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Updated: 10 hours 46 min ago

My Personal Impressions on KDE Plasma 5.16

Wednesday 11th of September 2019 08:49:00 AM
(Plasma 5.16 with notifications and Do Not Disturb feature enabled)
KDE Plasma Desktop version 5.16 has been released last June with slogan "Now Smoother and More Fun". In this article I present you several nice things on 5.16 according to my opinions as a KDE user, among them are, new Do Not Disturb feature and safely remove multiple partitions. I like this release very much. I present this short review for people who are still using old Plasma today and I'm grateful to all KDE developers for this awesome release. And here we go!

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Do You Want To Test Plasma 5.16?
Simply download current version of KDE Neon operating system and boot it on your computer. It features 5.16.x. However, this review is written using Neon 5.16.4. With this, you do not need to install anything to your current GNU/Linux system just to see what's new on latest Plasma.

1. The Blue Wallpaper
It's Next by Santiago Cezar, an artist from Argentine, who won Plasma wallpaper contest first held ever. You see, the opening words of the contest were very wonderful that winner wallpaper will appear on thousands computers around the world including those in NASA and CERN; and that the winner prize would be SLIMBOOK PC. I really like the wallpaper. Cezar, you did awesome art and congratulations you won the prize!

(His wallpaper and his name appears on Plasma 5.16 on latest KDE Neon operating system)

2. I Notice a New 'Show Desktop' Icon
The first impression I got with 5.16 is the hollow box icon on right end of taskbar panel. It's the Show Desktop button. And since this version Plasma can do show desktop with Super+D shortcut keys just like Microsoft Windows. However, personally I always manually set Super+D to do it on Plasma versions prior to 5.16 so now I'm glad I do not need to do that anymore.

3. I See Brand New Notification
The biggest change on Plasma 5.16 I noticed is the notification system. To make it short, it's all about Do Not Disturb feature. Visually it's different, functionally it got many additional features. Prior to this version, there was no specific settings available for notification behaviours except for the bell sounds. Fortunately, now we got complete control over them with Notification section under KDE System Settings. One thing more I noticed anew is the Broom button to clear all notifications. It's small but cute!

Notification tooltip:

Notification tray with brand new Do Not Disturb switch:

Closer look at DND, Preferences, and the new Broom button:

4. What is 'Do Not Disturb' mode anyway?
DND mode will make all applications mute but save their notifications on tray. DND gives you options how long the mute to apply, either 1 hours, 4 hours, or until computer turned off. This new feature is closely related to the new Notification Settings, as every individual application can be set to respect DND or not. By default, only Spectacle Screenshot Tool set to disrespect DND (always show notification anyway) but you can turn it off as you wish. Oh man, this is amazing.

(Show in do not disturb mode: because of this option turned on by default, Spectacle disrespects DND, but you can turn it off later)
 5. New Notification Settings!
Here's the new notification preferences you can find out under KDE System Settings > Personalization > Notifications. The preferences are divided in two, one for global settings, and one for individual applications.

Below's the global settings for notifications.

It allows you to change screen positions of popup, timeout of it, show progress bar or not, and more.

And below's the settings of individual applications with first one is Plasma Discover.

This settings section allows you to enable/disable individual application's notification, enable it in DND mode, and control the sounds with Configure Events button there. You see, there are nearly all applications installed being presented here under our control. Among them are VLC, Bluetooth, Konsole, and more.

6. New Progress Bar
It is now showing both on tray and on notification popup. It looks modern and also cool with the old Oxygen dark them.

(Copying files progress bar is showing on Dolphin's notification popup)
7. Right-Click > Properties on External Drives
Yes, I wanted this feature for a long time and fortunately 5.16 actually brought it out for us. I believe many people will love this instantly.

 (Properties of a USB Flash Drive attached: it shows the Properties Dialog with information such as 21GiB total capacity, 5.9GiB free, and 79% used, and ext4 filesystem)
8. Eject All at Once!
I like this feature the most as I work with my external hard disk with multiple partitions so it's hard for me to eject partitions manually one by one every time. Thanks to 5.16, I do not need to do that anymore, as there is Remove All button now.

(Left: Dolphin with a lot of external disk partitions attached; right: Safely Remove All button under cursor)
8. And It Still Looked Very Good with the Old Dark Theme
I like KDE 4 era with Oxygen theme and I like its black variant. Fortunately, Plasma 5.16 brings that theme built-in and I see AppImage Program (Kdenlive Video Editor here) looks very good with it. Try it yourself and let me know your comments.

(Kdenlive running as portable application on GNU/Linux: Plasma theme looks matched with Kdenlive default dark theme)
New Lock/Login Screen
See new '>' button there?

Old lock screen prior to 5.16:

New lock screen on 5.16:

Control Vaults from Dolphin
Dolphin now features "Open This Vault" whenever we right-click a black Vault folder. If you didn't know, Vault is a new Plasma feature to lock folders with password only you could open. You might see Vault similar to Folder Lock on other operating system. Starting at 5.16 version, everything is much more easier as it included right on file manager.

Copy Time/Date
My favorite feature, copy current time to clipboard, still exists on the taskbar's clock. With this, I can simply select and then paste current date on my article or text message in neat format, like Wednesday, 11 September 2019 14.01 for example, so it looks professional. I am grateful this feature doesn't get removed in this version. I like KDE Plasma because it's consistent and this one is just another example of its consistency.

My Commentary
There are a lot of things I don't cover here as you can see yourself in the official video, release notes, and detailed info by KDE Project. But, new features I find in this release are neat and I like them. As KDE user, I am satisfied. I can feel Plasma 5.16 runs so smooth as shown by latest Neon OS performance being real good on an 8-years old 2GB laptop. Not to mention, it also looks great with old desktop theme. In my opinion 5.16 does good and better once again. Kudos to all KDE developers! (and congratulations to Cezar!)

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Using Snap on Debian Buster

Monday 9th of September 2019 03:59:00 PM
(Debian Buster can run with Snap applications)
When I was writing about LibreOffice 6.2 using D.A.F.S. last month, I realized that using Snap on Debian is a little bit different to Ubuntu. You need more works in the beginning. But once prepared properly, you can enjoy a vast number of up to date additional software for Debian from the Snapcraft repository. This tutorial explains how to prepare Snap on Debian 10 "Buster" LTS from start to finish including disabling it whenever you wish.

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.About Snap
Snaps are software packages with .snap extension that run across multiple GNU/Linux operating systems. Many applications in Snap format are newer compared to native applications available on Ubuntu. You can run Snap applications as long as you have Snapd runtime installed on your GNU/Linux system. Snaps are available in central server.

Install Snapd First
On Debian Buster, we simply need APT to install Snapd service:
$ sudo apt-get install snapd
This is the only one command with sudo we need to prepare.

Install Snap Core Packages
With SnapI suggest you to install at least core and core18 packages as they are runtimes required by popular programs such as LibreOffice, GIMP, Krita, Kdenlive, and more.
$ snap install core core18
However, about the size, both are relatively small as snap info command informs they are 90MB and 50MB respectively.

Search and Install Applications
Basic commands:
  • To list installed programs: $ snap list
  • To search: $ snap find [keyword]
  • To show info and download size: $ snap info [package_name]
  • To install: $ snap install [package_name]
  • To remove: $ snap remove [package_name]

GIMP Image editor:
$ snap search gimp
$ snap info gimp
$ snap install gimp
VLC video player:
$ snap install vlc
Kdenlive video editor:
$ snap install kdenlive
Telegram instant messenger:
$ snap install telegram-desktop
more and more you can find with snap find command.

Disable and Enable Snapd
Snapd runtime will occasionally download something in the background without your concern. If you dislike that behavior, like me for example, you can disable Snapd temporarily and enable it again only when you need to run Snaps.

$ sudo systemctl mask --now snapd
$ sudo systemctl unmask --now snapd
Happy working!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Source Code Adventure Part 2: Debian, Source DVDs, and Professional Repositories

Saturday 7th of September 2019 01:31:00 PM
(Debian helps us to get full source code easily and quickly)
As a continuation to Part 1, this article will present you information regarding source code availability of Debian GNU/Linux operating system. Fortunately, Debian provides us Source Code DVDs in ISO image format. This means when we distribute Debian to people we can easily distribute the corresponding source code as well, quickly and conveniently, as many free software licenses like GNU GPL within Debian require it. Think about it: if Debian does not provide so, how do we distribute the source accompanying the binary ISO? It requires gigantic effort per person, as we will need --among other options-- to manually scrap Debian repository to provide corresponding source code. That's why I said source DVDs are convenient. More fortunately, Debian also provides us so many places online to get source code either in individual or collective forms and facilitate us to search among them intelligently. Everything is really professional in my opinion. I could not find any other distro that gives same level of source code availability services like Debian. Finally, like before, I hope this helps everybody to get source code of GNU/Linux and learn more about it. Okay, let's go!

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  • Source code: refers to generally original form of every software written in programming language. A source code file written in C++ language would have .cpp extension, while Python is .py, and so on.
  • Binary code: software in executable form processed from source code. This is what you run / execute on your computer.
  • Distro: an operating system like Ubuntu or Fedora, which takes source code from multiple sources worldwide, and process them all to be binary code in the form of operating system itself and repository. 
  • Binary code package (.deb, .rpm): executable program format. Debian family uses .deb format while Red Hat family uses .rpm format.
  • Source code package: source code of a software that is already packaged as package by a distro developer. So for a given software, let's say Warzone, Ubuntu has its own package packaged by Ubuntu developers, while Fedora also has its own package, although the software is the same.
  • Raw source code: or development source code, source code that is written and published independently by its original developer.
  • SRPM (.srpm): source RPM, that is source code package format of RPM-based distros such as Fedora, Mageia, and so on.
  • Tarball (.tar.gz,, .tar.xz): raw source code package format. 

About Debian
Before discussing about the source code, it's necessary for us to discuss Debian ISOs first. Debian is universal operating system says its slogan so it has a lot of different ISO images per release. Debian ISOs in general are divided into 2 forms, Regular and Live, meaning Install-Only ISOs and Live-Install ISOs. When you download Debian and your bootable can only install it, either as Desktop or Server, then it is Regular. When you get it and the bootable can run as LiveCD (like Ubuntu) as well as install the Desktop system (like Ubuntu too), then it is Live. From this point of view, then, Debian source code ISOs are also divided into 2 forms, Regular source CDs, and Live source CDs. That's it. You will immediately see them below.

Following the ISO, we also need to know that because it is universal, it also has a lot of different source code repositories. Yes, Debian is a giant project with gigantic number of developers so no wonder. You will find Debian has something like Launchpad for Ubuntu, you will also find source code repository just like other distros have it, and you will find sophisticated source code search no distro could compete. That's Debian for you. Also, you will see them below.

And of course we need to know the codename of Debian releases below:
  • 10.0 = Buster (current)
  •  9.0 = Stretch
  • 8.0 = Jessie
  • 7.0 = Wheezy
  • 6.0 = Squeeze
  • 5.0 = Lenny

1. Source Code CD
All source code of latest Debian release in DVD and BlueRay formats are available in:
These source code DVDs for the Regular one are corresponding source code of the installation ISO and the whole Debian repository. For Live one, each ISO is corresponding source code of the installation ISO only.

(Left: Debian Buster Regular source DVDs part 1 up to 14 in .iso format; right: 8 Debian Live source DVDs from Cinnamon to XFCE in .tar format)
For older versions, Debian provides it on different place:
Important: since 9.0, Debian does not provide source CDs anymore. If you want them, versions that provide them are 8.0, 7.0, and backwards.

2. Source Code Packages Repository
Debian stores all source code packages for end-users in Debian Archive server (also called Repository) under pool/main/ directory:
A package, for example GIMP, is stored under pool/main/g/gimp/. Another package, for example VLC, is stored under pool/main/v/vlc/. And so on. Every package directory stores both the binary .deb packages and the source .tar packages of respective program for any version of it. So, for example, under pool/v/vlc/ you will find VLC Media Player in binary and source starting from version 2001 up to 2017.  See picture below for more depictions.

For your information, Debian Archive is the place where you download package from with APT-GET command line. It is the place that mentioned in your /etc/apt/sources.list file. Both binary and source packages provided by Debian for you are stored in this Debian Archive. Additionally, Debian Archive is equal to Ubuntu Archive.  

(Top-left: Debian Repository Archive by pool/main/ directory where all .deb and .tar packages actually stored; top-right: pool/g/gimp/ directory showing source code package of GIMP; bottom-right: pool/libr/libreoffice/ directory showing source code package of LibreOffice; bottom-left: pool/v/vlc/ directory showing source code package of VLC Media Player)

3. Raw Source Code Repository

Salsa (formerly Alioth) is online place where Debian maintainers put source code packages and the server will magically turn them into .deb packages. 

Sources Browser (or Debsources)  is the online viewer of whole source code of Debian. You can view directory structure and its files of any original source code there. It's truly amazing.

Even more precise than above, Debian now has Debian Code Search, a special search engine to find out any text of any source code files within the whole Debian operating system + repository. With this, you can download individual files containing text string you wish rather than downloading whole package.

 ( Sophisticated source code search engine to find precisely any text or code within whole 100GB+ files of Debian source code)
 (Code Search viewing one source code file containing "buffer overflow" text I searched)
4. How To Get Debian Source Code
The easiest one is to download source DVDs. See Buster Source.

If you wish to download individual source code package, the easiest is by searching on Debian Package Search Engine using web browser.

If you are using Debian, you can search and download source code packages by using APT-CACHE and APT-GET SOURCE command lines respectively as long as your Sources.List configuration enables Source Code Repository addresses. For example, to get source code of GIMP Image Editor you command:
$ apt-get source gimpand you should get source code package named gimp-xxx.orig.tar.gz.

If you wish to mirror, you could mirror a whole Debian Archive (packages repository) as it includes source code packages. Use apt-mirror tool to do so.

If you wish to look at something similar to Launchpad for Ubuntu, see Salsa (formerly Alioth), the place where source code packages published to be collectively developed online. From Salsa source packages will be transformed into binary packages and delivered to official Debian archive repository.

If you wish to search detailed information about any source code package within Debian, see Debian Tracker Website, the place where every package can be tracked down in multiple versions of Debian.

(Debian Tracker Website showing full information about GIMP Image Editor 'gimp' package in whole Debian releases: it includes package version history, releases where that package belong to, important links to download it, bugs information, etc., etc.)
Closing Comments
Honestly, I decided to write this series because of my interest in Debian Source DVDs. I impressed with how vast and comprehensive are all source code provided to us. Starting from that, I then looked at Ubuntu's, and found out that it follows Debian's lead. I felt lucky and grateful Ubuntu does. However, the problem is, I did not find many popular distros with Source DVDs like Debian or Ubuntu, let's say Mint and Manjaro. Furthermore, even distro with very strong commitment to free software does not provide Source DVDs, that is Fedora. My final comment for now is that Debian is the best on his regard. This is the end of my report on Debian.

See you on the next article.

Important note: while I was writing paragraph above, I foolishly thought that gNewSense doesn't provide source DVDs and I was wrong, as they actually provided them since long ago. And please see good news that the 5 years dormant gNewSense Project is now started once again.

Further Readings

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Hello, gNewSense GNU/Linux Project is Alive Again in 2019!

Saturday 7th of September 2019 11:50:00 AM

When I'm still writing Debian Source Code article today (Saturday 7 September 2019), I'm surprised when I opened gNewSense website and I found it's changed drastically with a beautiful announcement that the development continues after a long time being dormant. You know, gNewSense is a 100% free software GNU/Linux distro derived from Debian that has been not released new version since 2014 so many of us thought that it's abandoned. Fortunately, Matt Lee, former FSF member, taken over the project from Sam, the former gNewSense leader, and started the development anew in 2019! More happy news is thet gNewSense Project is merging with Skeleton GNU/Linux Project, another completely free distro project. I am happy with this. This new project sets new goals that are very interesting, among them, they decided to use GitLab CE as central of online development and number their releases to follow Debian's. If you want to help the development, see link resources below to join what you are interested with. Thank you Sam for all good deeds you have done up to now! Thank you Mat Lee for starting gNewSense once again! Congratulations to gNewSense project!


(This is the new development central of gNewSense)
I hope everybody can help the new gNewSense Project.

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Setup Complete Qt Development Tools on KDE Neon

Friday 6th of September 2019 06:34:00 AM
(Qt Creator IDE showing user interface design of a program)
Neon GNU/Linux recently gained more popularity and it is good to start Qt5 application development on it because Neon is an operating system built upon both latest Qt and KDE. With Qt5, you can create perfect and cross-platform GUI applications working on GNU/Linux and other OSes. Qt5 development here uses C++ language by default and gives you advanced user interface designer. And with Neon you can easily install and update latest Qt Software Development Kit (SDK) to support your development. This setup tutorial includes the IDE, framework (libraries), C++ compiler & debugger, complete documentation and examples, as well as other necessary programs. If last January I presented you Neon for Designers, then now is the time for Neon for Programmers. I hope this tutorial helps every new programmer in Qt. Happy hacking!

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About Qt
Qt or more precisely Qt Software Development Kit is a set of free software tools to create desktop applications on GNU/Linux. Qt gives you --without royalties-- the libraries, the IDE, the GUI designer, the sophisticated documentation, and a lot of professional code examples, so everybody just install it and start developing. Speaking about language, you will code in C++. Installing Qt on Neon and GNU/Linux in general will automatically install the necessary compiler and debugger as well. Great examples of software created using Qt are KDE itself, Kubuntu operating system, Calligra Office, VLC, Telegram Desktop, and many more. With Qt you can create your dream applications from simplest one to the most complex one. Qt as development platform on GNU/Linux is comparable to either VB or Delphi on Windows, that is, you can create native desktop applications with it. See its official website

(This tutorial practiced using Qt 5.12.3, Qt Creator IDE 4.9.1, and KDE Plasma Desktop 5.16 on latest Neon GNU/Linux)
First,Run this command line:
$ sudo apt-get install qt5-default qtcreator qtbase5-examples qtbase5-doc-html
  • It downloads no less than 120 individual packages by about 300MB data.
  • qt5-default is a metapackage that pulls out basic Qt development packages.
  • qtcreator is the Qt Creator IDE.
  • qtbase5-examples is the source code examples of Qt5.
  • qtbase5-doc-html is HTML web pages that display source code examples in Qt Creator.

Notable software installed automatically along:
  • GNU G++ Compiler
  • LLVM Clang Compiler
  • QMake build tool
  • Qt Designer
  • Qt Linguist

Run Qt Creator from start menu.

(It appears under start menu as C++ IDE for developing Qt Applications)
You can start coding by creating new project "Qt Widgets Applications" or...

(Default new project in Qt Creator creates normal GUI application)
Fourth, an examples among a lot of examples available in Qt Creator.

(You can quickly learn GUI application programming just by tinkering with Qt examples provided)
Fifth,Finally, to test running your code, simply click Run (green arrow button) or press Ctrl+R. Below is one example.

(Qt Creator IDE showing C++ source code of a program and the running application window)
Happy coding!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Upgrade from Windows 7 to Ubuntu Part 3: Applications

Wednesday 4th of September 2019 04:55:00 PM
 (Ubuntu provides a lot of software applications for all computing purposes)
After talked about intro and releases, now I will talk about applications on Ubuntu GNU/Linux that are replacements to ones on Windows. You need to know this information in order to switch as the most important thing you really use is the application. For example, if previously you are accustomed to Microsoft Office, MATLAB, and Adobe Reader, on Ubuntu you will use LibreOffice, Octave, and Evince, respectively. More fortunately, just as I said on Part 2, all applications are available for you in the central Ubuntu repository, you do not need to manually search different places anymore. I hope this will be useful for you. Happy reading!

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GNU/Linux in general and Ubuntu in particular already provided us all software for all kind of purposes. You may wonder if you can edit photos or create 2D animations on Ubuntu. The answer is yes, you can, with professional apps available free and gratis. You may also wonder what is replacement to IDM on Ubuntu, and the answer is there is Persepolis for you here. And so on.

Please be aware that in our community we believe that all software should be free including all Windows applications. "Free" does not mean gratis, but respecting user's freedom and community. So whenever you find out any replacement I put here not satisfying your needs, we feel sorry for you, you should ask your proprietary software developer to free their product for you (paid or not is OK), so you can run it fully on Ubuntu because it's your right and their responsibility, not ours.

For example, you may find AutoCAD cannot be replaced with FreeCAD for your needs, so you should ask Autodesk company to free AutoCAD for you (you should receive source code of it with free license) so you could run AutoCAD fully on Ubuntu. You purchased AutoCAD from them then it's their responsibility not ours.

How To Get Software
The easiest way to add new software to our computer is by: simply run your Ubuntu Software Center and search program name under Ubuntu columns below. I selected for you programs that are officially available on Ubuntu.

(Software Center showing an interesting video game with INSTALL button for you)
(Software Center showing a lot of internet applications for you)(Please be aware that among software being presented there are proprietary software such as Dropbox there)
1. Most Popular Applications
This category summarizes all. This includes generic programs everybody knows such as office suite, player, browser, and image editors. Important to notice here, that GNU/Linux does not need antivirus and neither defragmentation tool just like I mentioned in Part 1.


Ubuntu Microsoft Office

LibreOffice* Word

Writer* Excel

Calc* PowerPoint

Impress* Winamp

Rhythmbox* Media Player

Totem* Internet Download Manager

Persepolis Download Manager Windows Explorer

Nautilus* MATLAB

GNU Octave Photoshop


Inkscape Paint Shop Pro

Krita Kaspersky Antivirus

- WinRAR

Archive Manager* Adobe Reader


(LibreOffice running on Ubuntu 19.04)
2. Multimedia Applications
This category includes tools used for imaging, drawing, photo editing, animation, 2D/3D designing, audio/video editing, special effect (for movie), rendering, and so on.


Ubuntu Photoshop


Inkscape PageMaker

Scribus Lightroom

Darktable Picture & Fax Viewer

Image Viewer* ACDSee

Digikam Ulead Studio

Kdenlive Adobe Audition

Audacity Any Video Converter

WinFF Camtasia Studio

Kazam Voice Recorder

GNOME Sound Recorder Macromedia Flash MX

Synfig Studio Corel Painter

Krita AutoCAD

FreeCAD 3D Studio Max

Blender After Effects

Natron FruityLoops

LMMS Windows Media Center

Kodi HTPC Adobe Digital Editions

Calibre Ebook Manager

(Rhythmbox on Ubuntu playing MP3s and OGGs)

3. Internet Applications
This category includes web browser, chatting, and downloader programs.


Ubuntu Internet Explorer

Mozilla Firefox* Outlook

Mozilla Thunderbird* MIRC

Hexchat Yahoo! Messenger

Pidgin WhatsApp

Telegram Desktop Skype

GNU Jami Internet Download Manager

Persepolis Download Manager WinSCP

FileZilla PuTTY

PuTTY BitTorrent

Transmission* TeamViewer

Remmina* Outlook (RSS Feed)

Akregator XAMPP

XAMPP Cisco Packet Tracer

  • Kazaa
  • LimeWire
  • Bearshare


(Transmission on Ubuntu finishes downloading various big files)

4. Educational Applications
This includes educational game for kids, scientific and training programs for elementary up to university grades.


Ubuntu Childsplay


GNU Octave ArcGIS

Quantum GIS AutoCAD

FreeCAD Microsoft Paint

GNU Paint Typing Master

Tux Typing Genius Maker

Tux Math Mendeley

Zotero Notepad

Gedit* DOS

FreeDOS VMWare

QEMU Scientific Workplace

  • Lingoes
  • Oxford Dictionary
  • WordWeb Pro

StarDict Google Earth

KDE Marble Periodic Table Explorer

KDE Kalzium NASA World Wind

Celestia CyberSky

KDE KStars

5. Utility Applications
This category includes usable tools we use daily like system maintenance, disk partitioning, network sharing, etc.


Ubuntu Control Panel

System Settings* Add/Remove Programs

Ubuntu Software Center* WinZIP

Archive Manager* Task Manager

System Monitor* Notepad

Gedit Text Editor* Clipping Tool

GNOME Screenshot* Disk Management

Disk Utility* EASEUS Partition Manager

GParted Pandora Data Recovery

Testdisk Xinorbis Disk Examiner

Disk Usage Analyzer* EasyBCD

BootRepair Connectify Wifi Sharing

Network Manager* Nero Burning ROM

Brasero* WinRAR

Archive Manager* Rufus

Startup Disk Creator*
  • Prolink Modem Manager
  • Huawei Modem Manager
  • ZTE Modem Manager

Modem Manager GUI
6. Programming
This category includes popularly used programming tools, language platforms, and code editors. I tried my best to present the easiest choices here as starting point for you.


  • Visual Basic
  • Visual Studio
  • AutoIt

Qt SDK Turbo Pascal

Free Pascal Turbo Assembler

GNU Assembler* Delphi

  • Sublime Text
  • DevC++
  • Notepad++

Geany Visual C, Visual C++


OpenJDK Dreamweaver

Bluefish MikTeX

  • Android Studio
  • Intellij IDEA

Eclipse .NET Framework

Mono Framework Visual Studio .NET


This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

How To Edit Start Menu Items on Elementary OS

Sunday 1st of September 2019 03:16:00 PM
 (Customizing start menu items of elementary OS is easy)
On GNOME we use Alacarte, on KDE we use KDE Menu Editor, on XFCE we use MenuLibre, but how to edit Applications Menu on elementary OS? For example, you run LibreOffice AppImage, but you cannot add it to start menu by drag-and-drop nor right-click on it. Then how to do that? It is easy, you may use either mentioned MenuLibre, or the native AppEditor. Finally I practiced this on version 5.0 Juno and it works. Try it and let's see if you love it. Enjoy!

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Installing Tools
You may choose either to install AppEditor or MenuLibre.
$ sudo apt-get install menulibre
$ sudo apt-get install com.github.donadigo.appeditor
To make it clearer for you who do not familiar with menu editing, I prepared 2 programs and 2 logos I will use here. Logo may be in either PNG or SVG format. The programs are in AppImage (portable executable) format, they are Firefox and Inkscape you could get them yourselves from Probono's Bintray. The logos are of course you could get from either Wikipedia or each official website. Both AppEditor and MenuLibre can make they work, and this works as well for any other type of programs.

This one is the one specifically created for Pantheon desktop published on AppCenter by third-party developer. It's very straightforward in reading your start menu items only without the unnecessary ones. You can later show hidden items by toggling the Show hidden entries button on bottom.

Add item:
For example I want to add my Firefox AppImage into elementary OS start menu.
  • Click New Entry button on the titlebar
  • Type the name of the program
  • Type the description, if you wish
  • Type the command line

Remove item:
For default entries like Pantheon Files, Delete button is disabled, so for such item simply turn off the Show In Launcher option; but for items we created ourselves, we can simply click Delete button and then save.

Change an item:
  • Select the item
  • To change the icon, click the icon, select Choose from file or Choose from available icons
  • To change the description, edit the text below the program name
  • To change the command line, edit the text in the command column

(Example on AppEditor creating new menu item: Firefox AppImage with tooltip message "Web browser I love")
This program is originally from XFCE desktop but it's working on elementary OS (Pantheon desktop) as well.

Add item:
  • Run Menu Editor from start menu.
  • Click plus ("+") button > Add Launcher > new blank item created.
  • On the right area, determine the program name (double-click and type anyway), description, command line
  • Click Save Launcher button on titlebar.

Remove item: 
  • Search with the name of the program, or,
  • Find the program among categories available
  • Select the program
  • Click Delete button on titlebar.
  • It will ask you "Are you sure to delete it?" and click Yes anyway.

Change item:
  • Select the program
  • To change the icon, click the icon, select Browse icons (for system provided ones) or Browse files (for icons you have prepared yourself)
  • To change the description, click the text below program name and type whatever you like
  • To change the command line, edit the command column
  • To hide it from start menu, turn on the Hide from the menu option

(Example on MenuLibre creating new menu item: Inkscape AppImage added with tooltip message "Hey, I use this everyday!")
Happy working!


This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Making openSUSE Multibootable USB from Ubuntu and Install It

Friday 30th of August 2019 02:38:00 PM
 (Bootloader of the USB stick with multiple OSes including openSUSE, the installation process, and openSUSE installed successfully thanks to Aguslr's MBUSB tool)
Since long ago I could not make openSUSE multibootable pendrive except in single boot mode. I could not use MultiSystem nor Sundar's MultiBootUSB nor even GLIM.  What's more, I could not find any easy tutorial on the net talking about making it. Fortunately, and good news for us, recently I found Aguslr's Multiboot USB (MBUSB) that is able to create it. I have tested it and as I reported few days ago I finished the installation just as perfect as other distros I had with MultiSystem. Now it's my turn to explain how I did that in 4 steps: first, create a Multiboot USB pendrive; second, copy the ISO file to USB stick; third, boot your computer to USB; and fourth, install openSUSE with it. This USB setup can accept other distros to be bootable along with openSUSE. Enjoy!

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First Step
Install Aguslr's MBUSB script to USB stick by doing point 1 up to 4 there. This installation is automated, and is actually formatting the drive, installing bootloaders for both BIOS and UEFI systems, and copying scripts into it. Successful installation will format your USB stick like below.

(Directory structure of the USB stick after Aguslr's MBUSB installation: see where the mbusb.d/ folder located on left panel, and where the [distro-name].d/ directories located on right panel)
(Successful setup will make the USB stick divided into 3 partitions like above) (However, I renamed the data partition label from "Microsoft basic data" to "SIGNU" for easier recognition by me)
Second Step
Copy openSUSE Leap ISO file into /boot/isos/ directory in the pendrive. See my example below. But if you wish, you can use Rsync to make copying more reliable.

  (Manually copying the 3.8GiB ISO file using file manager)
Third Step
Boot it on your computer. Anyway, I used QEMU to boot the USB stick without restarting my computer. And yes, once again, QEMU is very useful if your processor does not support virtualization (Intel VT) just like mine.

(Thanks to QEMU, I can boot the USB stick right on my GNU/Linux desktop without restarting)
Fourth Step
Install openSUSE from the booting screen appearing. I install openSUSE to my USB flash drive instead of my internal HDD with these setup:
  • Main Filesystem: 28GB EXT2
  • Mount point: /
  • Swap: 1GB
  • Target storage: /dev/sdb (SanDisk Cruzer Blade 32GB)
  • Bootloader location: /dev/sdb
As I mentioned previously, with Aguslr's MBUSB, I found my openSUSE installation process takes up to 1 hour no less.

 (In clockwise order: first page - license agreement; my partitioning plans; geographical zone selection map; installation process)

Final Result
This is my openSUSE Leap 15.1 installed on a USB stick using Aguslr's MBUSB. It works!

Finally, I encourage everybody who loves to make multiboot USB to use this Aguslr's MBUSB tool. It's really awesome. Enjoy!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

LibreOffice AppImage Version Looks Great on Elementary OS

Thursday 29th of August 2019 04:09:00 PM
 (LibreOffice 6.2 running flawlessly on elementary OS without installation using its AppImage version)
LibreOffice is a really great free software project which provides its product in all formats possible, whether it is DEB or RPM, Snap, Flatpak, or even AppImage. If you don't know, AppImage is just like DMG on MacOS, it's application in single file format just click to run it. However, if you see closer, LibreOffice AppImage looks good on elementary OS 5.0. That's why it's very interesting to use on elementary OS. In this article I just want to report screenshots and my short comments about it. I hope you are interested to run LibreOffice AppImage version on elementary OS too. Enjoy!

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To run the software, simply give it Execution rights, and double-click the appimage file. LibreOffice runs just as easy as that.

(Giving Executable permissions to the AppImage file of LibreOffice v6.2)
1. Front Look
The AppImage version starts with LibreOffice Launcher as you can see below. From this launcher, you select to run either Writer, Calc, or Impress module; of if you have recent documents you open one of them.

 (Hello, it is LibreOffice from The Document Foundation running!)
2. Writer Look
This is how LibreOffice in general looks on elementary OS. See the titlebar? It looks grayish with metallic gradation, and everything looks so matched with Pantheon. If you unmaximize the window, it shows the smooth drop shadow just like any other apps on elementary OS. The only one thing unsightly is perhaps the 'x' button with white background on top-right corner.

3. Calc Look
Here's how Calc would look.

4. Impress Look
And here's how Impress would look.

5. Menubar and Context menu
Normal menubar and Muffin menubar look seamless with elementary OS theme and every piece drawn with smooth drop shadow. The drop shadow makes the menu distinguished clearly to the toolbar below it (mine on KDE without drop shadow looks no different, slightly unclear to read). Context menu also looks very well shaped. All text looks clear, distinguished to their gray background, and no text rendered in similar/same color as the background.

6. Toolbar and Sidebar
I tried to show many toolbars here. You see here, standard toolbar staying with formatting, drawing, table, find, and insert toolbars. As you can see, all look integrated to elementary OS particularly because of the icon theme.

The sidebar looks great as well! Sidebar is the most concentrated UI element in LibreOffice packed with all kinds of buttons in one place; it includes many combo boxes and icons. The background gray color is slightly lighter compared to the toolbar, but all text and icons look clear and distinct, and the Elementary icon theme here made it feels refreshing.

7. Notebookbar
The ribbon toolbar of LibreOffice fortunately looks good with elementary OS. Grayish with a little bit metallic gradation, and drop shadow everywhere, supported by the default icon theme of the buttons. The tabbar rendered in darker gray and every tab shown in a little bit round-corner fashion, they are clear, easy to distinguish to titlebar and toolbars.


8. Dialogs
All dialogs follow elementary OS style with grayish theme and a bit rounded corners. Particularly the open/save dialog, the breadcrumb (addressbar) follows elementary style.

 (Left: open/save dialog; right: print dialog)
9. Icons
You saw above at Toolbar section the Elementary icon theme. You see below LibreOffice with Karasa Jaga and Sifr icon themes. If you are bored with the default one, you may change it at any time and it will look as good.

 (Left: Karasa Jaga, the sparkling KDE-ish icon theme; right: Sifr, the black/white based icon theme)
Final Comment
If you do not have office suite on elementary OS yet, I recommend you to use LibreOffice AppImage. It runs instantly, unlike Snap or Flatpak version, without dependencies installation. You can run it by double-click on file manager. It works, and it looks so elementary fashioned. Happy working!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Set Dolphin as Default File Manager of Ubuntu

Thursday 29th of August 2019 03:40:00 AM
(Dolphin file manager with integrated terminal and right-panel preview on Ubutu 19.04)
Dolphin is file manager from KDE we can compare to Nautilus from GNOME. Dolphin has a lot of features Nautilus doesn't such as internal terminal and split vertical. Not to mention, unlike Nautilus, it supports a lot of third-party plugins like my 2016' Right-Click Batch Converter. In case you wish to change your file manager to Dolphin instead of Nautilus, but without removing any one, here's the way. I wish your life will be easier with this.

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Install Dolphin
$ sudo apt-get install dolphin konsole

  • dolphin is the package name of the file manager wished. 
  • konsole is the KDE terminal emulator to enable integrated terminal within Dolphin window.  
  • dolphin-plugins is additional functionalities such as "Copy To/Move To" for Dolphin.
  • Default behaviour of Dolphin with this installation is double-click (following Ubuntu) and not single-click (so, unlike its original default) on Ubuntu 19.04. 

Make It Default
How do you access your file manager usually? By clicking its icon on left panel? By pressing Super+E combination key? Okay, that's the default. Let's change it.

On Unity and GNOME desktop:
  • Run Dolphin
  • Dolphin appears as icon on your left panel
  • Right-click Dolphin > Lock to Launcher > Dolphin locked > drag and drop it to the top of left panel.
  • Right-click Nautilus > Unlock from Launcher > Nautilus gone.
  • Now everytime you click the file manager icon, Dolphin runs instead of Nautilus.
 (Now, after configuring, the top icon on left panel is Dolphin and not nautilus anymore)
For the shortcut keys, it's the same to Unity and GNOME as well:
  • Go to System Settings > Keyboard > Shortcuts.
  • Select Custom Shortcuts.
  • Click "plus" button ("+") > a dialog appears.
  • Insert name "Dolphin" > insert command "dolphin" without quotes > OK > new entry with empty combo key appears > associate it with the keys Super+E (press hold Win key while pressing E key).
  • Now every time you pressed Super+E you run Dolphin.

 (Example configuration based on Unity Desktop Environment)
That's it. Notice how easy was that? Nothing difficult. Happy working! 

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Making GNU/Linux Multiboot USB with The Awesome Aguslr's Tool

Wednesday 28th of August 2019 03:02:00 PM
(Aguslr's Multiboot USB: the best GNU/Linux multiboot maker so far for me)
Just like previously I stated, after MultiSystem, Sundar's MultiBootUSB, and Thias' GLIM, finally I found Aguslr's Multiboot USB tool to create perfect multiboot OS pendrive that supports great number of GNU/Linux distros including openSUSE, CentOS, and Deepin. More than that, it also supports Android-x86 and even BSD family. Awesome, right? However, the setup of this tool is honestly difficult especially for us who are not familiar with command lines. But I present you here faster and easier setup with screenshots and example. Enjoy!

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List of Supported Distros
There are more than 100 different operating systems supported by Aguslr's MBUSB. You can see the full list here However, all popular distros are supported including Slackware, Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, openSUSE, even Gentoo, and more. Thanks to this, now, for me making a USB stick bootable with all big 10 of Distrowatch is not a dream anymore. Big thanks, Aguslr!

1. Download Multiboot USB
Get it from Aguslr's webpage To download, simply click Clone button (green) and click Download ZIP button (blue). You will get an around 3MB file with .zip extension.

(GitHub repository of Agus Lopez aka Aguslr: downloading Multiboot USB tool)
2. Format the Pendrive
Use GNOME Disk Utility to format the USB stick with MBR and FAT of any size (or any other setup you like). Don't worry as the Multiboot USB script will later reformat it.

3. Install Required Packages
Two packages below are required to support BIOS and UEFI in Multiboot USB.
$ sudo apt-get install  grub-pc-bin grub-efi-amd64-bin
4. Install Mutiboot USB to your Pendrive
WARNING: be careful typing the USB stick address and don't make mistake or you may destroy data in HDD or other storages you have.

Run the shell script you will find it far more easier than doing the Arch Wiki's guide. The command I run for my 32GB USB stick is:
$ ./ -b -e /dev/sdb ext4
Where /dev/sdb means my USB stick (find yours using GNOME Disk Utility), -b means enabling support for hybrid GPT/MBR and -e means enabling support for EFI on the USB stick. Yes here I deliberately don't determine the partition size as I found determining it --in my case-- could fail the process. This setup will use remaining space as the data partition of the USB stick.

Final result of the script process turned my USB stick into this configuration:
  • There are 3 partitions
  • Partition 1: BIOS boot partition (1MB)
  • Partition 2: EFI boot partition (1MB) (FAT32)
  • Partition 3: Data partition (31GB) (EXT4)

(Disk Utility viewing contents of the USB stick: first partition exists so it can boot on old computers, second one for latest computers, and third one to store your ISO images of course)
5. Copy ISO Images
This is the final setup. Copy ISO images of distros you wish to create multiboot for. I give you example here Ubuntu, Porteus, TinyCoreLinux.

Up to this point, your USB stick is ready to use.

(Copying process of several GNU/Linux ISOs into USB stick)
6. Testing
The best way I found is to boot the pendrive on other computer. It sure will look like below.

7. Testing (Virtual Machine)
If you don't have spare computer like me, instead of rebooting, you can run the pendrive as virtual machine with QEMU. Yes, my computer does not support virtualization (no Intel-VT) but I can use QEMU anyway. The pendrive runs on my desktop exactly as if I have spare computer.

(Testing a USB stick without rebooting is easy with QEMU (see my tutorial here))
The Secret
Why Aguslr's tool supports great number of distros? The secret is because it is loaded with great number of individual bootloader configurations. Each config runs a specific distro and each one may differ to other. They are hackable, meaning, we can edit one to make new support for distro we don't find on Multiboot USB, take example BlankOn that is actually based on Debian. You can mimic and adapt any configuration and have experiments with them for distros you love.

(Configuration files of this Aguslr's MBUSB)
Finally, I hope this is useful for you. Happy working!
This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Finally, I Can Make Multiboot USB of openSUSE from Ubuntu

Monday 26th of August 2019 02:50:00 PM
 (Multiboot USB website, list of supported distros, and openSUSE working after USB installation)
As you may know, my multiboot making tools were MultiSystem (since 2015), then Sundar's MultiBootUSB (2018), and recently GLIM (2019), but they all cannot work for openSUSE. Thanks to Aguslr, his program Multiboot USB (not to be confused with MultiBootUSB above) solved this problem for me! This means up to today I never managed to make openSUSE multiboot in a USB while I always managed to make other GNU/Linux distros work successfully such as Ubuntu family, Mint, Trisquel, Debian Regular, Elementary, even Fedora. In this article, I just report my success in making openSUSE Leap 15.1 multibootable USB and then installing it on a laptop. However, this article is just my report and I planned to publish tutorial on this Aguslr's Multiboot USB as soon as possible. Anyway, go ahead and happy working!

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How easy it is?
I would love to say it's very easy to use and setup, and in some way, even easier than Multisystem. Why? Because once the setup finished, (unlike MultiSystem) you just need to copy ISO image files to USB stick and (unlike GLIM) without making any directory at all. To remove a distro from multiboot, simply delete the ISO file, no need to open any program. Awesome, right? Number of distro supported by Aguslr's Multiboot USB is far more greater than Multisystem and even GLIM.

 (My installation of openSUSE to USB is as easy as copying the ISO file)
Supported Distros
Believe me, it's far more greater than MultiSystem or MultiBootUSB or GLIM, as you can see yourself here When I saw 'openSUSE' there, I was very glad.

 (openSUSE is one among one hundred operating systems supported by Aguslr's MultiBoot USB)
Booting, Installation, and Result
It boots very smooth from USB with familiar bootloader we all knew about. Then it runs the openSUSE installer very well without any error. Finally it finished the installation until I got a beautiful openSUSE desktop. While using MultiSystem or Sundar's MultiBootUSB, I never reached even the first step.

(Installation process takes up to 1 hour with Multiboot USB setup)
(Final result is an installed system working just as I wish)
Final Comments
I am satisfied. Finally I solved my long-term problem today thanks to Aguslr's program, Multiboot USB. I can make the bootable on Ubuntu without changing my OS. Now I can distribute openSUSE in multibootable USB in my home country. Thank you Aguslr.

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Rsync Command Line to Copy ISO Image from External HDD to USB Stick

Monday 26th of August 2019 01:10:00 AM
(I use Rsync command to sell USB sticks with GNU/Linux)
Recently, I distribute GNU/Linux USB sticks with a bunch of video tutorials inside and I use Rsync command to copy the files with best reliability. I like Rsync because it is clear with progress and verbose messages, and in my cases it's often faster, more stable. I then use the same Rsync command to copy the ISO image files to USB as --you may know-- I am currently experimenting with GLIM and Aguslr's Multiboot USB tools. This works very well. Tutorial below shows you the command lines and examples.

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Command:$ rsync --append --progress [ISO_NAME] [DESTINATION_FOLDER]
My examples:
Copying Ubuntu to USB:
$ rsync --append --partial --progress ubuntu-18.04-desktop-amd64.iso /media/master/GLIM/boot/iso/ubuntu/
Copying Trisquel to USB:
$ rsync --append --partial --progress trisquel_8.0_amd64.iso /media/master/GLIM/boot/iso/trisquel/
If I want more verbose output so I will see if any error occurs:
$ rsync -vvv --append --partial --progress trisquel_8.0_amd64.iso /media/master/GLIM/boot/iso/trisquel/
Rsync can resume your interrupted transfer as long as it's not caused by your Ctrl+C (cancel) key.

Short version of above commands is this:
$ rsync -vvvaP trisquel_8.0_amd64.iso /media/master/GLIM/boot/iso/trisquel/
In practice, I really use the short version a lot. I prefer that. As a side note, you saw 'GLIM' name above because I am currently experimenting with GLIM USB maker.

What's add more convenience to me is of course the integrated terminal within Dolphin File Manager on KDE I always use. With this, I don't need to type the address path of my ISO image file from external HDD.

(I run the command with only file manager without separate terminal window)
And of course, Bash shell up/down key to reveal previous commands is very useful I use if every time. Not to mention Ctrl+R to find previous "rsync" command I performed. Everything is convenient this way. 
Important Note
You are fortunate if you have healthy hard disk drive and other hardware. My external HDD and cable and USB ports are considerably broken so no matter how good Rsync is I will always experience errors and problems. Thanks to reliability of Rsync, I can have problems number reduced a lot. However, I am still doing distribution business with these set of broken hardware up to today. I wish you don't experience this hardship.
Happy working!
This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Create USB Multiboot GNU/Linux with GLIM

Sunday 25th of August 2019 01:25:00 PM
(Booting a USB stick with multiple GNU/Linux distros)
After MultiSystem (2015), and then Multibootusb (2018), now I found GLIM tool (2019) by Matthias Saou to easily create multibootable USB to run and install GNU/Linux distros. GRUB2 Live USB Multiboot (GLIM) is a user friendly program to setup any USB stick to run multiple GNU/Linux LiveCD systems with fancy bootloader. GLIM supports both 32-bit and 64-bit computer either with BIOS Legacy or UEFI. With GLIM you can have multiple OS installers in one USB drive, take example Ubuntu and Fedora and Mint, to install them to computers so it saves a lot of your time. The difference between GLIM and the two tools mentioned above is, that using GLIM is easier, you simply need to copy ISO images you want to your USB stick without running application. Awesome, right? Then, how to use GLIM? This tutorial explains it with examples in easy way and with screenshots. Go ahead and happy doing business!

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About GLIM

Let me share one thing to you. As you may know, I distribute GNU/Linux operating system in Indonesia --an archipelagic state located at equator between Malaysia and Australia-- so I always looking for new way to create better multiboot USB. The problem I could not tackle up to today is creating working multiboot for Debian Live and Manjaro. Fortunately, GLIM solved that for me, as now I can make them. Thank you Matthias Saou!

In order to create multiboot USB with GLIM, you need:
  • USB stick with disk name 'GLIM'
  • ISO image files of the distros
  • GLIM program itself
  • Command line access
  • Directories named after distro names in the USB stick

1. Formatting USB
Use your GNOME Disk Utility to format your USB stick with these properties:
  • Partition table: MBR
  • Filesystem: FAT32
  • Label: GLIM

 (My USB stick as example: it's a 16GB SanDisk Cruzer Blade I made MBR and FAT32; notice the mount point /media/master/GLIM/ as it's important)
2. Download GLIM
To make USB bootable, of course you must have the GLIM software first. Download GLIM from GitHub. On the page, simply click Clone button and click Download ZIP. You will get a compressed file named by about 1MB.

(Web browser showing GLIM website with full information and screenshot about its use)
3. Installing GLIM to USB
As long as your USB stick is named 'GLIM', you can install GLIM (the bootloader) into USB by running GLIM shell script.

First, extract the you got from GitHub.

Second, enter the glim-master/ folder it gave you.

Third, run the shell script named inside it without sudo:

$ ./

And follow whatever asked with Y there.

Finally, successful GLIM setup will say "GLIM Installed! Time to populate the boot/iso directory".

See picture below: successful GLIM setup will create directory structure and files in USB stick like this.

(Structure of my USB drive with GLIM configuration files)
4. Copying ISO to USB
For example, to make Debian bootable in this USB,
  • Create folder debian/ under GLIM/boot/iso/ directory.
  • Copy the ISO image of Debian to GLIM/boot/iso/debian/ directory.
  • For other distros, for example Ubuntu and Fedora, create directories ubuntu/ and fedora/ under iso/ just like debian/ directory above. For other distros, see notes below.

(Copying process of Debian into USB: it must be stored in GLIM/boot/iso/debian/ folder)
Up to this step, one GNU/Linux OS is successfully made bootable in the USB stick. Repeat copying process above for other distros if you wish multiboot.
  • Pro tip: I use rsync to copy big ISOs faster and more reliable to USB stick with resume capability like downloading with BitTorrent.
  • Caution: make sure your external HDD storage and its cable are healthy and not in any broken state.

Reboot your computer with USB option as first boot, then you should see the unique GLIM bootloader like mine below. Press Enter to run selected OS, press Esc to cancel.

Pro tip: I don't have spare computer so I test every USB stick with QEMU virtual machine. It is very easy and handy.

Happy working!

  • Debian Live burnt in GLIM way installs a lot more longer than with GNOME Disk Utility (GNU dd). On my sample, it takes about 45 minutes while normally under 20 minutes.

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Writing Arabic and Latin on Ubuntu, Trisquel, and Elementary OS

Saturday 24th of August 2019 06:48:00 AM
 ﴾!السَلامُ علَيكُم﴿ (May peace be upon you!)
This tutorial will show you how to write Arabic & Latin on GNU/Linux especially Ubuntu, Trisquel, and elementary OS so you can switch between them easily at any time. In particular, we will use built-in keyboard layout called Arabic Buckwalter beside the English US one here. They will appear as selections on system tray on your desktop panel. This way, you can write documents and have chat on the net with both Latin and Arabic letters. I take these 3 distros as example means you can practice this on any other GNU/Linux systems that also use GNOME3, MATE, and Pantheon desktops. Let's go!

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Wait, learn the basic things first!
Arabic language and Arabic typing are two different things on GNU/Linux. If you want to write Arabic, you need to enable Arabic keyboard, not Arabic language support. On the other hand, if you want you user interface to look Arabic, you enable Arabic language support, not Arabic keyboard. The settings of keyboard are available on every operating system's control panel.

1. Ubuntu
This is also applicable to: GNOME variants of Debian, Fedora, and openSUSE.

Go to System Settings > Region & Language:
  • See Input Source column
  • Click plus button ("+")
  • Click triple dot button on bottom
  • Click Others
  • Find and select Arabic Buckwalter
  • Click Add
  • It will be added as new layout under the default ones
  • It will also appears on system tray on the top panel

(LibreOffice Writer with Arabic alphabet table and top panel with Arabic Buckwalter enabled)
2. Trisquel
This is also applicable to other distros: MATE variants of Mint, Ubuntu, and Fedora.

Go to System Settings > Keyboard > Layout tab:
  • Click Add
  • Select Arabic Buckwalter
  • Click Add
  • It will be added as new keyboard layout
  • It will also appear on system tray on the bottom taskbar


(Trisquel user simply needs to click the Arabic selection on taskbar to write arabic text)

Note that Trisquel's keyboard switcher is located on bottom unlike Ubuntu's or elementary's. Other MATE based systems may be different.

3. elementary OS
This is also applicable to other distros: Fedora Pantheon.

Go to System Settings > Keyboard:
  • Click plus button ("+")
  • Find and select Arabic Buckwalter
  • Click Add
  • It will be added as new keyboard layout
  • It will also appear on top panel


(Similar to Ubuntu, elementary OS user just needs to click the top panel to switch between Arabic and Latin to type)
Everything is fortunately easy here, right? Happy working!

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Quick Guide to The Awesome GNOME Disk Utility

Friday 23rd of August 2019 02:01:00 PM
(Disk Utility on Ubuntu 19.04 is indeed very handy)
GNOME Disk Utility is an awesome tool to maintain hard disk drives that shipped with Ubuntu. It's called simply "Disks" on start menu on 19.04, anyway. It's able to format hard disks and USB sticks, create and remove partitions, rename partitions, and check disk health. Not only that, it also features writing ISO into disk and vice versa, create ISO image of a disk. This tutorial explains in brief how to use it for 8 purposes. Let's go!

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(I use Disk Utility version 3.32 that came preinstalled with Ubuntu Disco Dingo)
1. Viewing Active Disks
Attach your disk drives and let the Disk Utility reads them. Names of disks shown on left panel. If you select one, it shows the partitions that disk has.

(Pay attention to information inside red boxes: it shows very much details about each disk and each partition selected)
2. Viewing Details of Partition
Disk Utility shows detailed info of each partition on bottom part of its window. You can read important details such as:
  • Partition name
  • Size in GB and Byte
  • Device address (/dev/sda1, /dev/sdc1, etc.)
  • UUID
  • Partition type
  • Filesystem name (FAT, NTFS, EXT4, etc.)
  • Mount address (e.g. /media/yourname/MYUSB/)

(GIF animation: click each partition name to view its properties)
3. Format Disk and Partition
Hard disk, flash disk, or other storage drives can be formatted (write partition table into) with Disk Utility. Of course, you can also create, delete, rename, repair, and modify partitions in every disk drive.

Formatting a disk drive:

(Utilize the triple dot button on top)
Formatting a partition within a drive:

(Pay attention to the gear button on Volumes area)
4. Burn ISO into USB Stick
I always use Disk Utility to burn GNU/Linux images that are not compatible with multiboot tools (mine are MultiSystem and Multibootusb) such as Debian Live, Deepin, Mageia, BlankOn, and so on.

On Ubuntu especially, and other distros as well, simply right-click an ISO Image file and select Write with Disk Utility to write it into USB stick. Very handy, right?

(Writing ISO right into USB stick is just one touch on Ubuntu thanks to Disk Utility)
5. Rename a Partition
I believe you don'twant multiple partitions with same name, right? You can rename each partition by selecting it > click gear button > Edit Filesystem > type name you wish > OK.

(Renaming a partition)
6. Make ISO out of a Disk Drive
This is the very convenient way to make full backup or clone of disk drive. As you may know, I ever said I distribute GNU/Linux USB in my home country Indonesia, so I include every USB with backup instruction based on this awesome utility.

To create ISO image, select a disk drive from left panel > click triple dot button on top > Create Disk Image > determine storage location > let it process the rest > ISO Image created.

(Making backup of a whole USB stick is easy)
7. Check Disk Health
Every hard disk drive has internal health information called S.M.A.R.T. The Disk Utility can read that information for us. Simply click triple dot button on top > SMART Data & Self Test > click Start > let it process a while > it shows all information.

(SMART information of my solid state disk)
8. Benchmark
Even more special, Disk Utility features benchmark, so we can test disk drives' read/write speed. Example below depicts my test result of SanDisk Cruzer Blade 16GB resulting read speed average of 27MB/s.

(Benchmark result of my USB stick)
9. Enable Automount
I've written about this here, in short, it enables you to easily enable automatic mounting of partitions you like. No command line needed, simply click and done. Now everybody can manage their hard disks very easily on GNU/Linux. What you need to do is to enable Mount at system startup on each partition's Mount Options. Amazing, right?

(Automount settings)

This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

Dualboot Ubuntu 19.04 and Debian 10 on a 32GB USB Stick

Tuesday 20th of August 2019 02:39:00 PM
 (Bootloader, Debian, and Ubuntu)
Ubuntu 19.04, or Disco Dingo, and Debian 10, or Buster, are two latest versions in 2019 of two most popular GNU/Linux distros I already wrote about here and here. This tutorial explains dualboot installation procedures in simple way for Ubuntu Disco Dingo and Debian Buster computer operating systems onto a portable USB Flash Drive. There are 2 advantages of this kind of portable dualbooting; first, it's safer for your data in internal HDD and second, you can bring both OSes with you everywhere you go. You will prepare the partitions first, then install Ubuntu, and then install Debian, and finally finish up the GRUB bootloader, and enjoy. Go ahead!

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The Plan
  • 1) Prepare 3 USB drives, one as Debian installation media, one more as Ubuntu installation media, and last one as the storage of both OSes.
  • 2) Prepare the 32GB drive 3 partitions, one later for Debian system, one for Ubuntu system, and one for swap space.
  • 3) First, install Ubuntu to the Ubuntu partition.
  • 4) Second, install Debian to the Debian partition.
  • 5) Install GRUB Bootloader to the 32GB USB stick.

  • Read full installation tutorials of Ubuntu Disco here and Debian Buster here. This tutorial will not explain every single step but only the partitioning one for each system.   
  • I recommend 32GB or more capacity of USB stick to store both systems. 16GB is too small for dualbooting.
  • I recommend you to use Debian Live Edition instead of Debian Regular as it's now featured with Calamares easy installer. 
  • I recommend in this article EXT2 Filesystem for both main system partitions. 
  • I recommend small size partition under 1GB for swap.
  • I suggest you (if you can) to detach your internal hard disk drive before doing this. I did it while practicing this today.

1. USB Preparation
My example is:
  • First, 16GB USB stick as Ubuntu bootable installer
  • Second, 16GB USB stick as Debian bootable installer
  • Third, 32GB USB stick as storage target (treated as external HDD)
Use the program GNOME Disk Utility to burn the ISO of Ubuntu and ISO of Debian to USB sticks.

This is important: create the partitions before you install the OS. For the third USB stick, format it into 3 partitions:
  • First, 15GB FAT, for Ubuntu.
  • Second, 14GB FAT, for Debian.
  • Third, the rest, for swap partition.
See picture below.

(The preparation: target USB stick divided into UBUNTU, DEBIAN, and SWAP partitions before installation being performed)
3. Installing Ubuntu
First task is to install Ubuntu. As I said above, I don't show all steps, but only the partitioning. You need to do:
  • - select the second 14GB partition
  • - format it as filesystem: EXT2
  • - select its mount point: /
  • - select the third ~500MB partition
  • - format it as: SWAP
  • - select bootloader location: the location of the USB stick (here, /dev/sda)
    Anyway, this bootloader of Ubuntu will be replaced by Debian's on next section.

    Then proceed the rest of installation until its finished.

    2. Installing Debian
    Second task is to install Debian. Once again, I don't show all steps here but the partitioning only, as it's the most important. You need to do:
    • - select the first 15GB partition
    • - format it as filesystem: EXT2
    • - select its mount point: /
    • for bootloader, see next section
    (Calamares partition editor: editing second 14GB partition to be Debian system partition)
    (Partition editor dialog: pay attention to format, ext2, and /)
    4. Installing Bootloader
    Third step is installing final bootloader. Still on the Debian installation, now it's the thing:
    • - select bootloader location: the drive name of 32GB USB stick (here, it's /dev/sda)

    Bootloader will show selection of 2 OSes every time you boot the USB stick. It will show you Debian logo there instead of Ubuntu logo (see picture on next section).

    Then once again finish the installation process for about 30 minutes. 
    5. Enjoying the Results
    Finally, you will be able to run Ubuntu Disco and Debian Buster from USB stick. Your USB stick is now like a portable HDD with dualbooted OSes. You can boot the USB on other computers as well. And, every time it boots up, it shows selection between both OSes so you can select any one every time you need it. How can it be not convenient?

    Bootloader looks like this:

    Ubuntu and Debian desktops look like these:

    They run fast and well on old laptops: ASUS X44C 2GB and Acer Aspire One 756 4GB. Yes, they run from a USB stick. Thanks to my brother Tegar for lending me his laptop.

    Useful Tips
    If you see closer, the partition names of both systems are not distinct. We better rename them to "UBUNTU" and "DEBIAN" respectively. Simply use GNOME Disk Utility to rename each partition. Run it > select the USB stick name > select partition of Ubuntu > click options button below it > Edit Filesystem > type the name UBUNTU > OK. Do it "DEBIAN" for partition of Debian.

    (Where to click the option button)
     (Final result: see bottom-left corner for names of partitions; see top toolbar of each view panel showing "DEBIAN" and "UBUNTU" respectively)

    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

    Copying Arabic Text Correctly from Zekr to LibreOffice

    Monday 19th of August 2019 04:03:00 AM
     (After setting things up, LibreOffice displays copied arabic text correctly)
    You may notice that Arabic text copied from Zekr Quran Reader looks not right on LibreOffice Writer. That's right, it's because of the Right-to-Left switch has not been enabled on LibreOffice. Fortunately, it's really easy to handle. I will take chapter 1 Al Faatiha as example. Straight to the point, here's the setup.


     (Left: Zekr with correct arabic text; right: Writer got errors displaying ayat number spacing)

    (See top-right corner, the Right-to-Left (RTL) button; now the arabic text displayed correctly)
    • Go to menubar Tools > Options > Language Settings > Languages.
    • Give check mark to Complex Text Layout > select Saudi Arabia. 
    • OK.
    • You should see two new buttons on your toolbar, RTL and LTR.
    • If not, right-click your toolbar > Visible Button > enable Right-to-Left > enable Left-to-Right.

    (Enabling complex text layout setting)
    (Put RTL button on the toolbar if not presented yet)
    Note: I did this on LibreOffice 5.4. Newer versions might be different.

    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

    KDE Plasma: Unmount Multiple Partitions (Safely Remove Drive) at Once

    Monday 19th of August 2019 03:31:00 AM
    Straight to the point, the final command line is this:
    $ sudo umount -v /dev/sdb?* && udisksctl power-off -b /dev/sdb
    Fortunately, you can make shortcut to that long command to be, for example:
    $ magic
    Explanation goes below. 

    There are only 3 steps.

    On KDE, more precisely on Dolphin File Manager, press F4 key so you see Konsole appears on its bottom:

     (Without leaving your file manager, you can do command lines; that's Dolphin)
    To understand the command, we learn first where is the location of our partitions:
    $ lsblk 
    (From this, we know that they are in /dev/sdb drive denoted as /dev/sdb1 to /dev/sdb10)
    Second, we unmount all attached partitions of external hard disk:
    $ sudo umount -v /dev/sdb?*

    (Unmounting process with detailed progress info)

    Third, we safely remove the disk drive:
    $ udisksctl power-off --block-device /dev/sdb
    (Safely remove the disk drive)
    The final result should present you all partitions disappeared and lsblk shows /dev/sdb no more.

     (The lsblk shows only the internal /dev/sda means the external drive /dev/sdb has been removed)
    Example above given by considering /dev/sdb as the external disk drive we want to unmount. If lsblk output shows you it's not /dev/sdb but /dev/sdc instead, then use /dev/sdc. And so on.

    See? Nothing hard.

    Important notes explained below.
    • 1) GNU/Linux OS reads every disk drive attached in special identifier, like, /dev/sdb or /dev/sdc. To know them, use lsblk command. 
    • 2) The OS reads every partition with number following its disk drive identifier, like, /dev/sdb1 or /dev/sdb2, which is a partition inside /dev/sdb disk drive.
    • 3)  
    • 4) The umount and udisksctl commands work with special identifier of partitions and disk drives, respectively.
    • 5) The -v option of umount command means verbose that is to show the process currently being done. 
    • 6) The && sign means making a combination of two commands.

    Making short version described below.

    To make such long command short, you simply need to create an equation, that is in the .bashrc file of yours. Please be aware that this example is limited to /dev/sdb only, so this is not perfect, and you are free to learn more about this.

    1) Edit it with editor:
    $ nano ~/.bashrc
    2) Scroll down.

    3) Write this as new line at bottom:
    alias magic="sudo umount -v /dev/sdb?* && udisksctl power-off -b /dev/sdb"
    4) Save:

    5) Exit:

    6) Try it out:
    $ magic

    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

    Upgrade from Windows 7 to Ubuntu Part 2: Releases

    Thursday 15th of August 2019 02:33:00 PM

    (Ubuntu in 3 different releases: GNOME2 era, Unity era, and GNOME3 era)
    Knowing Ubuntu releases is important to understand it better. Ubuntu is released twice a year, more precisely, every April and October, hence the number 04 and 10 in every version. It has special release called Long Term Support (LTS) released once in two years, only when the year number is even, hence all LTS version numbers are ended with 04. More importantly, you will also see 3 different periods of Ubuntu Desktop, that have been going through GNOME2, Unity, and GNOME3 eras, with and then LibreOffice as the main office suite. You will also see Ubuntu siblings like Kubuntu and Mythbuntu. I hope this will be interesting enough for everybody to read. Go ahead, and learn more about Ubuntu!

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    • 1) Windows Releases
    • 2) Ubuntu Releases
    • 3) Codenames
    • 4) Architectures
    • 5) Editions
    • 6) Periods
    • 7) Repositories
    • 8) Official Flavors
    • 9) Retired Flavors
    • 10) See Bigger Picture

    1. Windows Releases
    Microsoft released Windows in these versions so far:
    • Windows XP (2001)
    • Windows Vista (2007)
    • Windows 7 (2009)
    • Windows 8 (2012)
    • Windows 8.1 (2013)
    • Windows 10 (2015)

      In short, Windows release schedule is not predictable (unlike Ubuntu in every 6 month); we do not see in each release different Editions based on its user interface, nor third-party variants, nor codenames; and we do not talk about repository on it. And, Windows' user interface has no name (we say the OS "Windows" and the desktop environment "Windows" as well). I hope this information can help you to understand Ubuntu better.

      2. Ubuntu Releases 
      Ubuntu releases its new version 2 times every year. More precisely, Ubuntu is always released in April and October, hence it has only 04 and 10 version numbers of all releases*. Based on support lifespan, releases divided into two classes, one Long Term Support (LTS), and one Regular (non-LTS). The LTS ones are released every two years when the number of year is even (see below) and the Regular ones are released every 6 month except when LTS released.

      (Release announcements on website of 18.04 LTS, 18.10, and the old 7.04 versions)

      • Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (2010)
      • Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (2012)
      • Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (2014)
      • Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (2016)
      • Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (2018)

      • Ubuntu 10.10 (2010)
      • Ubuntu 11.04 (2011)
      • Ubuntu 12.10 (2012)
      • Ubuntu 13.04 (2013)
      • Ubuntu 17.04 (2017)
      • Ubuntu 19.04 (2019)

      Complete list of releases is here.

        What's the difference between Regular and LTS? There are two things, first, recentness of package versions, and second, time duration of the official support from Canonical.
          The first one means, for example, LibreOffice on 19.04 will be newer compared to LibreOffice on 18.04 LTS, and to get that newer version, users of 18.04 should upgrade to 19.04.

          The second one means security updates. LTS has 5 years time span of updates, while Regular has only 9 month. The updates are provided by professional team in Canonical to several hundreds of packages in the 'main' repository. This means, for example, if you use 19.04 and 18.04 LTS simultaneously, then the former will not supported anymore in 2020 but the latter will receive updates until 2023.

          Actually there is one more fact, the third one, the secret fact behind support lifespans is, that whenever any version reached end of support, the repository will be officially deleted in the internet, so users of that version would not be able to install software anymore. This condition is called End of Life or EOL. You will still however can use the OS forever but you cannot install software from its repository and will not receive updates anymore.

          *) Only one exception exists, that is 6.06 Dapper Drake, which is the only 06 ending number while Ubuntu experienced late 2 month extra to release.

          3. Ubuntu Codenames
          This one is the uniqueness of Ubuntu: each release is named in alphabetical fashion.

          • 10.04 LTS "Lucid Lynx"
          • 12.04 LTS "Precise Pangolin"
          • 14.04 LTS "Trusty Tahr"
          • 16.04 LTS "Xenial Xerus"
          • 18.04 LTS "Bionic Beaver"

          • 10.10 "Maverick Meerkat"
          • 11.04 "Natty Narwhal"
          • 12.10 "Quantal Quetzal"
          • 13.04 "Raring Ringtail"
          • 17.04 "Zesty Zapus"
          • 19.04 "Disco Dingo"

          Complete list of code names is here.

            What's this means? This is important, as there are 2 things: first, you will often hear Ubuntu user says "Bionic" to mean 18.04 or "Maverick" to mean 10.10 and on and on; second, this codename is the code your repository works with. So for every release, in your system configuration, the address to get software is not notated in number, take example 18.04 and 10.10, but in name, that are "bionic" and "maverick", respectively. You cannot use "bionic" repository on maverick, for example, and vice versa.

            Who decide codename of Ubuntu? Of course, Mark Shuttleworth, the father of Ubuntu, the founder of Canonical Ltd. We can see every announcement of the codenames published on his blog. See his posts for example, Yakkety and Cosmic.

            4. Ubuntu Architectures
            Based on architecture, Ubuntu Desktop is now only available as 64-bit (called amd64) after a decade had been available also for 32-bit (called i386). For instance, the latest release at the moment, 19.04 Disco Dingo, is 64-bit only, while 16.04 Xenial Xerus, is still available in both 32-bit and 64-bit.

            5. Ubuntu Editions
            Based on edition, Ubuntu is available mainly as Desktop and Server operating systems, as we could see on the download page.

             (Left: Ubuntu Desktop main page; right: Ubuntu Server main page; both screenshots taken August 2019)

            6. Ubuntu Periods
            Speaking in popular fashion, the time of Ubuntu Desktop up to today can be divided into 3 different eras:
            • GNOME2 era (2004-2010)
            • Unity era (2011-2017)
            • GNOME3 era (2017-now)

            What's this? To speak casually, Ubuntu experienced 3 different user interfaces. This means you may find friends knowing Ubuntu from any one among those eras. Originally, it came with GNOME2 for 6 years, later it came with Unity for 6 years, and finally since 2017 it came with GNOME3 up to today. These three names are names of user interface developed for GNU/Linux Desktop. However, the desktop we see on 18.04 and 19.04 is called GNOME3.

            How was GNOME2 era? In this era, Ubuntu came with double panel, top and bottom, it's a highly customizable desktop yet lightweight and usable. It shipped with, the predecessor of LibreOffice. At that time, Canonical was still sending Ubuntu CDs at no cost worldwide. Do you remember? Yes, it was the famous ShipIt program we no could not see anymore since 2010. GNOME2 itself ended by its developers in favor of the completely new GNOME3 at 2011.

             (Ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope with GNOME2 desktop and on its start menu)
            How was Unity era? In this era, Ubuntu came with top and side panel, with full screen menu, with Global Menu, and with HUD revealed every time Alt key being pressed. This era also changed because of its switch from to LibreOffice since Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal. However, Unity was a great innovation as a reaction to people's dissatisfaction against GNOME3. Unity was not quite customizable, honestly, but people (finally) loved it at that time, for its simplicity and features it possesses. In my personal opinion, even today, I still like Unity era the most for its modernity and sleekness.

            (Ubuntu with Unity desktop and the HUD running to read menubar of Mozilla Firefox)
            How is GNOME3 era? This is the era when we see Ubuntu today. The layout is similar to Unity, but without HUD and Global Menu, and (unfortunately) more loads to RAM. Canonical decided to leave Unity behind and use GNOME3 instead on version 17.04 at 2017.

            (Ubuntu 19.04 Disco Dingo with GNOME version 3.30)
            7. Ubuntu Repositories
            What is a repository? Repository, for you coming from Windows world, more likely is not something you familiar with. Ubuntu user installs all software from repository: a place in the internet containing thousands of software built specially for a certain Ubuntu version. For Windows user, they don't work that way, instead, they visit different webs to collect different applications. In this regard, repository is a central place that collects all software for Ubuntu.

            The important thing is, every release version brings its own repository, worth more than 20GB or more software packages (and still increasing!). This means 18.04 has 18.04 repository, 19.04 has 19.04 repository, and on and on. Every repository is solely for its version, meaning, repository for 18.04 is not usable on 19.04 for example, and vice versa. This means versions of software in each Ubuntu version is fixed, and this is the point distinguishing between Ubuntu and 'rolling' distro like Arch.

            What's the difference to Windows? This is important, thanks to Ubuntu being free software, updating the OS means updating all software installed. This is contrast to Windows, as updating the OS only updates the OS itself, not the third-party programs you have, so you must update everything one by one separately. For example, updating Windows doesn't update Photoshop or AutoCAD there; but updating Ubuntu does update the OS and does update GIMP and Warzone 2100 you installed there. This is related to what I mentioned before, because Ubuntu user installs all programs from central repository, but Windows user installs from different sources. Why? It's because the software Ubuntu distributes are free software, so Canonical is granted full rights to redistribute updates of them; but the software you mostly find on Windows like MATLAB or Ulead Studio are proprietary (nonfree), so even Microsoft is prohibited to redistribute updates of them.

            Repository contents, viewed from inside Ubuntu:

            (Synaptic Package Manager, a tool to browse, search, install thousands of software from the repository)
            Repository contents, viewed from web browser:
            (However, all packages are stored under 'pool' directory there and sorted alphabetically)
            8. Official Flavors
            On this side, Ubuntu is also different to Windows, as Ubuntu permits unlimited redistribution by user (both with and without modification) while Windows forbids it. That is why we can see Official Flavors, modified operating systems ("distros") created and maintained by users in special communities. Today, we have 7 actively developed Flavors, namely:
            • Kubuntu (2005)
            • Xubuntu (2006)
            • Ubuntu Studio (2007)
            • Lubuntu (2009)
            • Ubuntu Kylin (2013)
            • Ubuntu MATE (2014)
            • Ubuntu Budgie (2016)

             (Left:; right:; bottom:

            9. Retired Flavors
            With full respect and gratitude to all the developers, I also listed here Flavors that were once active but no longer available:
            • Mythbuntu (2007-2016)
            • Edubuntu (2005-2016)
            • Ubuntu GNOME (2012-2017)
            We can learn much from them that each distro, even the popular one, needs enough developers and also support from us the users to maintain it. Without cooperation, we will see another distro stopped being developed like Edubuntu. This fact will eager every one of us to contribute to distro we love! I hope this section can be a contribution to them at least to attract new developers joining from among you.

            (Left: Ubuntu GNOME website; right: Edubuntu website; bottom: Mythbuntu website accessed via Internet Archive from a 2016 snapshot)

            10. See The Bigger Picture
            Okay, so now let's see the bigger picture of all:

            1. Every 6 month, Ubuntu releases a new release. 
            2. Every release, there are 2 main Ubuntu editions (Desktop & Server), and also there are 7 Flavors (Kubuntu et. al.).
            3. Every operating system released is available in either 64-bit only or with 32-bit architecture.
            4. All of them install software from one common repository. 
            5. Each release has its own repository and new repository is not compatible with old one.
            6. Each one of them is distributed via internet as an ISO Image file typically in huge size (1GB or more). 
            7. Latest Regular and LTS versions of them are supported, except the End Of Life (EOL) version that is not supported anymore (i.e. the repository removed officially).

            And finally, as real example, let's see our latest and next releases:
            • Latest Regular is 19.04 "Disco Dingo" released April 2019.
            • Latest LTS is 18.04 "Bionic Beaver" released April 2019. 
            • Next Regular will be 19.10 planned October 2019.
            • Next LTS will be 20.04 planned April 2020. 

            Next One
            That's all for now. According to our plan yesterday, next time I will talk about Applications on Ubuntu. I hope you enjoyed this and encouraged to try Ubuntu. Have a good time!

              to be continued...

              This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

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