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How To Update a Fedora Linux System [Beginner’s Tutorial]

Saturday 2nd of November 2019 10:55:31 AM

This quick tutorial shows various ways to update a Fedora Linux install.

So, the other day, I installed the newly released Fedora 31. I’ll be honest with you, it was my first time with a non-Ubuntu distribution.

The first thing I did after installing Fedora was to try and install some software. I opened the software center and found that the software center was ‘broken’. I couldn’t install any application from it.

I wasn’t sure what went wrong with my installation. Discussing within the team, Abhishek advised me to update the system first. I did that and poof! everything was back to normal. After updating the Fedora system, the software center worked as it should.

Sometimes we just ignore the updates and keep troubleshooting the issue we face. No matter how big/small the issue is – to avoid them, you should keep your system up-to-date.

In this article, I’ll show you various possible methods to update your Fedora Linux system.

Keep in mind that updating Fedora means installing the security patches, kernel updates and software updates. If you want to update from one version of Fedora to another, it is called version upgrade and you can read about Fedora version upgrade procedure here.

Updating Fedora From The Software Center Software Center

You will most likely be notified that you have some system updates to look at, you should end up launching the software center when you click on that notification.

All you have to do is – hit ‘Update’ and verify the root password to start updating.

In case you did not get a notification for the available updates, you can simply launch the software center and head to the “Updates” tab. Now, you just need to proceed with the updates listed.

Updating Fedora Using The Terminal

If you cannot load up the software center for some reason, you can always utilize the dnf package managing commands to easily update your system.

Simply launch the terminal and type in the following command to start updating (you should be prompted to verify the root password):

sudo dnf upgrade

dnf update vs dnf upgrade

You’ll find that there are two dnf commands available: dnf update and dnf upgrade.
Both command do the same job and that is to install all the updates provided by Fedora.
Then why there is dnf update and dnf upgrade and which one should you use?
Well, dnf update is basically an alias to dnf upgrade. While dnf update may still work, the good practice is to use dnf upgrade because that is the real command.

Updating Fedora From System Settings

If nothing else works (or if you’re already in the System settings for a reason), navigate your way to the “Details” option at the bottom of your settings.

This should show up the details of your OS and hardware along with a “Check for Updates” button as shown in the image above. You just need to click on it and provide the root/admin password to proceed to install the available updates.

Wrapping Up

As explained above, it is quite easy to update your Fedora installation. You’ve got three available methods to choose from – so you have nothing to worry about.

If you notice any issue in following the instructions mentioned above, feel free to let me know in the comments below.

Fedora 31 Released! Check Out The New Features

Wednesday 30th of October 2019 03:14:21 PM

After six months of Fedora 30 release, we have the next major version – Fedora 31 – available to download.

With this release, quite a few things have changed visually including several under-the-hood improvements

Changes and new features in Fedora 31

Here, I will highlight a few key changes so that you can decide whether you should upgrade to Fedora 31 or not. Also, we have a useful guide to help you upgrade your Fedora version – if you’re not sure how to do that.

Latest GNOME 3.34 Release

This is a big deal of Fedora Workstation users, with the latest and greatest GNOME update 3.34, you will find some visual changes and performance improvements.

It is easier to change the background or lock screen wallpaper with GNOME 3.34, the options are user-friendly and useful.

In addition to this, you can also create application folders in the overview to organize your app drawer.

Fedora Folder Icons

Basically, what’s new with GNOME 3.34 directly reflects here. You can check our coverage on GNOME 3.34 features to know more about. There’s also a separate blog post on covering the important changes with GNOME 3.34 for Fedora 31, you might want to check that as well.

Dropping 32-Bit Support

With Fedora 31, you will no longer find 32-bit bootable images. They have completely dropped the support for 32-bit i686 kernel.

Most popular 32-bit packages like Steam and Wine will continue to work, but do not expect great 32-bit support.

Docker Package Removed From Fedora 31

If you are using Docker, it is worth noting that with Fedora 31, they have enabled CGroups V2.

To highlight this, I would quote the official Fedora wiki page (the bug report page) addressing this particular change as follows:

The Docker package has been removed from Fedora 31. It has been replaced by the upstream package moby-engine, which includes the Docker CLI as well as the Docker Engine. However, we recommend instead that you use podman, which is a Cgroups v2-compatible container engine whose CLI is compatible with Docker’s. Fedora 31 uses Cgroups v2 by default.

Updated Packages

Of course, with a major release, several packages will be updated. Some of the notable upgrades are:

  • Glibc 2.30
  • NodeJS 12
  • Python 3 (Python 2 is reaching its end of life)
Updated Fedora Flavors & Improved Hardware Support

For desktop users, Fedora 31 Workstation matters. But, if you utilize other editions of Fedora, the new release will have a significant effect there as well.

For instance, Fedora Astronomy, Fedora IoT and so on.

They have also improved their support for certain SoCs like Rock64, RockPro 64 and several other chips.

Other Improvements

There’s actually a bunch of under-the-hood changes like disabling root password login in SSH.

Overall, it’s a good upgrade with a lot of positive changes for the users/developers. If you want more details, you can take a look at its official changelog.

Getting Fedora 31

Like any other Fedora release, Fedora 31 will also be supported for next thirteen months. This also means that Fedora 29 will reach end of life in a month. So if you are using Fedora 29, you should definitely plan upgrading.

Even if you are using Fedora 30, you should upgrade to the new release sooner or later. Abhishek’s advise is to wait for a couple of weeks for the bug fixes and then upgrade to the new version.

You can upgrade Fedora version from within your current Fedora install. You should be notified of the availability of the new release in the software center.

You can also download the ISO and install it afresh.

Get Fedora 31

Wrapping Up

Fedora 31 will be a new experience for me personally. I might share my experience with Fedora 31 as a follow up to this release post.

If you have already upgraded, what did you like the most about the new Fedora 31 release? Was it a smooth upgrade for you? Let me know your thoughts in the comments down below.

Get Premium Linux eBooks Worth $723 for $15 [Humble Bundle Deal]

Tuesday 29th of October 2019 10:00:46 AM

Humble Bundle is a digital e-store that provides limited-time massive discount deals on games, eBooks and audiobooks. Things that would normally cost you hundreds of dollars are made available in under $20. That’s not it. Part of each sale goes to a charity. In fact, they have raised over $155 million in charities so far.

So you get awesome stuff at unbelievable prices and at the same time you support a charity organization. Humble Bundle deals are ethically satisfying for this reason.

Humble Bundle has offered awesome eBooks bundles on a wide variety of topics in the past. Android app development, Python, Ruby, Cyber Security, Raspberry Pi are a few examples. I usually share relevant Humble Bundle deals in It’s FOSS weekly newsletter and they are loved by many of our subscribers.

Last year, I requested them for a Linux Bundle deal and they happily obliged it by creating a bundle offer of No Starch Press Linux books. It was a huge success for both Humble Bundle and No Starch Press with over 30,000 bundles sold.

Humble Bundle and No Starch Press have partnered again to bring another Linux (and BSD) book bundle. They have added new books to the offering this year.

Linux & BSD eBooks by No Starch Press (DRM-free) Linux & BSD Bookshelf by Humble Bundle

The Linux & BSD Bookshelf bundle consists of eBooks from No Starch Press. No Starch Press is a publishing house specializing in technical literature focused on geek, hacker, and DIY subcultures. They have some really good books like How Linux Works, The Linux Command Line etc.

The Linux and BSD book bundle has books worth $723. All of the eBooks can be downloaded in PDF, ePUB and MOBI format. Once purchased, you can download the books any time in the future from your Humble Bundle account. Books are DRM-free which means you own the book and can transfer it to any device you own. 

Part of your purchase will be donated to either No Starch Press Foundation or Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), an international non-profit fighting for privacy, transparency and net neutrality. You can also choose to donate part of the purchase to It’s FOSS as we are partners with Humble Bundle.

What do you get in the Linux Geek Bundle

The book bundle is divided into four section and it’s up to you to pay what you want.

If you pay $1(or more), you get all these eBooks:

These are the books you get for just $1
  • The Book of Audacity: Record, Edit, Mix, and Master with the Free Audio Editor
  • The Art of Debugging with GDB, DDD, and Eclipse (Recommended for C/C++ software developers)
  • The Artist’s Guide to GIMP: Creative Techniques for Photographers, Artists, and Designers
  • FreeBSD Device Drivers: A Guide for the Intrepid
  • Linux Firewalls: Attack Detection and Response with iptables, psad, and fwsnort
  • Perl One-Liners: 130 Programs That Get Things Done (Recommended for Perl developers/sysadmins)
  • Wicked Cool Shell Scripts: 101 Scripts for Linux, OS X, and UNIX Systems (Highly recommended for advanced Linux users and sysadmins)

If you pay $8 (or more), you will get the following books in addition to the previous ones:

Additional books you’ll get for $8
  • The GNU Make Book
  • The Book of PF: A No-Nonsense Guide to the OpenBSD Firewall
  • The Book of Inkscape: The Definitive Guide to the Free Graphics Editor
  • The Book of GIMP: A Complete Guide to Nearly Everything
  • Blender Master Class: A Hands-On Guide to Modeling, Sculpting, Materials, and Rendering
  • Absolute OpenBSD: Unix for the Practical Paranoid

And if you pay $15 (or more), you’ll get all of the above books and the following additional ones:

For $15, you’ll get these books along with the previous ones
  • Autotools: A Practitioner’s Guide to GNU Autoconf, Automake, and Libtool
  • Your Linux Toolbox
  • The TCP/IP Guide: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Internet Protocols Reference
  • The Linux Command Line: A Complete Introduction
  • Linux Basics for Hackers: Getting Started with Networking, Scripting, and Security in Kali
  • How Linux Works (Must for every Linux user)
  • Absolute FreeBSD: The Complete Guide to FreeBSD

You can also buy the Linux & BSD book bundle as a gift for someone else. 

Get ‘Linux & BSD Humble Book Bundle’ now Don’t miss the deal

It’s not every day that I write about deals unless it’s something really awesome and useful for Linux users like you. This is one of those rare deals that I highly recommend. The deal is a win-win for a number of reasons.

  • DRM-free Linux and programming eBooks in PDF, MOBI and ePub formats
  • Books can be downloaded any time in future
  • You can gift the book bundle to a friend, colleague or family member
  • Indirectly contribute to EFF in fighting for Net Neutrality

You may not need all the books in the bundle but a few books like How Linux Works itself are good enough for buying the entire bundle. Go and buy it. You won’t get such an awesome deal anytime soon.

Note: It’s FOSS is an affiliate partner with Humble Bundle. As mentioned earlier, part of the sale may be shared with us with no additional cost to you. Please read our affiliate policy for more info.

Collapse OS – An OS Created to Run After the World Ends

Saturday 26th of October 2019 04:50:13 AM

When most people think about preparing for a post-apocalyptic world, the first time that comes to mind is food and other living essentials. Recently, a programmer has decided that it would be just as important to create a versatile and survivable operating system after the collapse of society. We will be taking a look at it today, as best we can.

Collapse OS – For when the fecal matter hits the rotating device

The operating system in question is called Collapse OS. According to the website, Collapse OS is a “z80 kernel and a collection of programs, tools and documentation”. It would allow you to:

  • Run on minimal and improvised machines.
  • Interface through improvised means (serial, keyboard, display).
  • Edit text files.
  • Compile assembler source files for a wide range of MCUs and CPUs.
  • Read and write from a wide range of storage devices.
  • Replicate itself.

The creator, Virgil Dupras, started the project because he sees “our global supply chain to collapse before we reach 2030”. He bases this conclusion on the works of Pablo Servigne. He seems to understand that not everyone shares his views. “That being said, I don’t consider it unreasonable to not believe that collapse is likely to happen by 2030, so please, don’t feel attacked by my beliefs.”

The overall goal of the project is to jumpstart a post-collapse civilization’s return to the computer age. The production of electronics depends on a very complex supply chain. Once that supply chain crumbles, man will go back to a less technical age. It would take decades to regain our previous technical position. Dupras hopes to jump several steps by creating an ecosystem that will work with simpler chips that can be scavenged from a wide variety of sources.

What is the z80?

The initial CollapseOS kernel is written for the z80 chip. As a retro computing history buff, I am familiar with Zilog and it’s z80 chip. In the late 1970s, Zilog introduced the z80 to compete with Intel’s 8080 CPU. The z80 was used in a whole bunch of early personal computers, such as the Sinclair ZX Spectrum and the Tandy TRS-80. The majority of these systems used the CP/M operating system, which was the top operating system of the time. (Interestingly, Dupras was originally looking to use an open-source implementation of CP/M, but ultimately decided to start from scratch.)

Both the z80 and CP/M started to decline in popularity after the IBM PC was released in 1981. Zilog did release several other microprocessors (Z8000 and Z80000), but these did not take off. The company switched its focus to microcontrollers. Today, an updated descendant of the z80 can be found in graphic calculators, embedded devices and consumer electronics.

Dupras said on Reddit that he wrote Collapse OS for the z80 because “it’s been in production for so long and because it’s been used in so many machines, scavenger have good chances of getting their hands on it.”

Current status and future of the project

Collapse OS has a pretty decent start. It can self replicate with enough RAM and storage. It is capable of running on an RC2014 homebrew computer or a Sega Master System/MegaDrive (Genesis). It can read SD cards. It has a simple text editor. The kernel is made up of modules that are connected with glue code. This is designed to make the system flexible and adaptable.

There is also a detailed roadmap laying out the direction of the project. Listed goals include:

  • Support for other CPUs, such as 8080 and 6502
  • Support for improvised peripherals, such as LCD screens, E-ink displays, and ACIA devices.
  • Support for more storage options, such as floppys, CDs, SPI RAM/ROMs, and AVR MCUs
  • Get it to work on other z80 machines, such as TI-83+ and TI-84+ graphing calculators and TRS-80s

If you are interested in helping out or just taking a peek at the project, be sure to visit their GitHub page.

Final Thoughts

To put it bluntly, I see Collapse OS as more of a fun hobby project (for those who like building operating systems), than something useful. When a collapse does come, how will Collapse OS get distributed, since I imagine that GitHub will be down? I can’t imagine more than a handful of skill people being able to create a system from scavenged parts. There is a whole new generation of makers out there, but most of them are used to picking up an Arduino or a Raspberry Pi and building their project than starting from scratch.

Contrary to Dupras, my biggest concern is the use of EMPs. These things fry all electrical systems, meaning there would be nothing left to scavenge to build system. If that doesn’t happen, I imagine that we would be able to find enough x86 components made over the past 30 years to keep things going.

That being said, Collapse OS sounds like a fun and challenging project to people who like to program in low-level code for strange applications. If you are such a person, check out Collapse OS.

Hypothetical question: what is your post-apocalyptic operating system of choice? Please let us know in the comments below.

If you found this article interesting, please take a minute to share it on social media, Hacker News or Reddit.

MX Linux 19 Released With Debian 10.1 ‘Buster’ & Other Improvements

Thursday 24th of October 2019 11:36:27 AM

MX Linux 18 has been one of my top recommendations for the best Linux distributions, specially when considering distros other than Ubuntu.

It is based on Debian 9.6 ‘Stretch’ – which was incredibly a fast and smooth experience.

Now, as a major upgrade to that, MX Linux 19 brings a lot of major improvements and changes. Here, we shall take a look at the key highlights.

New features in MX Linux 19 Subscribe to our YouTube channel for more Linux videos Debian 10 ‘Buster’

This deserves a separate mention as Debian 10 is indeed a major upgrade from Debian 9.6 ‘Stretch’ on which MX Linux 18 was based on.

In case you’re curious about what has changed with Debian 10 Buster, we suggest to check out our article on the new features of Debian 10 Buster.

Xfce Desktop 4.14 MX Linux 19

Xfce 4.14 happens to be the latest offering from Xfce development team. Personally, I’m not a fan of Xfce desktop environment but it screams fast performance when you get to use it on a Linux distro (especially on MX Linux 19).

Interestingly, we also have a quick guide to help you customize Xfce on your system.

Updated Packages & Latest Debian Kernel 4.19

Along with updated packages for GIMP, MESA, Firefox, and so on – it also comes baked in with the latest kernel 4.19 available for Debian Buster.

Updated MX-Apps

If you’ve used MX Linux before, you might be knowing that it comes pre-installed with useful MX-Apps that help you get more things done quickly.

The apps like MX-installer and MX-packageinstaller have significantly improved.

In addition to these two, all other MX-tools have been updated here and there to fix bugs, add new translations (or simply to improve the user experience).

Other Improvements

Considering it a major upgrade, there’s obviously a lot of under-the-hood changes than highlighted (including the latest antiX live system updates).

You can check out more details on their official announcement post. You may also watch this video from the developers explaining all the new stuff in MX Linux 19:

Getting MX Linux 19

Even if you are using MX Linux 18 versions right now, you cannot upgrade to MX Linux 19. You need to go for a clean install like everyone else.

You can download MX Linux 19 from this page:

Download MX Linux 19

Wrapping Up

With MX Linux 18, I had a problem using my WiFi adapter due to a driver issue which I resolved through the forum, it seems that it still hasn’t been fixed with MX Linux 19. So, you might want to take a look at my forum post if you face the same issue after installing MX Linux 19.

If you’ve been using MX Linux 18, this definitely seems to be an impressive upgrade.

Have you tried it yet? What are your thoughts on the new MX Linux 19 release? Let me know what you think in the comments below.

Open Source CMS Ghost 3.0 Released with New features for Publishers

Wednesday 23rd of October 2019 06:29:34 AM

Ghost is a free and open source content management system (CMS). If you are not aware of the term, a CMS is a software that allows you to build a website that is primarily focused on creating content without knowledge of HTML and other web-related technologies.

Ghost is in fact one of the best open source CMS out there. It’s main focus is on creating lightweight, fast loading and good looking blogs.

It has a modern intuitive editor with built-in SEO features. You also have native desktop (Linux including) and mobile apps. If you like terminal, you can also use the CLI tools it provides.

Let’s see what new feature Ghost 3.0 brings.

New Features in Ghost 3.0

I’m usually intrigued by open source CMS solutions – so after reading the official announcement post, I went ahead and gave it a try by installing a new Ghost instance via Digital Ocean cloud server.

I was really impressed with the improvements they’ve made with the features and the UI compared to the previous version.

Here, I shall list out the key changes/additions worth mentioning.

Bookmark Cards

In addition to all the subtle change to the editor, it now lets you add a beautiful bookmark card by just entering the URL.

If you have used WordPress – you may have noticed that you need to have a plugin in order to add a card like that – so it is definitely a useful addition in Ghost 3.0.

Improved WordPress Migration Plugin

I haven’t tested this in particular but they have updated their WordPress migration plugin to let you easily clone the posts (with images) to Ghost CMS.

Basically, with the plugin, you will be able to create an archive (with images) and import it to Ghost CMS.

Responsive Image Galleries & Images

To make the user experience better, they have also updated the image galleries (which is now responsive) to present your picture collection comfortably across all devices.

In addition, the images in post/pages are now responsive as well.

Members & Subscriptions option Ghost Subscription Model

Even though the feature is still in the beta phase, it lets you add members and a subscription model for your blog if you choose to make it a premium publication to sustain your business.

With this feature, you can make sure that your blog can only be accessed by the subscribed members or choose to make it available to the public in addition to the subscription.

Stripe: Payment Integration

It supports Stripe payment gateway by default to help you easily enable the subscription (or any type of payments) with no additional fee charged by Ghost.

New App Integrations

You can now integrate a variety of popular applications/services with your blog on Ghost 3.0. It could come in handy to automate a lot of things.

Default Theme Improvement

The default theme (design) that comes baked in has improved and now offers a dark mode as well.

You can always choose to create a custom theme as well (if not pre-built themes available).

Other Minor Improvements

In addition to all the key highlights, the visual editor to create posts/pages has improved as well (with some drag and drop capabilities).

I’m sure there’s a lot of technical changes as well – which you can check it out in their changelog if you’re interested.

Ghost is gradually getting good traction

It’s not easy to make your mark in a world dominated by WordPress. But Ghost has gradually formed a dedicated community of publishers around it.

Not only that, their managed hosting service Ghost Pro now has customers like NASA, Mozilla and DuckDuckGo.

In last six years, Ghost has made $5 million in revenue from their Ghost Pro customers . Considering that they are a non-profit organization working on open source solution, this is indeed an achievement.

This helps them remain independent by avoiding external funding from venture capitalists. The more customers for managed Ghost CMS hosting, the more funds goes into the development of the free and open source CMS.

Overall, Ghost 3.0 is by far the best upgrade they’ve offered. I’m personally impressed with the features.

If you have websites of your own, what CMS do you use? Have you ever used Ghost? How’s your experience with it? Do share your thoughts in the comment section.

Disney’s Streaming Service is Having Troubles with Linux

Tuesday 22nd of October 2019 11:26:38 AM


Some readers have noticed that Disney has fixed this issue after wide outrage by Linux users. You should be able to watch Disney+ on Linux now.

You might be already using Amazon Prime Video (comes free with Amazon Prime membership) or Netflix on your Linux system. Google Chrome supports these streaming services out of the box. You can also watch Netflix on Firefox in Linux but you have to explicitly enable DRM content.

However we just learned that Disney’s upcoming streaming service, Disney+ does not work in the same way.

A user, Hans de Goede, on LiveJournal revealed this from his experience with Disney+ in the testing period. In fact, the upcoming streaming service Disney+ does not support Linux at all, at least for now.

The trouble with Disney+ and DRM

As Hans explains in his post, he subscribed to the streaming service in the testing period because of the availability of Disney+ in Netherlands.

Hans tested it on Fedora with mainstream browsers like Firefox and Chrome. However, every time, an error was encountered – “Error Code 83“.

So, he reached out to Disney support to solve the issue – but interestingly they weren’t even properly aware of the issue as it took them a week to give him a response.

Here’s how he puts his experience:

So I mailed the Disney helpdesk about this, explaining how Linux works fine with Netflix, AmazonPrime video and even the web-app from my local cable provider. They promised to get back to me in 24 hours, the eventually got back to me in about a week. They wrote: “We are familiar with Error 83. This often happens if you want to play Disney + via the web browser or certain devices. Our IT department working hard to solve this. In the meantime, I want to advise you to watch Disney + via the app on a phone or tablet. If this error code still occurs in a few days, you can check the help center …” this was on September 23th.

They just blatantly advised him to use his phone/tablet to access the streaming service instead. That’s genius!

Disney should reconsider their DRM implementation

What is DRM?

Digital Rights Management (DRM) technologies attempt to control what you can and can’t do with the media and hardware you’ve purchased.

Even though they want to make sure that their content remains protected from pirates (which won’t make a difference either), it creates a problem with the support for multiple platforms.

How on earth do you expect more people to subscribe to your streaming service when you do not even support platforms like Linux? So many media center devices run on Linux. This will be a big setback if Disney continues like this.

To shed some light on the issue, a user on found out that it is a Widevine error. Here, it generally means that your device is incompatible with the security level of DRM implemented.

It turns out that it isn’t just limited to Linux – but a lot of users are encountering the same error on other platforms as well.

In addition to the wave of issues, the Widevine error also points to a fact that Disney+ may not even work on Chromebooks, some Android smartphones, and Linux desktops in general. However, Disney just confirmed that Disney+ will be running on Chromebooks and Android devices.

Go easy, Disney!

A common DRM (low-level security) implementation with Disney+ should make it accessible on every platform including Linux systems.

Disney+ might want to re-think about the DRM implementation if they want to compete with other streaming platforms like Netflix and Amazon Prime Video.

Personally, I would prefer to stay with Netflix if Disney does not care about supporting multiple platforms.

It is not actually about supporting “Linux” but conveniently making the streaming service available for more platforms which could justify its subscription fee.

What do you think about this? Let me know your thoughts in the comments below.

Beginner’s Guide to Handle Various Update Related Errors in Ubuntu

Monday 21st of October 2019 11:13:34 AM

Who hasn’t come across an error while doing an update in Ubuntu? Update errors are common and plenty in Ubuntu and other Linux distributions based on Ubuntu. Here are some common Ubuntu update errors and their fixes.

This article is part of Ubuntu beginner series that explains the know-how of Ubuntu so that a new user could understand the things better.

In an earlier article, I discussed how to update Ubuntu. In this tutorial, I’ll discuss some common errors you may encounter while updating Ubuntu. It usually happens because you tried to add software or repositories on your own and that probably caused an issue.

There is no need to panic if you see the errors while updating your system.The errors are common and the fix is easy. You’ll learn how to fix those common update errors.

Before you begin, I highly advise reading these two articles to have a better understanding of the repository concept in Ubuntu.

Understand Ubuntu repositories

Learn what are various repositories in Ubuntu and how they enable you to install software in your system.

Read MoreUnderstanding PPA in Ubuntu

Further improve your concept of repositories and package handling in Ubuntu with this detailed guide on PPA.

Read More Error 0: Failed to download repository information

Many Ubuntu desktop users update their system through the graphical software updater tool. You are notified that updates are available for your system and you can click one button to start downloading and installing the updates.

Well, that’s what usually happens. But sometimes you’ll see an error like this:

Failed to download repository information. Check your internet connection.

That’s a weird error because your internet connection is most likely working just fine and it still says to check the internet connection.

Did you note that I called it ‘error 0’? It’s because it’s not an error in itself. I mean, most probably, it has nothing to do with the internet connection. But there is no useful information other than this misleading error message.

If you see this error message and your internet connection is working fine, it’s time to put on your detective hat and use your grey cells (as Hercule Poirot would say).

You’ll have to use the command line here. You can use Ctrl+Alt+T keyboard shortcut to open the terminal in Ubuntu. In the terminal, use this command:

sudo apt update

Let the command finish. Observe the last three-four lines of its output. That will give you the real reason why sudo apt-get update fails. Here’s an example:

Rest of the tutorial here shows how to handle the errors that you just saw in the last few lines of the update command output.

Error 1: Problem With MergeList

When you run update in terminal, you may see an error “problem with MergeList” like below:

E:Encountered a section with no Package: header, E:Problem with MergeList /var/lib/apt/lists/archive.ubuntu.com_ubuntu_dists_precise_universe_binary-i386_Packages, E:The package lists or status file could not be parsed or opened.’

For some reasons, the file in /var/lib/apt/lists directory got corrupted. You can delete all the files in this directory and run the update again to regenerate everything afresh. Use the following commands one by one:

sudo rm -r /var/lib/apt/lists/* sudo apt-get clean && sudo apt-get update

Your problem should be fixed.

Error 2: Hash Sum mismatch

If you find an error that talks about Hash Sum mismatch, the fix is the same as the one in the previous error.

W:Failed to fetch bzip2:/var/lib/apt/lists/partial/in.archive.ubuntu.com_ubuntu_dists_oneiric_restricted_binary-i386_Packages Hash Sum mismatch, W:Failed to fetch bzip2:/var/lib/apt/lists/partial/in.archive.ubuntu.com_ubuntu_dists_oneiric_multiverse_binary-i386_Packages Hash Sum mismatch, E:Some index files failed to download. They have been ignored, or old ones used instead

The error occurs possibly because of a mismatched metadata cache between the server and your system. You can use the following commands to fix it:

sudo rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* sudo apt update Error 3: Failed to fetch with error 404 not found

If you try adding a PPA repository that is not available for your current Ubuntu version, you’ll see that it throws a 404 not found error.

W: Failed to fetch 404 Not Found E: Some index files failed to download. They have been ignored, or old ones used instead.

You added a PPA hoping to install an application but it is not available for your Ubuntu version and you are now stuck with the update error. This is why you should check beforehand if a PPA is available for your Ubuntu version or not. I have discussed how to check the PPA availability in the detailed PPA guide.

Anyway, the fix here is that you remove the troublesome PPA from your list of repositories. Note the PPA name from the error message. Go to Software & Updates tool:

Open Software & Updates

In here, move to Other Software tab and look for that PPA. Uncheck the box to remove the PPA from your system.

Remove PPA Using Software & Updates In Ubuntu

Your software list will be updated when you do that. Now if you run the update again, you shouldn’t see the error.

Error 4: Failed to download package files error

A similar error is failed to download package files error like this:

In this case, a newer version of the software is available but it’s not propagated to all the mirrors. If you are not using a mirror, easily fixed by changing the software sources to Main server. Please read this article for more details on failed to download package error.

Go to Software & Updates and in there changed the download server to Main server:

Error 5: GPG error: The following signatures couldn’t be verified

Adding a PPA may also result in the following GPG error: The following signatures couldn’t be verified when you try to run an update in terminal:

W: GPG error: saucy InRelease: The following signatures couldn’t be verified because the public key is not available: NO_PUBKEY 68980A0EA10B4DE8

All you need to do is to fetch this public key in the system. Get the key number from the message. In the above message, the key is 68980A0EA10B4DE8.

This key can be used in the following manner:

sudo apt-key adv --keyserver --recv-keys 68980A0EA10B4DE8

Once the key has been added, run the update again and it should be fine.

Error 6: BADSIG error

Another signature related Ubuntu update error is BADSIG error which looks something like this:

W: A error occurred during the signature verification. The repository is not updated and the previous index files will be used. GPG error: precise Release: The following signatures were invalid: BADSIG 16126D3A3E5C1192 Ubuntu Extras Archive Automatic Signing Key
W: GPG error: precise Release:
The following signatures were invalid: BADSIG 4C1CBC1B69B0E2F4 Launchpad PPA for Jonathan French W: Failed to fetch

All the repositories are signed with the GPG and for some reason, your system finds them invalid. You’ll need to update the signature keys. The easiest way to do that is by regenerating the apt packages list (with their signature keys) and it should have the correct key.

Use the following commands one by one in the terminal:

cd /var/lib/apt sudo mv lists oldlist sudo mkdir -p lists/partial sudo apt-get clean sudo apt-get update Error 7: Partial upgrade error

Running updates in terminal may throw this partial upgrade error:

Not all updates can be installed
Run a partial upgrade, to install as many updates as possible

Run the following command in terminal to fix this error:

sudo apt-get install -f Error 8: Could not get lock /var/cache/apt/archives/lock

This error happens when another program is using APT. Suppose you are installing some thing in Ubuntu Software Center and at the same time, trying to run apt in terminal.

E: Could not get lock /var/cache/apt/archives/lock – open (11: Resource temporarily unavailable)
E: Unable to lock directory /var/cache/apt/archives/

Check if some other program might be using apt. It could be a command running terminal, Software Center, Software Updater, Software & Updates or any other software that deals with installing and removing applications.

If you can close other such programs, close them. If there is a process in progress, wait for it to finish.

If you cannot find any such programs, use the following command to kill all such running processes:

sudo killall apt apt-get

This is a tricky problem and if the problem still persists, please read this detailed tutorial on fixing the unable to lock the administration directory error in Ubuntu.

Any other update error you encountered?

That compiles the list of frequent Ubuntu update errors you may encounter. I hope this helps you to get rid of these errors.

Have you encountered any other update error in Ubuntu recently that hasn’t been covered here? Do mention it in comments and I’ll try to do a quick tutorial on it.

Project Trident Ditches BSD for Linux

Saturday 19th of October 2019 03:13:16 PM

Recently a BSD distribution announced that it was going to rebase on Linux. Yep, you heard me correctly. Project Trident is moving to Void Linux.

What is Going on with Project Trident?

Recently, Project Trident announced that they had been working behind the scenes to move away from FreeBSD. This is quite a surprising move (and an unprecedented one).

According to a later post, the move was motivated by long-standing issues with FreeBSD. These issues include “hardware compatibility, communications standards, or package availability continue to limit Project Trident users”. According to a conversation on Telegram, FreeBSD has just updated its build of the Telegram client and it was nine release behind everyone else.

The lead dev of Project Trident, Ken Moore, is also the main developer of the Lumina Desktop. The Lumina Desktop has been on hold for a while because the Project Trident team had to do so much work just to keep their packages updated. (Once they complete the transition to Void Linux, Ken will start working on Lumina again.)

After much searching and testing, the Project Trident team decided to use Void Linux as their new base.

According to the Project Trident team, the move to Void Linux will have the following benefits:

  • Better GPU support
  • Better sound card and streaming support
  • Better wireless support
  • Bluetooth support for the first time
  • Up to date versions of applications
  • Faster boot times
  • Hybrid EFI/Legacy installation and boot support
Moving Plans

Project Trident currently has two different versions available: Trident-stable and Trident-release. Trident-stable is based on FreeBSD 12 and will continue to get updates until January of 2020 with the ports repo being deleted in April of 2020. On the other hand, Trident-release (which is based on FreeBSD 13) will receive no further updates. That ports repo will be deleted in January of 2020.

The first Void Linux-based releases should be available in January of 2020. Ken said that they might issue an alpha iso or two to show off their progress, but they would be for testing purposes only.

Currently, Ken said that they are working to port all of their “in-house utilities over to work natively on Void Linux”. Void Linux does not support ZFS-on-root, which is a big part of the BSDs. However, Project Trident is planning to use their knowledge of ZFS to add support for it to Void.

There will not be a migration path from the FreeBSD-based version to the Void-based version. If you are currently using Project Trident, you will need to backup your /home/* directory before performing a clean install of the new version.

Final Thoughts

I’m looking forward to trying out the new Void Linux-based Project Trident. I have installed and used Void Linux in the past. I have also tried out TrueOS (the precursor of Project Trident). However, I could never get Project Trident to work on my laptop.

When I was using Void Linux, I ran into two main issues: installing a desktop environment was a pain and the GUI package manager wasn’t that great. Project Trident plans to address these issues. Their original goal was to find an operating system that didn’t come with a desktop environment as default and their distro would add desktop support out-of-the-box. They won’t be able to port the AppCafe package manager to Void because it is a part of TrueOS’ SysAdm utility. They do plan to “develop a new graphical front-end to the XBPS package manager for Void Linux”.

Interestingly, Void Linux was created by a former NetBSD developer. I asked Ken if that fact influenced their decision. He said, “Actually none! I liked the way that Void Linux was set up and that most/all of the utilities were either MIT or BSD licensed, but I never guessed that it was created by a former NetBSD developer. That definitely helps to explain why Void Linux “feels” more comfortable to me since I have been using FreeBSD exclusively for the last 7 or more years.”

I’ve seen some people on the web speaking disparagingly of the move to Void Linux. They mentioned that the name changes (from PC-BSD to TrueOS to Project Trident) and the changes in architecture (from FreeBSD to TrueOS/FreeBSD to Void Linux) show that the developers don’t know what they are doing. On the other hand, I believe that Project Trident has finally found its niche where it will be able to grow and blossom. I will be watching the future of Project Trident with much anticipation. You will probably be reading a review of the new version when it is released.

Have you ever used Project Trident? What is your favorite BSD? Please let us know in the comments below.

If you found this article interesting, please take a minute to share it on social media, Hacker News or Reddit.

Ubuntu 19.10 ‘Eoan Ermine’ Has Arrived: Downloads Available Now!

Friday 18th of October 2019 02:45:22 AM

It’s time to stand tall like the short-tailed weasel to make way for Ubuntu’s new release 19.10 Eoan Ermine. After six months of development, Ubuntu 19.10 is finally here.

You might have already seen our list of the features of Ubuntu 19.10 while we tried the beta recently. In this article, I shall highlight a few key features and mention the official download links to get your hands on the new Ubuntu release.

Key Features Of Ubuntu 19.10

Below is a list of key highlights in this release:

Subscribe to our YouTube channel for more Linux videos Boots Up Super Fast With LZ4 Compression

LZ4 compression algorithms help reduce the boot time in comparison to its previous releases (Ubuntu 18.04 & 19.04). Abhishek found the boot times to be noticeably faster as well on his Intel NUC setup.

ZFS Filesystem Support

Ubuntu 19.10 adds an option to utilize ZFS Filesystem. You can choose to opt for it while the installation process.

Ubuntu 19.10 Ships With GNOME 3.34

You must aware of the latest GNOME 3.34 release. Well, Ubuntu 19.10 comes baked in with the latest and greatest.

In addition to all these key features, you will find a lot of significant changes which we’ve also covered in our article on Ubuntu 19.10 features.

Here’s What You Should Know Before Installing Ubuntu 19.10

I’ll give you some pointers to take care before you choose to install Ubuntu 19.10 on your system.

Upgrading from Ubuntu 19.04 to 19.10

If you don’t want to download the ISO file separately for a fresh installation. You can easily upgrade your system from Ubuntu 19.04 to 19.10.

You just need to head on to the “Software & Updates” app.

Once, you are here, navigate your way to the Updates section and change the selection in “Notify me of a new Ubuntu version” to “For any new version“.

If it’s already selected, you just need to check for the update to see if it’s available. Some times, it takes a few days before you get notified of the availability of the new version.

Please keep in mind that once you upgrade to 19.10, you cannot downgrade to 19.04. You’ll have to reinstall it.

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS to Ubuntu 19.10? Not recommended

If you are on a long term support release of 18.04, I wouldn’t recommend upgrading to Ubuntu 19.10. Wait for six more months and you’ll have Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.

To upgrade from 18.04 to 19.10, you’ll have to upgrade to 18.10 first. Ubuntu 18.10 has reached end of life already so you might not even see the option to upgrade to 19.04.

If you come across tutorials describing the process to upgrade from 18.04 to 19.10 by editing sources.list, please don’t do that. The core system in both versions is different and manually upgrading like may lead to a broken and unusable system.

Ubuntu 19.10: Downloads Available for all flavors

As per the release notes, Ubuntu 19.10 is available to download now. You can get the torrent or the ISO file on its official release download page.

Download Ubuntu 19.10

If you need a different desktop environment or need something specific, you should check out the official flavors of Ubuntu available:

You might notice that some of the Ubuntu-based distros haven’t yet made the 19.10 update available. It should take a couple of days/weeks/months for them to have the update ready. You can then download it or upgrade it directly.

Have you tried Ubuntu 19.10 yet? Which Ubuntu flavor/distro do you use? Let us know your thoughts in the comments below.

Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Codename and Release Date

Thursday 17th of October 2019 10:42:38 AM
This is a continually updated article about upcoming Ubuntu 20.04 LTS release. All the important develops associated with this release is added to this page.

Get Certified in Hyperledger Blockchain Tech from Linux Foundation [65% Off]

Tuesday 15th of October 2019 01:20:04 PM
Linux Foundation, the official organization behind Linux, is running a limited time deal on its Hyperledger training and certification courses. This will help in boosting your career as blockchain skills are in high demand.

4 Free and Open Source Alternatives to Adobe Photoshop

Monday 14th of October 2019 12:16:07 PM
Looking for a free Photoshop alternative? Here are some of the best free and open source software that you can use instead of Adobe Photoshop.

10 Ways to Customize Your Linux Desktop With GNOME Tweaks Tool

Sunday 13th of October 2019 06:08:19 AM
GNOME Tweaks is a versatile tool that lets you customize many aspects of your GNOME desktop. This tutorial shows how to install and use GNOME Tweak tool.

How to Unzip a Zip File in Linux [Beginner’s Tutorial]

Wednesday 9th of October 2019 11:20:40 AM
Learn how to unzip a file in Ubuntu and other Linux distributions. Both terminal and GUI methods have been discussed.

5 Best Password Managers For Linux Desktop

Monday 7th of October 2019 12:04:03 PM
A password manager is essential tool so that you don't have to remember complicated passwords. Check out the best password managers available for Linux desktop.

Enable or Disable Automatic Login in Ubuntu [Beginner’s Tip]

Sunday 6th of October 2019 01:22:03 PM
This quick tip shows you how to enable or disable automatic logon in Ubuntu. Step by step screenshots and video will help you breeze through the process.

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