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Guides, information, and news about the Fedora operating system for users, developers, system administrators, and community members.
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Tracking Translations with Transtats

Friday 3rd of January 2020 08:00:00 AM

Translation is an important step in software localization which helps make software more popular globally, and impacts international user experience. In recent years, localization processes have been evolving worldwide to become more continuous, faster, efficient with automation. In Fedora, the development of the Zanata platform and its plugins, then Transtats, and now the migration to the Weblate platform are part of this common ongoing goal. The localization of a desktop OS like Fedora is highly complex because it depends on many factors of the individual upstream projects which are packaged in Fedora. For example, different translation timelines, resources, and tooling.

What is Transtats?

Transtats is a web application which tries to tie up upstream repositories, translation platforms, build system, and product release schedule together to solve problems of mismatch, out-of-sync conditions and to assist the timely packaging of quality translations. Actually, it collects translation data, analyzes them, and creates meaningful representations.

Fedora Transtats is hosted at

How to see the translation status of my package?

Just select Packages tab from left hand side navigation bar. This takes us to the packages list view. Then, search for the package and click on its name.

For example anaconda. On package details page, locate following:

Here, we have translation statistics from translation platform: Zanata and Koji build system. Syncs with the platform and build system are scheduled, which update differences periodically. Languages in red color indicate that there are translated strings remaining in the Translation Platform to be pulled and packaged, whereas, blue denote translated messages could not make 100% in the built package.

String breakage (or changes?)

In translation of software packages, one of the challenges is to prevent string breakage. Package maintainers should strive to abide by the scheduled Fedora release String Freeze. However, in some circumstances it could be necessary to break the string freeze and to inform the translation team on the mailing list. As well as, to update latest translation template (POT) file in the translation platform. Just in case these actions seem missing – translators may get new strings to translate very late or the application may have some strings untranslated. In the worst case, an outdated translation string mismatch may result in a crash. Sync and automation pipelines are there to prevent this, nevertheless it depends on the push or pull methods followed by package developers or maintainers.

To deal with the same context, we can use a job template in Transtats to detect this string change – particularly useful after string freeze in Fedora release schedule. This would be really helpful for the folks who look for packaging translations without string breakage, keeping translation template (POT) file in sync with translation platform, and testing localized form of the application for translation completeness to back trace.

How to detect string changes?

One of the options in Jobs tab is ‘YML based Jobs’. Where we can see available job templates.

The jobs framework executes all the tasks mentioned in the YAML, create appropriate logs and store results. Track String Change job basically:

  1. Clones the source repository of respective package.
  2. Tries to generate translation template (POT) file.
  3. Downloads POT file from respective translation platform.
  4. And, finds differences between both the POT files.

Actually, Transtats maintains mapping of upstream repository, Translation Platform project and respective build tag for every package.

Let’s take a closer look into this YAML. We can provide value for %PACKAGE_NAME% and %RELEASE_SLUG% in the next step – Set Values! For example: anaconda and fedora-32. Furthermore, a couple of things seek attention are:

  • In case the upstream software repository maintains separate git branch for fedora release, please edit ‘branch: master’ to ‘branch: <fedora-release-branch>’
  • In ‘generate’ block, mention the command to generate POT file. Default one should work for ‘intltool-update’ only, however, many packages do have their own.
  • A few packages may have gettext domain name different than that of package name. If this is the case, mention the gettext domain too.

As soon as the job is triggered, logs should be populated. If this is not a scratch run, a unique URL shall also be created at the end.

Left hand side is the input YAML and right hand side is respective log for each task. Here we can find the differences and figure out string mismatch.

In Transtats, we can create solutions to different problems in the form of job templates. And, scheduling of these jobs could be a step towards automation.

Top articles of 2019: Editors’ choice

Monday 30th of December 2019 08:00:00 AM

The year is still ending and the perfect time to reflect and look back at some Magazine articles continues. This time, let’s see if the editors chose some interesting ones from 2019. Yes, they did!

Red Hat, IBM, and Fedora

IBM acquired Red Hat in July 2019, and this article discusses how nothing changes for the Fedora project.

Red Hat, IBM, and Fedora Some tips for the Workstation users

Using Fedora Workstation? This article gives you some tips including enhancing photos, coding, or getting more wallpapers right from the repositories.

5 quick tips for Fedora Workstation users Fedora and CentOS Stream

In this article, the Fedora Project Leader discusses the CentOS Stream announcement from September 2019 — including the relationship of Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and CentOS.

Fedora and CentOS Stream Contribute to Fedora Magazine

Fedora Magazine exists thanks to our great contributors. And you (yes, you!) can become one, too! Contributions include topic proposals, writing, and editorial tasks. This article shows you how to join the team and help people learn about Linux.

Contribute to Fedora Magazine

Top articles of 2019: For desktop users

Friday 27th of December 2019 08:00:00 AM

It’s this time of the year again — the time to reflect, and look back at some Fedora Magazine’s most popular articles in 2019. This time it’s all about desktop users. Let’s highlight a few of the many articles written by our great contributors in 2019, focusing on Fedora as a desktop OS.

Dash to Dock extension for Workstation

When you’re serious about your desktop, and perhaps using many applications, you might want to see what’s going on at all times. Or at least the icons. The article below shows you how to have a dock at the bottom of your screen, with all your apps — both running and favourites — visible at all times.

Try the Dash to Dock extension for Fedora Workstation Tweaking the look of Workstation with themes

When you like how your Linux desktop works, but not so much how it looks, there is a solution. The following article shows you how to tweak the look of your windows, icons, the mouse cursor, and the whole environment as well — all that within GNOME, the Workstation’s default environment.

Tweaking the look of Fedora Workstation with themes i3 with multiple monitors

One of the great things about Linux desktop is the never ending possibilities of customisation. And that includes window managers, too! The following article shows how to use one of the very popular ones — i3 — with multiple monitors.

Using i3 with multiple monitors IceWM

If you’re looking for speed, simplicity, and getting out of the user’s way, you might like IceWM. The following article introduces this minimal window manager, and helps you install it, too, should you be interested.

IceWM – A really cool desktop

Stay tuned for even more upcoming “Best of 2019” articles. All of us at the Magazine hope you have a relaxing holiday season, and wish you a happy new year.

Best of 2019: Fedora for developers

Wednesday 25th of December 2019 08:00:00 AM

With the end of the year approaching fast, it is a good time to look back at 2019 and go through the most popular articles on Fedora Magazine written by our contributors.

In this article of the “Best of 2019” series, we are looking at developers and how to use Fedora to be a great developer workstation

Make your Python code look good with Black on Fedora

Black made quite a big impact in the Python ecosystem this year. The project is now part of the Python Software Foundation and it is used by many different projects. So if you write or maintain some Python code and want to stop having to care about code style and code formatting you should check out this article.

Make your Python code look good with Black on Fedora How to run virtual machines with virt-manager

Setting up a development environment, running integration tests, testing a new feature, or running an older version of software for all these use cases being able to create and run a virtual machine is a must have knowledge for a developer. This article will walk you through how you can achieve that using virt-manager on your Fedora workstation.

How to run virtual machines with virt-manager Jupyter and data science in Fedora

With the rise of Data science and machine learning, the Jupyter IDE has become of very popular choice to share or present a program and its results. This article goes into the details of installing and using Jupyter and the different libraries and tools useful for data science.

Jupyter and data science in Fedora Building Smaller Container Images

Fedora provides different container images, one of which is a minimal base image. The following article demonstrate how one can use this image to build smaller container images.

Building Smaller Container Images Getting Started with Go on Fedora

In 2019 the Go programming language turned 10 year old. In ten years the language has managed to become the default choice for cloud native applications and the cloud ecosystems. Fedora is providing an easy way to start developing in Go, this article takes you through the first step needed to get started.

Getting Started with Go on Fedora

Stay tuned to the Magazine for other upcoming “Best of 2019” categories. All of us at the Magazine hope you have a great end of year and holiday season.

Best of 2019: Fedora for system administrators

Monday 23rd of December 2019 08:00:00 AM

The end of the year is a perfect time to look back on some of the Magazine’s most popular articles of 2019. One of the Fedora operating systems’s many strong points is its wide array of tools for system administrators. As your skills progress, you’ll find that the Fedora OS has even more to offer. And because Linux is the sysadmin’s best friend, you’ll always be in good company. In 2019, there were quite a few articles about sysadmin tools our readers enjoyed. Here’s a sampling.

Introducing Fedora CoreOS

If you follow modern IT topics, you know that containers are a hot topic — and containers mean Linux. This summer brought the first preview release of Fedora CoreOS. This new edition of Fedora can run containerized workloads. You can use it to deploy apps and services in a modern way.

Introducing Fedora CoreOS InitRAMFS, dracut and the dracut emergency shell

To be a good sysadmin, you need to understand system startup and the boot process. From time to time, you’ll encounter software errors, configuration problems, or other issues that keep your system from starting normally. With the information in the article below, you can do some life-saving surgery on your system, and restore it to working order.

InitRAMFS, Dracut, and the Dracut Emergency Shell How to reset your root password

Although this article was published a few years ago, it continues to be one of the most popular. Apparently, we’re not the only people who sometimes get locked out of our own system! If this happens to you, and you need to reset the root password, the article below should do the trick.

How to reset a root password on Fedora Systemd: unit dependencies and order

This article is part of an entire series on systemd, the modern system and process manager in Fedora and other distributions. As you may know, systemd has sophisticated but easy to use methods to start up or shut own services in the right order. This article shows you how they work. That way you can apply the right options to unit files you create for systemd.

systemd: Unit dependencies and order Setting kernel command line arguments

Fedora 30 introduced new ways to change the boot options for your kernel. This article from Laura Abbott on the Fedora kernel team explains the new Bootloader Spec (BLS). It also tells you how to use it to set options on your kernel for boot time.

Setting kernel command line arguments with Fedora 30

Stay tuned to the Magazine for other upcoming “Best of 2019” categories. All of us at the Magazine hope you have a great end of year and holiday season.

Firefox GNOME search provider

Friday 20th of December 2019 10:00:00 AM

Search is a central concept in the GNOME user experience. It provides quick navigation and shortcuts to recently used documents, places and software.

A search provider is used by an application to expose such data to the users via the GNOME Shell search screen. As for Web browsers currently only Gnome Web (Epiphany) have integrated this feature.

This long awaited feature finally arrives with the latest Firefox update in Fedora. Although there’s an upstream effort to ship it in Mozilla official builds, Mozilla builds are missing a generic way to install the GNOME Shell integration system. This explain why this specific feature has to be shipped by particular distributions.

Firefox search provider is launched when an active Firefox instance is running. It gets live data from user profile. An offline search provider was also considered but it’s not yet implemented right due to SQL database locks at Firefox profiles.

To get web search results on top of your search you may also need to activate Firefox in the search configuration. To do so go to Settings -> Search, find Firefox and move it on top of the list.

Now you can use the Gnome search facility to search the web.

Make sysadmin work on Fedora easier with screen

Wednesday 18th of December 2019 08:00:00 AM

When you manage a Linux instance, you’ll find that your job is made much easier by the many tools designed specifically to deal with something specific within the system. For example, if you need to install packages, you have easy-to-use package managers that make that a breeze. If you need to create, resize or delete filesystems, you can do so using tools that are built to be used by humans. The same goes for managing services and browsing logs with systemd using the systemctl and journalctl commands respectively. The screen tool is another such example.

You can run all of those tools directly at the command line interface. But if you’re connecting to a server remotely using SSH, sometimes you need another layer between you and the operating system so the command you’re running doesn’t stop if your remote connection terminates. Sysadmins do this to prevent sudden termination in case of a connection issue, but also on purpose to run a command that needs to keep running indefinitely in the background. Enter the screen utility.

Introducing screen

The screen tool allows you to have multiple sessions (called screens) that are independent from each other and that you can name, leave and join as you desire. It’s multi-tasking for the remote CLI. You can get started with it simply by running this command:

$ screen

The command creates a screen and connect you to it: your current session is now a screen. You can run any command that does something and doesn’t automatically terminate after a few seconds. For example, you might call a web app executable or a game server. Then press Ctrl+A and, right after that, the D key and you will detach from the screen, leaving it running in the background.

The Ctrl+A combination, given that it is part of every screen command, is often shortened in documentation to C-a. Then the detach command used earlier can be described simply as C-a d.

Getting in and out of sessions

If you want to connect to that screen again, run screen -r and you will attach to that screen. Just running screen will create a new screen, and subsequent screen -r commands will print out something like this:

There are several suitable screens on: 5589.pts-0.hostname (Detached) 5536.pts-0.hostname (Detached) Type "screen [-d] -r [pid.]" to resume one of them.

You can then choose whether to resume the first or the second screen you created by running either one of these commands:

$ screen -r 5536 $ screen -r 5589

Adding the rest of the name of the string is optional in this case.

Named screens

If you know you’ll have multiple screens, you might want to be able to connect to a screen using a name you choose. This is easier than choosing from a list of numbers that only reflect the process IDs of the screen sessions. To do that, use the -S option as in the following example:

$ screen -S mywebapp

Then you can resume that screen in the future using this command:

$ screen -r mywebapp Starting a process in the background using screen

An optional argument is the command to be executed inside the created session. For example:

$ screen -S session_name command args

This would be the same as running:

$ screen -S session_name

…And then running this command inside the screen session:

$ command args

The screen session will terminate when the command finishes its execution.

This is made particularly useful by passing the -dm option, which starts the screen in the background without attaching to it. For example, you can copy a very large file in the background by running this command:

$ screen -S copy -d -m cp /path/to/file /path/to/output Other screen features

Now that you’ve seen the basics, let’s see some of the other most commonly used screen features.

Easily switching between windows in a screen

When inside a screen, you can create a new window using C-a c. After you do that, you can switch between the windows using C-a n to go to the next one and C-a p to go to the previous window. You can destroy (kill) the current window with C-a k.

Copying and pasting text

The screen tool also enables you to copy any text on the screen and paste it later wherever you can type some text.

The C-a [ keybinding frees your cursor of any constraints and lets it go anywhere your will takes it using the arrow keys on your keyboard. To select and copy text, move to the start of the string you want to copy, and press Enter on the keyboard. Then move the cursor to the end of the text you want to copy and press Enter again.

After you’ve done that, use C-a ] to paste that text in your shell. Or you can open a text editor like vim or nano and paste the text you copied there.

Important notes about screen

Here are some other tips to keep in mind when using this utility.

Privileged sessions vs. sudo inside a screen

What if you need to run a command with root privileges inside screen? You can run either of these commands:

$ screen -S sessionname sudo command $ sudo screen -S sessionname command

Notice that the second command is like running this command:

# screen -S sessionname command

Seeing things this way makes it a lot more obvious coupled with the fact that each screen is associated to a user:

  • The first one creates a screen with root privileges that can be accessed by the current user even if, within that screen, they switch to another user or root using the sudo -i command.
  • The second one creates a screen that can only be accessed by the root user, or by running sudo screen -r as a user with the appropriate sudo access.
Notes about screen in systemd units

You might be tempted to run a screen session in the background as part of a systemd unit executed at startup, just like any Unix daemon. That way you can resume the screen session and interact with whatever you ran that way. That can work, but you need to consider that it requires the right setup.

By default, systemd assumes services are either oneshot, meaning they set up something and then shut down, or simple. A service is simple by default when you create a unit file with no Type. What you actually need to do is to set the Type to forking, which describes screen‘s actual behavior when the -dm option is passed. It starts the process and then forks itself, leaving the process running in the background while the foreground process closes.

If you don’t set that, that screen behavior is interpreted by systemd as the service exiting or failing. This causes systemd to kill the background process when the foreground process exits, which is not what you want.

Photo by Vlad Tchompalov on Unsplash.

Setting up the sway window manager on Fedora

Monday 16th of December 2019 08:00:00 AM

Sometimes during a critical activity, working with overlapping windows becomes counterproductive. You might find a tiled window manager like sway to be a good alternative.

Sway is a tiling Wayland compositor. It has the advantage of compatibility with an existing i3 configuration, so you can use it to replace i3 and use Wayland as the display protocol.

Installing sway

To setup sway, open a new terminal and type the following command

sudo dnf install sway

Once the installation is completed, log out of your user session. At the login screen, select your user account. Before you enter your password, choose Sway from the menu, as shown in the following image.

After login, your desktop looks like this:


To begin configuration, copy the default config into your user directory. Do that using the following commands.

mkdir -p .config/sway cp /etc/sway/config ~/.config/sway/

Sway is highly configurable. It’s suggested you read the project’s wiki page to fine tune your settings. For example, to change the keyboard layout, open a new terminal and run this command:

$ swaymsg -t get_inputs [george@mrwhite ~]$ swaymsg -t get_inputs Input device: VirtualPS/2 VMware VMMouse Type: Mouse Identifier: 2:19:VirtualPS/2_VMware_VMMouse Product ID: 19 Vendor ID: 2 Libinput Send Events: enabled Input device: VirtualPS/2 VMware VMMouse Type: Mouse Identifier: 2:19:VirtualPS/2_VMware_VMMouse Product ID: 19 Vendor ID: 2 Libinput Send Events: enabled Input device: AT Translated Set 2 keyboard Type: Keyboard Identifier: 1:1:AT_Translated_Set_2_keyboard Product ID: 1 Vendor ID: 1 Active Keyboard Layout: Portuguese (Brazil) Libinput Send Events: enabled

Copy the identifier keyboard code. Open your ~/.config/sway/config file with your text editor and edit the configuration accordingly:

## Input configuration input "1:1:AT_Translated_Set_2_keyboard" { xkb_layout br }

Save the settings. To reload the configurations, press Super+Shift+c. (Typically the Super key is mapped to the logo key on a PC.)


Sway’s default status bar may not have all the functions you want. Fortunately Waybar is a good replacement. To install, run the follow commands. (Note, however, that COPR is not an official Fedora repository and not supported by the Fedora Project.)

sudo dnf copr enable alebastr/waybar sudo dnf install waybar

Open your ~/.config/sway/config file. Edit the bar configuration like this:

bar { swaybar_command waybar }

Reload the configuration and you’ll now see the waybar in action, as shown below.

To customize the waybar, you can visit this wiki page for more details and ideas.


Alacritty is a terminal emulator that uses the GPU for rendering, and a good replacement for urxvt. To install run the following lines

sudo dnf copr enable pschyska/alacritty
sudo dnf install alacritty

To enable it as default terminal emulator edit your ~/.config/sway/config. Change this line:

set $term urxvt256c-ml


set $term alacritty

Reload your configuration.

When you open a new terminal with Super+C, alacritty will be open as seen in the following image:

Photo by Ivan Vranić on Unsplash.

Organizing those 1s and 0s

Friday 13th of December 2019 08:00:00 AM

“It’s all 1s and 0s.” People say this when they’re making a joke or a sarcastic remark. When it comes to computers thought, it’s really true. And at the hardware level, that’s all there is. The processor, the memory, various forms of storage, USB, HDMI, and network connections, along with everything else in that cell-phone, tablet, laptop, or desktop only uses 1s and 0s. Bytes provide for the grouping of the 1s and 0s. So they are a big help in keeping them organized. Let’s looks at how they do that.

Bytes are the unit of measure for data and programs stored and used in your computer. Though the byte has existed for a long time in computer history and has taken several forms, it’s current 8 bit length is well settled. Taken either singly or as adjacent groups, bytes are the generally accepted most common way the Bits in a computer are kept organized.

So what’s a bit? A bit is a binary digit; that is it can have only two values. In computers the two values a bit can have are zero (0) and one (1). That’s it, no other choices. A byte is just eight binary bits that are taken together to represent binary numbers. Through various coding schemes the numbers can represent a wide variety of other things like the characters we write with.

The table below shows a single Big-Endian byte showing individual bits of this byte and their associated powers of two. All Bytes of data are in Big-Endian format. There are other bytes, such as program code where Endian formatting does not apply. The decimal values of each power of two is show with each bit for reference. Imagine a line between Bit 3 and Bit 4 is where the  byte is sub divided into four bit groups called Nibbles. Little-Endian is a very commonly used byte format. Stay tuned for more on Endians. If you’re curious about the name, do a search on (etymology of endian).

One Big-Endian Byte:

Bit0Bit1Bit2Bit3Bit4Bit5Bit6Bit7Power of 227 26 25 24 23 22 21 21Decimal value1286432168421

Each nibble of a byte can hold a four bit binary number as shown in the following table. If a bit is set to “1” that power of two adds to the value of the nibble. If a bit is set to “0” that power of two does not add to the value of the nibble. A byte which is two nibbles can hold a two digit hexadecimal number. Bits are really all that a computer can use. Programmers and engineers developing computer hardware use hexadecimal to make dealing with the bits easier. In the table below the most significant bit is on the left 20, 21, 22, 23

One Big-Endian Nibble:


I’ll explain Big-Endian starting with a one byte diagram. The longer lines at the end of this frame are the boundaries of the byte so if you were drawing a group of adjacent bytes it would be clear where one byte left off and another began. The small lines divide the frame into individual locations where each of the eight bits can be shown. The medium line in the middle divides the byte into two equal four bit pieces which are the nibbles. Nibbles also have a long and varied history. I’ve never seen that they have been standardized. However the current well settled view is that nibbles are groups of four bits as I have shown them below. All of these lines only exist as people draw bytes. The lines don’t exist in the computer.

The Upper Nibble and Lower Nibble are labels as they would be used in a Big-Endian byte. In Big-Endian, the most significant digit is on the left end of a number. So the Lower Nibble is the least significant half of the number in the byte. Likewise the least significant bit is on the right LSBit (usually noted as LSB) stands for Least Significant Bit. And the most significant bit is on the left. The Upper Nibble on the left is the most significant half of the number. MSBit (usually noted as MSB) is the most significant bit. This is the same as to how we write decimal numbers with the most significant digit on the left. This is called Big-Endian because the “big end” of the number comes first.

With the byte being able to hold two hexadecimal digits, a byte can hold hexadecimal numbers between 00 and FF (0 to 255 in decimal) So if you are using bytes to represent the characters of a human readable language you just give each character, punctuation mark, etc. a number. (Then of course get everyone to agree with the coding you invented.) This is only one use for bytes. Bytes are also used as program code that your computer runs, numbers for various data you might have, and everything else that inhabits a computer in the CPU, memory, storage, or zooming around on the various buses and interface ports.

As it turns out there are two commonly used byte formats. Little-Endian has been used in the prior examples. Its feature is having the most significant digit on the left and the least significant digit on the right.

There is also a format called Little-Endian. As you might expect it is opposite of Big-Endian with the least significant digit on the left and the most significant digit on the right. This is the opposite of how we write decimal numbers. Little-Endian is not used for the order of bits in a byte, but it is used for the order of bytes in a larger  structure. For instance: A large number contained in a Little-Endian Word of two bytes would have the least significant byte on the left. If the two byte number was in Big-Endian, most significant byte would be on the right. Little-Endian is only used in the context of long multi-byte numbers to set the significance order of the bytes in the larger data structure.

There are reasons for using both Big and Little byte ordering and the meaty reasons are beyond the scope of this article. However, Little-Endian tends to be used in microprocessors. The x86-64 processors in most PCs use the Little-Endian byte format. Though the later generations do have special instructions that provide limited use of Big-Endian format. The Big-Endian byte format is widely used in networking and notably in those big Z computers. Now you’re not necessarily limited to one or the other. The newer ARM processors can use either Endian format. Devices like microprocessors that can use both Big-Endian and Little Endian byte ordering are sometimes referred to as Bi-Endian.

Well, sometimes you really need more than one byte to hold a number. To that end there are longer formats available that are composed of multiple bytes. For instance: The x86-64 processors Have Words which are 16 bits or 2 bytes that happen to be lined up next to each other head to tail, so to speak. They also have Double Words (32 bits or 4 bytes), and Quad Words (64 bits or 8 bytes). Now these are just examples of data forms made available by the processor hardware.

Programmers working with languages have many more ways to organize the bits and bytes. When the program is ready, a compiler or another mechanism converts the way that the program has bits and bytes organized into data forms that the CPU hardware can deal with.

How to rebase to Fedora 31 on Silverblue

Wednesday 11th of December 2019 08:00:00 AM

Silverblue is an operating system for your desktop built on Fedora. It’s excellent for daily use, development, and container-based workflows. It offers numerous advantages such as being able to roll back in case of any problems. If you want to update to Fedora 31 on your Silverblue system, this article tells you how. It not only shows you what to do, but also how to revert back if anything unforeseen happens.

Prior the the update to Fedora 31 it is better to do any pending upgrades.

Updating using GNOME Software

Unfortunately the update can’t be done in GNOME Software right now, because of a bug in GNOME Software itself. For additional information please look at upstream issue.

Updating using terminal

If you do not like GNOME Software or like to do everything in terminal, than this next guide is for you.

Updating to Fedora 31 using terminal is easy. First, check if the 31 branch is available, which should be true now:

$ ostree remote refs fedora

You should see the following in the output:


Next, rebase your system to the Fedora 31 branch.

$ rpm-ostree rebase fedora:fedora/31/x86_64/silverblue

Finally, the last thing to do is restart your computer and boot to Fedora 31.

How to revert things back

If anything bad happens — for instance, if you can’t boot to Fedora 31 at all — it’s easy to go back. Just pick the previous entry in GRUB, and your system will start in its previous state before switching to Fedora 31. To make this change permanent, use the following command:

$ rpm-ostree rollback

That’s it. Now you know how to rebase to Fedora 31 and back. So why not do it today?

Contribute at the Fedora Test Week for Kernel 5.4

Monday 9th of December 2019 09:00:00 AM

The kernel team is working on final integration for kernel 5.4. This version was just recently released, and will arrive soon in Fedora. This version has many security fixes included. As a result, the Fedora kernel and QA teams have organized a test week from Monday, December 09, 2019 through Monday, December 16, 2019. Refer to the wiki page for links to the test images you’ll need to participate. Read below for details.

How does a test week work?

A test day/week is an event where anyone can help make sure changes in Fedora work well in an upcoming release. Fedora community members often participate, and the public is welcome at these events. If you’ve never contributed before, this is a perfect way to get started.

To contribute, you only need to be able to do the following things:

  • Download test materials, which include some large files
  • Read and follow directions step by step

The wiki page for the kernel test day has a lot of good information on what and how to test. After you’ve done some testing, you can log your results in the test day web application. If you’re available on or around the day of the event, please do some testing and report your results.

Happy testing, and we hope to see you in the Test Week.

5 cool terminal pagers in Fedora

Friday 6th of December 2019 08:00:00 AM

Large files like logs or source code can run into the thousands of lines. That makes navigating them difficult, particularly from the terminal. Additionally, most terminal emulators have a scrollback buffer of only a few hundred lines. That can make it impossible to browse large files in the terminal using utilities which print to standard output like cat, head and tail. In the early days of computing, programmers solved these problems by developing utilities for displaying text in the form of virtual “pages” — utilities imaginatively described as pagers.

Pagers offer a number of features which make text file navigation much simpler, including scrolling, search functions, and the ability to feature as part of a pipeline of commands. In contrast to most text editors, some terminal pagers do not require loading the entire file for viewing, which makes them faster, especially for very large files.

In the modern era of Linux computing, terminal emulators are more sophisticated than ever. They offer support for a kaleidoscope of colors, terminal resizing, as well as a host of other features to make parsing text on screen easier and more efficient. Terminal pagers have undergone a similar evolution, from extremely simple UNIX utilities like pg and more, to sophisticated programs with a wide range of features, covering any number of use cases. With this in mind, we’ve put together a list of some of the most popular terminal paging utilities — more or less.


more is one of the earliest pagers, initially featured in version 3.0 BSD. The first implementation of more was written in 1978 by Daniel Halbert. Since then, more has become a ubiquitous feature of many operating systems, including Windows, OS/2, MacOS and most linux distributions.

more is a very lightweight utility. The version featured in util-linux runs to just under 2100 lines of C. However, this small footprint comes at a price. Most versions of more feature relatively limited functionality, with no support for backwards scroll or search. Commands are similarly stripped back: press enter to scroll one line, or space to scroll one page. Some other useful commands include:

  • Press v while reading to open the current file in your default terminal editor.
  • ‘/pattern‘ let’s you search for the next occurrence of pattern.
  • :n and :p will open the next and previous files respectively when more is called with more than one file as arguments

less was initially conceived as a successor to more, addressing some of its limitations. Building on the functionality of more, less adds a number of useful features including backwards scroll, backwards search. It is also more amenable to window resizing.

Navigation in less is similar to more, though less borrows a few useful commands from the vi editor as well. Users can navigate the document using the familiar home row navigational keys. A glance at the man page for less reveals a fairly rich repertoire of available commands. Some particularly useful examples include:

  • ?pattern lets you search backwards in the file for pattern
  • &pattern shows only lines which feature pattern. This is particularly useful for those who find themselves issuing $ grep pattern | less regularly.
  • Calling less with the -s (–sqeueeze-blank-lines) flag allows you to view text files with large gaps. Multiple newline characters are reduced to single breaks.
  • s filename, called from within the program, saves input to filename (if input is a pipe).
  • Alternatively, calling less with the -o filename flag will save the input of less to filename.

With this enhanced functionality comes a little extra weight. The version of less that ships with Fedora at the time of writing clocks in at around 25000 lines of source code. Granted, for all but the most storage constrained systems, this is a non-issue. Besides, less is more than more.


While less aims to expand on the existing capabilities of more, most takes a different approach. Rather than expanding on the traditional single file view, most gives users the ability to split their view into “windows.” Each window contains different files in different viewing modes.
Significantly, most takes into account the width of its input text. The default viewing mode doesn’t wrap text (-S in less), a feature particularly useful when dealing with “wide” files. While these design decisions might represent a significant departure from tradition for some users, the end result is very powerful.

In addition to the navigation commands offered by more, most uses intuitive mnemonics for file navigation. For example, t moves to the top of a file, and b moves to the bottom. As a result, users unfamiliar with vi and its descendants will find most to be refreshingly simple.

The distinguishing feature of most is its ability to split windows and contexts quickly and easily. For example, one could open two distinct text files using the following:

$ most textFile1.txt textFile2.txt

In order to split the screen horizontally, use the key combos Ctrl+x, 2 or Ctrl+w, 2. The command :n will open the next file argument in a given window, offering a split screen view of two files:

If you turn wrap off in one window, it does not affect the behavior of other windows. The \ character indicates a wrap or fold, while the $ character indicates that the file extends past the limitations of the current window.


Those who work with SQL databases often need to be able to examine the contents of our databases at a glance. The command line interfaces for many popular open source DBMS’s, such as MySQL and PostGreSQL, use the system default pager to view outputs that don’t fit on a single screen. Utilities like more and less are designed around the idea of presenting text files, but for more structured data, leave something to be desired. Naive text paginating programs have no concept of broad, tabular data, which can be frustrating when dealing with large queries.

pspg attempts to address this by offering users the ability to freeze columns while viewing, sort data in situ, and colourize output. While pspg was intended initially to serve as a pager replacement for psql specifically, the program also supports the viewing of CSV data, and is a suitable drop-in replacement for mysql and pgcli.


In a modern, technicolor terminal, the idea of endless pages of drab grey on black text can feel like something of an anachronism. The syntax highlighting options offered by powerful text editors like vim can be useful for browsing source code. Furthermore, the search functions offered by vim vastly outclass the competition. With this in mind, vim ships with a shell script that lets vim serve as a replacement for conventional pagers.

To set vim as the default pager for man pages, add the following to your shell’s config (such as ~/.bashrc if using the default bash shell):

export MANPAGER="/bin/sh -c \"col -b | vim -c 'set ft=man ts=8 nomod nolist nonu noma' -\""

Alternatively, to set vim as the default pager system-wide, locate the script. (You can find it at /usr/share/vim/vim81/macros/ on current Fedora systems.) Export this location as the variable PAGER to set it as default, or under an alias to invoke it explicitly.

Photo by Cathy Mü on Unsplash.

Fedora Desktops – Memory Footprints

Wednesday 4th of December 2019 08:00:00 AM

There are over 40 desktops in Fedora. Each desktop has it’s own strengths and weaknesses. Usually picking a desktop is a very personal preference based on features, looks, and other qualities. Sometimes, what you pick for a desktop is limited by hardware constraints.

This article is to help people compare Fedora desktops based on the desktop baseline memory. To narrow the scope, we are only looking at the desktops that have an official Fedora Live image.

Installation and Setup

Each of the desktops was installed on it’s own KVM virtual machine. Each virtual machine had 1 CPU, 4GB of memory, 15 GB virtio solid state disk, and everything else that comes standard on RHEL 8.0 kvm.

The images for installation were the standard Fedora 31 Live images. For GNOME, that image was the Fedora Workstation. For the other desktops, the corresponding Spin was used. Sugar On A Stick (SOAS) was not tested because it does not install easily onto a local drive.

The virtual machine booted into the Live CD. “Install to Hard Disk” was selected. During the install, only the defaults were used. A root user, and a regular users were created. After installation and reboot, the Live image was verified to not be in the virtual CDROM.

The settings for each desktop was not touched. They each ran whatever settings came default from the Live CD installation. Each desktop was logged into via the regular user. A terminal was opened. Using sudo each machine ran “dnf -y update”. After update, in that sudo terminal, each machine ran “/sbin/shutdown -h now” to shut down.


Each machine was started up. The desktop was logged into via the regular user. Three of the desktop terminals were opened. xterm was never used, it was always the terminal for that desktop, such as konsole.

In one terminal, top was started and M pressed, showing the processes sorted by memory. In another terminal, a simple while loop showed “free -m” every 30 seconds. The third terminal was idle.

I then waited 5 minutes. This allowed any startup services to finish. I recorded the final free result, as well as the final top three memory consumers from top.

  • Cinnamon
    • 624 MB Memory used
    • cinnamon 4.8% / Xorg 2.2% / dnfdragora 1.8%
    • 612 MB Memory used
    • gnome-shell 6.9% / gnome-software 1.8% / ibus-x11 1.5%
  • KDE
    • 733 MB Memory used
    • plasmashell 6.2% / kwin_x11 3.6% / akonadi_mailfil 2.9%
  • LXDE
    • 318 MB Memory used
    • Xorg 1.9% / nm-applet 1.8% / dnfdragora 1.8%
  • LXQt
    • 391 MB Memory used
    • lxqt-panel 2.2% / pcmanfm-qt 2.1% / Xorg 2.1%
  • MATE
    • 465 MB Memory used
    • Xorg 2.5% / dnfdragora 1.8% / caja 1.5%
  • XFCE
    • 448 MB Memory used
    • Xorg 2.3% / xfwm4 2.0% / dnfdragora 1.8%

I will let the numbers speak for themselves.

Remember that these numbers are from a default Live install. If you remove, or add services and features, your memory usage will change. But this is a good baseline to look at if you are determining your desktop based on memory consumption.

Using Ansible to organize your SSH keys in AWS

Tuesday 3rd of December 2019 07:00:00 AM

If you’ve worked with instances in Amazon Web Services (AWS) for a long time, you may run into this common issue. It’s not technical, but more to do with the human nature of getting too comfortable. When you launch a new instance in a region you haven’t used recently, you may end up creating a new SSH key pair. This leads to having too many keys, which can become complicated and disordered.

This article shows you a way to have your public key in all regions. A recent Fedora Magazine article includes one solution. But the solution in this article is automated even further, and in a more concise and scalable way.

Say you have a Fedora 30 or 31 desktop system where your key is stored, and Ansible is installed as well. These two things together provide the solution to this problem and many more.

With Ansible’s ec2_key module, you can create a simple playbook that will maintain your SSH key pair in all regions. If you need to add or remove keys, it’s as simple as adding and removing lines from a file.

Setting up and running the playbook

To use the playbook, first install necessary dependencies for the ec2_key module:

$ sudo dnf install python3-boto python3-boto3

The playbook is simple: you need only to change your key and its name as in the example below. After that, run the playbook and it iterates over all the public AWS regions listed. The example also includes the restricted regions in case you have access. To include them, uncomment each line as needed, save the file, and then run the playbook again.

--- - name: Maintain an ssh key pair in ec2 hosts: localhost connection: local gather_facts: no vars: ansible_python_interpreter: python tasks: - name: Make available your ssh public key in ec2 for new instances ec2_key: name: "YOUR KEY NAME GOES HERE" key_material: 'YOUR KEY GOES HERE' state: present region: "{{ item }}" with_items: - us-east-2 #US East (Ohio) - us-east-1 #US East (N. Virginia) - us-west-1 #US West (N. California) - us-west-2 #US West (Oregon) - ap-east-1 #Asia Pacific (Hong Kong) - ap-south-1 #Asia Pacific (Mumbai) - ap-northeast-2 #Asia Pacific (Seoul) - ap-southeast-1 #Asia Pacific (Singapore) - ap-southeast-2 #Asia Pacific (Sydney) - ap-northeast-1 #Asia Pacific (Tokyo) - ca-central-1 #Canada (Central) - eu-central-1 #EU (Frankfurt) - eu-west-1 #EU (Ireland) - eu-west-2 #EU (London) - eu-west-3 #EU (Paris) - eu-north-1 #EU (Stockholm) - me-south-1 #Middle East (Bahrain) - sa-east-1 #South America (Sao Paulo) # - us-gov-east-1 #AWS GovCloud (US-East) # - us-gov-west-1 #AWS GovCloud (US-West) # - ap-northeast-3 #Asia Pacific (Osaka-Local) # - cn-north-1 #China (Beijing) # - cn-northwest-1 #China (Ningxia)

This playbook requires AWS access via API, as well. To do this, use environment variables as follows:

$ AWS_ACCESS_KEY="aws-access-key-id" AWS_SECRET_KEY="aws-secret-key-id" ansible-playbook ec2-playbook.yml

Another option is to install the aws cli tools and add the credentials as explained in a previous Fedora Magazine article. It is not recommended to insert these values in the playbook if you store it anywhere online! You can find this playbook code on GitHub.

After the playbook finishes, confirm that your key is available on the AWS console. To do that:

  1. Log into your AWS console
  2. Go to EC2 > Key Pairs
  3. You should see your key listed. The only limitation is that you have to check region-by-region with this method.

Another way is to use a quick command in a shell to do this check for you.

First create a variable with all regions on the playbook:

AWS_REGION="us-east-1 us-west-1 us-west-2 ap-east-1 ap-south-1 ap-northeast-2 ap-southeast-1 ap-southeast-2 ap-northeast-1 ca-central-1 eu-central-1 eu-west-1 eu-west-2 eu-west-3 eu-north-1 me-south-1 sa-east-1"

Then do a for loop and you will get the result from aws API:

for each in ${AWS_REGION} ; do aws ec2 describe-key-pairs --key-name <YOUR KEY GOES HERE> ; done

Keep in mind that to do the above you need to have the aws cli installed.

A quick introduction to Toolbox on Fedora

Friday 29th of November 2019 08:00:00 AM

Toolbox allows you to sort and manage your development environments in containers without requiring root privileges or manually attaching volumes. It creates a container where you can install your own CLI tools, without installing them on the base system itself. You can also utilize it when you do not have root access or cannot install programs directly. This article gives you an introduction to toolbox and what it does.

Installing Toolbox

Silverblue includes Toolbox by default. For the Workstation and Server editions, you can grab it from the default repositories using dnf install toolbox.

Creating Toolboxes

Open your terminal and run toolbox enter. The utility will automatically request permission to download the latest image, create your first container, and place your shell inside this container.

$ toolbox enter No toolbox containers found. Create now? [y/N] y Image required to create toolbox container. Download (500MB)? [y/N]: y

Currently there is no difference between the toolbox and your base system. Your filesystems and packages appear unchanged. Here is an example using a repository that contains documentation source for a resume under a ~/src/resume folder. The resume is built using the pandoc tool.

$ pwd /home/rwaltr $ cd src/resume/ $ head -n 5 Makefile all: pdf html rtf text docx pdf: init pandoc -s -o BUILDS/resume.pdf markdown/* $ make pdf bash: make: command not found $ pandoc -v bash: pandoc: command not found

This toolbox does not have the programs required to build the resume. You can remedy this by installing the tools with dnf. You will not be prompted for the root password, because you are running in a container.

$ sudo dnf groupinstall "Authoring and Publishing" -y && sudo dnf install pandoc make -y ... $ make all #Successful builds mkdir -p BUILDS pandoc -s -o BUILDS/resume.pdf markdown/* pandoc -s -o BUILDS/resume.html markdown/* pandoc -s -o BUILDS/resume.rtf markdown/* pandoc -s -o BUILDS/resume.txt markdown/* pandoc -s -o BUILDS/resume.docx markdown/* $ ls BUILDS/ resume.docx resume.html resume.pdf resume.rtf resume.txt

Run exit at any time to exit the toolbox.

$ cd BUILDS/ $ pandoc --version || ls pandoc 2.2.1 Compiled with pandoc-types, texmath, skylighting 0.7.5 ... for a particular purpose. resume.docx resume.html resume.pdf resume.rtf resume.txt $ exit logout $ pandoc --version || ls bash: pandoc: command not found... resume.docx resume.html resume.pdf resume.rtf resume.txt

You retain the files created by your toolbox in your home directory. None of the programs installed in your toolbox will be available outside of it.

Tips and tricks

This introduction to toolbox only scratches the surface. Here are some additional tips, but you can also check out the official documentation.

  • Toolbox –help will show you the man page for Toolbox
  • You can have multiple toolboxes at once. Use toolbox create -c Toolboxname and toolbox enter -c Toolboxname
  • Toolbox uses Podman to do the heavy lifting. Use toolbox list to find the IDs of the containers Toolbox creates. Podman can use these IDs to perform actions such as rm and stop. (You can also read more about Podman in this Magazine article.)

Photo courtesy of Florian Richter from Flickr.

Create virtual machines with Cockpit in Fedora

Wednesday 27th of November 2019 08:00:00 AM

This article shows you how to install the software you need to use Cockpit to create and manage virtual machines on Fedora 31. Cockpit is an interactive admin interface that lets you access and manage systems from any supported web browser. With virt-manager being deprecated users are encouraged to use Cockpit instead, which is meant to replace it.

Cockpit is an actively developed project, with many plugins available that extend how it works. For example, one such plugin is “Machines,” which interacts with libvirtd and lets users create and manage virtual machines.

Installing software

The required software prerequisites are libvirt, cockpit and cockpit-machines. To install them on Fedora 31, run the following command from a terminal using sudo:

$ sudo dnf install libvirt cockpit cockpit-machines

Cockpit is also included as part of the “Headless Management” package group. This group is useful for a Fedora based server that you only access through a network. In that case, to install it, use this command:

$ sudo dnf groupinstall "Headless Management" Setting up Cockpit services

After installing the necessary packages it’s time to enable the services. The libvirtd service runs the virtual machines, while Cockpit has a socket activated service to let you access the Web GUI:

$ sudo systemctl enable libvirtd --now $ sudo systemctl enable cockpit.socket --now

This should be enough to run virtual machines and manage them through Cockpit. Optionally, if you want to access and manage your machine from another device on your network, you need to expose the service to the network. To do this, add a new rule in your firewall configuration:

$ sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=cockpit --permanent $ sudo firewall-cmd --reload

To confirm the services are running and no issues occurred, check the status of the services:

$ sudo systemctl status libvirtd $ sudo systemctl status cockpit.socket

At this point everything should be working. The Cockpit web GUI should be available at https://localhost:9090 or Or, enter the local network IP in a web browser on any other device connected to the same network. (Without SSL certificates setup, you may need to allow a connection from your browser.)

Creating and installing a machine

Log into the interface using the user name and password for that system. You can also choose whether to allow your password to be used for administrative tasks in this session.

Select Virtual Machines and then select Create VM to build a new box. The console gives you several options:

  • Download an OS using Cockpit’s built in library
  • Use install media already downloaded on the system you’re managing
  • Point to a URL for an OS installation tree
  • Boot media over the network via the PXE protocol

Enter all the necessary parameters. Then select Create to power up the new virtual machine.

At this point, a graphical console appears. Most modern web browsers let you use your keyboard and mouse to interact with the VM console. Now you can complete your installation and use your new VM, just as you would via virt-manager in the past.

Photo by Miguel Teixeira on Flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0).

Welcoming our new Fedora Community Action and Impact Coordinator

Monday 25th of November 2019 06:43:00 AM

Good news, everybody! I’m pleased to announce that we have completed our search for a new Fedora Community Action and Impact Coordinator, and she’ll be joining the Open Source Program Office (OSPO) team to work with Fedora as of today. Please give a warm welcome to Marie Nordin.

If you’ve been involved in Fedora, you may have already been working with Marie. She’s a member of the Fedora Design and Badges teams. Her latest contribution to the Design Team is the wallpaper for F31, a collaboration with Máirín Duffy. Marie has made considerable contributions to the Badges project. She has designed over 150 badge designs, created documentation and a style guide, and mentored new design contributors for years. Most recently she has been spear-heading a bunch of work related to bringing badges up to date on both the development and UI/UX of the web app.

Marie is new to Red Hat, joining us after 5 years of involvement with the Fedora community. She was first introduced to Fedora through an Outreachy internship in 2013 working on Fedora Badges. Marie’s most current full time position was in the distribution industry as a purchasing agent, bid coordinator, and manager. She also has a strong background in design outside of her efforts for Fedora, working as a freelance graphic designer for the past 8 years.

I believe that Marie’s varied background in business and administration, her experience with design, and her long term involvement with and passion for Fedora makes her an excellent fit for this position. I’m excited to work with her as both a colleague on her team at Red Hat and as a Fedora contributor.

Feel free to reach out with congratulations, but give her a bit to get fully engaged with Fedora duties.

Congratulations, Marie!

Sharing Fedora

Friday 22nd of November 2019 08:00:55 AM

After being a Fedora user for a while, you may have come to enjoy it. And in fact you might want to encourage others to try Fedora. You don’t need any special privileges or to become a Fedora Ambassador to do that. As it turns out, anyone can help others get started with Fedora just by sharing information about it.

Having the conversation

For example, if you go out to lunch with a group of colleagues periodically, you might find it natural to talk about Fedora with them. If someone shows interest, you can suggest to get together with them for a Fedora show and tell. There isn’t any need for formal presentations or prepared talks. This is just having lunch and sharing information with people you know.

When you’re with friends, relatives, colleagues, or neighbors, conversation often turns to things computer related, and you can bring up Fedora. There are usually opportunities to point out how Fedora would partially if not completely address their concerns or provide something they want.

These are people you know so talking with them is easy and natural. You probably know the kind of things they use PCs for, so you know the features of Fedora that will be attractive to them. Such conversations can start anytime you see someone you know. You don’t need to steer conversations toward Fedora — that might be impolite, depending on the situation. But if they bring up computer related issues, you might find an opportunity to talk about Fedora.

Taking action

If a friend or colleague has an unused laptop, you could offer to show them how easy it is to load Fedora. You can also point out that there’s no charge and that the licenses are friendly to users. Sharing a USB key or a DVD is almost always helpful.

When you have someone setup to use Fedora, make sure they have the URLs for discussions, questions, and other related websites. Also, from time to time, let them know if you’ve seen an application they might find useful. (Hint: You might want to point them at a certain online magazine, too!)

The next time you’re with someone you know and they start talking about a computer related issue, tell them about Fedora and how it works for you. If they seem interested, give them some ideas on how Fedora could be helpful for them.

Open source may be big business nowadays, but it also remains a strong grassroots movement. You too can help grow open source through awareness and sharing!

Photo by Sharon McCutcheon from Unsplash.

Set up single sign-on for Fedora Project services

Wednesday 20th of November 2019 08:00:43 AM

In addition to an operating system, the Fedora Project provides services for users and developers. Services such as Ask Fedora, the Fedora Project wiki and the Fedora Project mailing lists help users learn how to best take advantage of Fedora. For developers of Fedora, there are many other services such as dist-git, Pagure, Bodhi, COPR and Bugzilla for the packaging and release process.

These services are available with a free account from the Fedora Accounts System (FAS). This account is the passport to all things Fedora! This article covers how to get set up with an account and configure Fedora Workstation for browser single sign-on.

Signing up for a Fedora account

To create a FAS account, browse to the account creation page. Here, you will fill out your basic identity data:

Account creation page

Once you enter your data, the account system sends an email to the address you provided, with a temporary password. Pick a strong password and use it.

Password reset page

Next, the account details page appears. If you want to contribute to the Fedora Project, you should complete the Contributor Agreement now. Otherwise, you are done and you can use your account to log into the various Fedora services.

Account details page Configuring Fedora Workstation for single sign-On

Now that you have your account, you can sign into any of the Fedora Project services. Most of these services support single sign-on (SSO), so you can sign in without re-entering your username and password.

Fedora Workstation provides an easy workflow to add your Fedora credentials. The GNOME Online Accounts tool helps you quickly set up your system to access many popular services. To access it, go to the Settings menu.

Click on the option labeled Fedora. A prompt opens for you to provide your username and password for your Fedora Account.

GNOME Online Accounts stores your password in GNOME Keyring and automatically acquires your single-sign-on credentials for you when you log in.

Single sign-on with a web browser

Today, Fedora Workstation supports three web browsers out of the box with support for single sign-on with the Fedora Project services. These are Mozilla Firefox, GNOME Web, and Google Chrome.

Due to a bug in Chromium, single sign-on doesn’t work currently if you have more than one set of Kerberos (SSO) credentials active on your session. As a result, Fedora doesn’t enable this function out of the box for Chromium in Fedora.

To sign on to a service, browse to it and select the login option for that service. For most Fedora services, this is all you need to do; the browser handles the rest. Some services such as the Fedora mailing lists and Bugzilla support multiple login types. For them, select the Fedora or Fedora Account System login type.

That’s it! You can now log into any of the Fedora Project services without re-entering your password.

Special consideration for Google Chrome

To enable single sign-on out of the box for Google Chrome, Fedora takes advantage of certain features in Chrome that are intended for use in “managed” environments. A managed environment is traditionally a corporate or other organization that sets certain security and/or monitoring requirements on the browser.

Recently, Google Chrome changed its behavior and it now reports Managed by your organization or possibly Managed by under the ⋮ menu in Google Chrome. That link leads to a page that says, “If your Chrome browser is managed, your administrator can set up or restrict certain features, install extensions, monitor activity, and control how you use Chrome.” However, Fedora will never monitor your browser activity or restrict your actions.

Enter chrome://policy in the address bar to see exactly what settings Fedora has enabled in the browser. The AuthNegotiateDelegateWhitelist and AuthServerWhitelist options will be set to * These are the only changes Fedora makes.

Fedora shirts and sweatshirts from HELLOTUX

Monday 18th of November 2019 08:50:00 AM

Linux clothes specialist HELLOTUX from Europe recently signed an agreement with Red Hat to make embroidered Fedora t-shirts, polo shirts and sweatshirts. They have been making Debian, Ubuntu, openSUSE, and other Linux shirts for more than a decade and now the collection is extended to Fedora.

Embroidered Fedora polo shirt.

Instead of printing, they use programmable embroidery machines to make the Fedora embroidery. All of the design work is made exclusively with Linux; this is a matter of principle.

Some photos of the embroidering process for a Fedora sweatshirt:

You can get Fedora polos and t-shirts in blue or black and the sweatshirt in gray here.

Oh, “just one more thing,” as Columbo used to say: Now, HELLOTUX pays the shipping fee for the purchase of two or more items, worldwide, if you order within a week from now. Order on the HELLOTUX website.

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