy, security, control. So this is sort of missing the point of "open" (the environment itself is proprietary).]

    Pacu is written in Python and maintained by Rhino Security Labs, a penetration testing provider.

  • Cisco security breach hits corporate servers that ran unpatched software

    Six servers Cisco uses to provide a virtual networking service were compromised by hackers who exploited critical flaws contained in unpatched versions the open source software service relies on, the company disclosed on Thursday.

  • Zoom to Strengthen Encryption for Paying Customers: Reuters

    In response to queries, Zoom pointed to its May 27 report that said its focus is to build the so-called end-to-end encryption for its meeting product, which may be later rolled out for its chat, phone and webinar offerings. “Only our paid users will have access to end-to-end encryption for their meetings,” it said. “However, all users will use the 256-bit GCM encryption on May 30 regardless of their license type.”

  • Zoom paid accounts reportedly will get strong encryption for calls

    Zoom published a draft paper May 22nd outlining some of its encryption plans.

  • Zoom Publishes Draft Design of End-to-End Encryption Offering

    Once we have assessed this feedback for integration into a final design, we will announce our engineering milestones and goals for deploying an end-to-end encryption offering for Zoom users.

  • Exclusive: Zoom plans to roll out strong encryption for paying customers

    The company, whose business has boomed with the coronavirus pandemic, discussed the move on a call with civil liberties groups and child-sex abuse fighters on Thursday, and Zoom security consultant Alex Stamos confirmed it on Friday.

    In an interview, Stamos said the plan was subject to change and it was not yet clear which, if any, nonprofits or other users, such as political dissidents, might qualify for accounts allowing more secure video meetings.

    He added that a combination of technological, safety and business factors went into the plan, which drew mixed reactions from privacy advocates.

  • NHS contact tracing undermined by hackers sending fraudulent warnings to public

    The new NHS test and trace programme is being undermined by hackers sending out phishing scams falsely warning the public they may have Covid-19.

    Public Health England have warned potential contacts to check suspicious messages against the Government website after a flurry of reports of Britons being falsely informed they may have coronavirus.

More in Tux Machines

Graphics: Coming Next in AMD and Mesa 20.3

  • AMD Ryzen 5000 leak shows a powerful APU to strike back at Intel’s Tiger Lake

    This popping up in Linux now suggests that we could see these Ryzen 5000 chips sooner rather than later. Currently, their anticipated debut is early 2021, but maybe it’ll be very early 2021; perhaps at CES? Or could we see a reveal possibly even this year? Who knows, and of course all this is pure guesswork, although the latter still seems rather unlikely. Whatever the case, Ryzen 5000 APUs for notebooks aren’t far away now, and will of course go up against Intel’s Tiger Lake CPUs which have already been revealed, and will start pitching up in laptops before the end of 2020 (we already know that some notebooks will be arriving in November). These 11th-gen mobile chips from Intel look to be shaping up very impressively from what we’ve seen thus far, and of course come with Xe integrated graphics, which represents a big step forward for gaming on a laptop – and that’s why RDNA 2 graphics will be key for AMD with its incoming Van Gogh APUs.

  • AMD Linux Kernel Patch Confirms Next-Gen Van Gogh APUs With DDR5 And RDNA2

    After a Linux kernel patch with 275K lines of code came out on Friday, the people over at Phoronix began to snoop around for any hidden information. Among the lines of code, they discovered that the upcoming Van Gogh APUs from AMD will have Navi 2 GPUs and will use DDR5 system memory.

  • Mesa 20.3 Can Now Consume SPIR-V Binaries Generated By LLVM's libclc

    Libclc is the LLVM library around OpenCL C programming language support and goes along with Clang's OpenCL front-end. Jesse Natalie of Microsoft has seen his two month old merge request land on Friday for being able to make use of libclc SPIR-V binaries that can be used by Mesa OpenCL code. Ultimately this code in part allows converting a libclc SPIR-V library into a set of NIR functions. Earlier this year the effort was started by Red Hat's David Airlie for being able to support a SPIR-V library generated from libclc to implement OpenCL runtime functions. Microsoft though pursued the work over the finish as part of their effort for getting OpenCL over Direct3D 12 (and OpenGL).

France’s open data lab launches study into open source and education

Etalab, the French governmental open data lab, has begun a study on the importance of open source software in higher education and research. The study will identify open source use in education, and compare institutional strategies on open data and open access and the sovereignty of education. Read more

Openwashing of Failing Swift by Apple

FreeBSD 12.2-BETA3 Now Available

The third BETA build of the 12.2-RELEASE release cycle is now available.

Installation images are available for:

o 12.2-BETA3 amd64 GENERIC
o 12.2-BETA3 i386 GENERIC
o 12.2-BETA3 powerpc GENERIC
o 12.2-BETA3 powerpc64 GENERIC64
o 12.2-BETA3 powerpcspe MPC85XXSPE
o 12.2-BETA3 armv6 RPI-B
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 BANANAPI
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 BEAGLEBONE
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 CUBIEBOARD
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 CUBIEBOARD2
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 CUBOX-HUMMINGBOARD
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 RPI2
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 WANDBOARD
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 GENERICSD
o 12.2-BETA3 aarch64 GENERIC
o 12.2-BETA3 aarch64 RPI3
o 12.2-BETA3 aarch64 PINE64
o 12.2-BETA3 aarch64 PINE64-LTS

Note regarding arm SD card images: For convenience for those without
console access to the system, a freebsd user with a password of
freebsd is available by default for ssh(1) access.  Additionally,
the root user password is set to root.  It is strongly recommended
to change the password for both users after gaining access to the
system.

Installer images and memory stick images are available here:

    https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/releases/ISO-IMAGES/12.2/

The image checksums follow at the end of this e-mail.

If you notice problems you can report them through the Bugzilla PR
system or on the -stable mailing list.

If you would like to use SVN to do a source based update of an existing
system, use the "releng/12.2" branch.

A summary of changes since 12.2-BETA2 includes:

o An installation issue with certctl(8) had been fixed.

o Read/write kstats for ZFS datasets had been added from OpenZFS.

o The default vm.max_user_wired value had been increased.

o The kern.geom.part.check_integrity sysctl(8) had been extended to work
  on GPT partitions.

o The cxgbe(4) firmware had been updated to version 1.25.0.0.

o Fixes for em(4) and igb(4) have been addressed.

o A fix for a potential NFS server crash had been addressed.

o A lock order reversal between NFS server and server-side krpc had been
  addressed.

A list of changes since 12.1-RELEASE is available in the releng/12.2
release notes:

    https://www.freebsd.org/releases/12.2R/relnotes.html

Please note, the release notes page is not yet complete, and will be
updated on an ongoing basis as the 12.2-RELEASE cycle progresses.

=== Virtual Machine Disk Images ===

VM disk images are available for the amd64, i386, and aarch64
architectures.  Disk images may be downloaded from the following URL
(or any of the FreeBSD download mirrors):

    https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/releases/VM-IMAGES/12.2-BETA3/

The partition layout is:

    ~ 16 kB - freebsd-boot GPT partition type (bootfs GPT label)
    ~ 1 GB  - freebsd-swap GPT partition type (swapfs GPT label)
    ~ 20 GB - freebsd-ufs GPT partition type (rootfs GPT label)

The disk images are available in QCOW2, VHD, VMDK, and raw disk image
formats.  The image download size is approximately 135 MB and 165 MB
respectively (amd64/i386), decompressing to a 21 GB sparse image.

Note regarding arm64/aarch64 virtual machine images: a modified QEMU EFI
loader file is needed for qemu-system-aarch64 to be able to boot the
virtual machine images.  See this page for more information:

    https://wiki.freebsd.org/arm64/QEMU

To boot the VM image, run:

    % qemu-system-aarch64 -m 4096M -cpu cortex-a57 -M virt  \
	-bios QEMU_EFI.fd -serial telnet::4444,server -nographic \
	-drive if=none,file=VMDISK,id=hd0 \
	-device virtio-blk-device,drive=hd0 \
	-device virtio-net-device,netdev=net0 \
	-netdev user,id=net0

Be sure to replace "VMDISK" with the path to the virtual machine image.

=== Amazon EC2 AMI Images ===

FreeBSD/amd64 EC2 AMIs are available in the following regions:

  af-south-1 region: ami-085b7b5b76d8f88e1
  eu-north-1 region: ami-0d2aaf811cd455b5d
  ap-south-1 region: ami-0c85211fa78c701f5
  eu-west-3 region: ami-08c4c388a19042fb3
  eu-west-2 region: ami-030841f586c12d392
  eu-south-1 region: ami-035fcb9515104859e
  eu-west-1 region: ami-0d5e826250c10cd3a
  ap-northeast-2 region: ami-01adc51da511ea8fc
  me-south-1 region: ami-04b2ddbedee42d57a
  ap-northeast-1 region: ami-0e5b3fc6777cd037d
  sa-east-1 region: ami-08be6405809912e60
  ca-central-1 region: ami-0c954a7d72d7b483c
  ap-east-1 region: ami-04377808aeca208a7
  ap-southeast-1 region: ami-02e1e04501c308c0b
  ap-southeast-2 region: ami-0e9ae229b9ca55677
  eu-central-1 region: ami-002e88141d3b00ee2
  us-east-1 region: ami-0c678fade90df8f04
  us-east-2 region: ami-0967c088cbf208659
  us-west-1 region: ami-0dafae7edc2b2f376
  us-west-2 region: ami-07e4d062d094f5364

FreeBSD/aarch64 EC2 AMIs are available in the following regions:

  af-south-1 region: ami-07c05f6349125a1c7
  eu-north-1 region: ami-041e507b80cb59335
  ap-south-1 region: ami-064907659b94c4823
  eu-west-3 region: ami-000c4a31405be8e94
  eu-west-2 region: ami-0debbacd03a24e562
  eu-south-1 region: ami-0c358e05477cd8b6b
  eu-west-1 region: ami-0fc48c1fef0e255f0
  ap-northeast-2 region: ami-06bd715c00c4237b7
  me-south-1 region: ami-04a671aa9611f8a74
  ap-northeast-1 region: ami-008e0fa8be5e5c44c
  sa-east-1 region: ami-03c2f687354f086b4
  ca-central-1 region: ami-0647aa16bc62701a3
  ap-east-1 region: ami-08f54406159203762
  ap-southeast-1 region: ami-007e5e33e3e4d9152
  ap-southeast-2 region: ami-0a028a4f5beeed373
  eu-central-1 region: ami-072e09d78436cf375
  us-east-1 region: ami-0218fa187d85dc688
  us-east-2 region: ami-06e8312e95743ce1a
  us-west-1 region: ami-0211983509f75ee9b
  us-west-2 region: ami-038188157f971a711

=== Vagrant Images ===

FreeBSD/amd64 images are available on the Hashicorp Atlas site, and can
be installed by running:

    % vagrant init freebsd/FreeBSD-12.2-BETA3
    % vagrant up

=== Upgrading ===

The freebsd-update(8) utility supports binary upgrades of amd64 and i386
systems running earlier FreeBSD releases.  Systems running earlier
FreeBSD releases can upgrade as follows:

	# freebsd-update upgrade -r 12.2-BETA3

During this process, freebsd-update(8) may ask the user to help by
merging some configuration files or by confirming that the automatically
performed merging was done correctly.

	# freebsd-update install

The system must be rebooted with the newly installed kernel before
continuing.

	# shutdown -r now

After rebooting, freebsd-update needs to be run again to install the new
userland components:

	# freebsd-update install

It is recommended to rebuild and install all applications if possible,
especially if upgrading from an earlier FreeBSD release, for example,
FreeBSD 11.x.  Alternatively, the user can install misc/compat11x and
other compatibility libraries, afterwards the system must be rebooted
into the new userland:

	# shutdown -r now

Finally, after rebooting, freebsd-update needs to be run again to remove
stale files:

	# freebsd-update install
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