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Updated: 6 hours 39 min ago

TODO Group Announces 2021 State of OSPO Survey

Thursday 10th of June 2021 11:00:00 PM

The TODO Group, together with Linux Foundation Research and The New Stack, is conducting a survey as part of a research project on the prevalence and outcomes of open source programs among different organizations across the globe. 

Open source program offices (OSPOs) help set open source strategies and improve an organization’s software development practices. Since 2018, the TODO Group has conducted surveys to assess the state of open source programs across the industry. Today, we are pleased to announce the launch of the 2021 edition featuring additional questions to add value to the community.

The survey will generate insights into the following areas, including:

The extent of adoption of open source programs and initiatives Concerns around the hiring of open source developers Perceived benefits and challenges of open source programsThe impact of open source on organizational strategy

We hope to expand the pool of respondents by translating the survey into Chinese and Japanese. Please participate now; we intend to close the survey in early July. Privacy and confidentiality are important to us. Neither participant names, nor their company names, will be published in the final results.

To take the 2021 OSPO Survey, click the button below:

Take Survey (EN) Take Survey (調査) Take Survey (民意调查) BONUS

As a thank you for completing this survey, you will receive a 75% discount code on enrollment in The Linux Foundation’s Open Source Management & Strategy training program, a $375 savings. This seven-course online training series is designed to help executives, managers, and software developers understand and articulate the basic concepts for building effective open source practices within their organization.

PRIVACY

Your name and company name will not be published. Reviews are attributed to your role, company size, and industry. Responses will be subject to the Linux Foundation’s Privacy Policy, available at https://linuxfoundation.org/privacy. Please note that survey partners who are not Linux Foundation employees will be involved in reviewing the survey results. If you do not want them to have access to your name or email address, please do not provide this information.

VISIBILITY

We will summarize the survey data and share the findings during OSPOCon 2021. The summary report will be published on the TODO Group and Linux Foundation websites. 

QUESTIONS

If you have questions regarding this survey, please email us at info@todogroup.org

The post TODO Group Announces 2021 State of OSPO Survey appeared first on Linux Foundation.

The post TODO Group Announces 2021 State of OSPO Survey appeared first on Linux.com.

New Open Source Project Uses Machine Learning to Inform Quality Assurance for Construction in Emerging Nations

Thursday 10th of June 2021 10:00:00 PM

Linux Foundation with support from IBM and Call for Code hosts ‘Intelligent Supervision Assistant for Construction’ project from Build Change to help builders identify structural issues in masonry walls or concrete columns, especially in areas affected by disasters

SAN FRANCISCO, June 10, 2021 – The Linux Foundation, the nonprofit organization enabling mass innovation through open source, today announced it will host the Intelligent Supervision Assistant for Construction (ISAC-SIMO) project, which was created by Build Change with a grant from IBM as part of the Call for Code initiative. The Autodesk Foundation, a Build Change funder, also contributed pro-bono expertise to advise the project’s development.

Build Change helps save lives in earthquakes and windstorms. Its mission is to prevent housing loss caused by disasters by transforming the systems that regulate, finance, build and improve houses around the world.

ISAC-SIMO packages important construction quality assurance checks into a convenient mobile app. The tool harnesses the power of machine learning and image processing to provide feedback on specific construction elements such as masonry walls and reinforced concrete columns. Users can choose a building element check and upload a photo from the site to receive a quick assessment.

“ISAC-SIMO has amazing potential to radically improve construction quality and ensure that homes are built or strengthened to a resilient standard, especially in areas affected by earthquakes, windstorms, and climate change,” said Dr. Elizabeth Hausler, Founder & CEO of Build Change. “We’ve created a foundation from which the open source community can develop and contribute different models to enable this tool to reach its full potential. The Linux Foundation, building on the support of IBM over these past three years, will help us build this community.”

ISAC-SIMO was imagined as a solution to gaps in technical knowledge that were apparent in the field. The app ensures that workmanship issues can be more easily identified by anyone with a phone, instead of solely relying on technical staff. It does this by comparing user-uploaded images against trained models to assess whether the work done is broadly acceptable (go) or not (no go) along with a specific score. The project is itself built on open source software, including Python through Django, Jupyter Notebooks, and React Native.

“Due to the pandemic, the project deliverables and target audience have evolved. Rather than sharing information and workflows between separate users within the app, the app has pivoted to provide tools for each user to perform their own checks based on their role and location. This has led to a general framework that is well-suited for plugging in models from the open source community, beyond Build Change’s original use case,” said Daniel Krook, IBM Chief Technology Officer for the Call for Code Global Initiative.

IBM and The Linux Foundation have a rich history of deploying projects that fundamentally make change and progress in society through innovation – and remain committed during COVID-19. The winner of the 2018 Call for Code Global Challenge, Project OWL, contributed its IoT device firmware in March 2020 as the ClusterDuck Protocol, and since then, twelve more Call for Code deployment projects like ISAC-SIMO that address disasters, climate change, and racial justice, have been open sourced for communities that need them most.

The project encourages new users to contribute and to deploy the software in new environments around the world. Priorities for short term updates include improvements in user interface, contributions to the image dataset for different construction elements, and support to automatically detect if the perspective of an image is flawed. For more information, please visit: ​https://www.isac-simo.net/docs/contribute/

About The Linux Foundation

Founded in 2000, The Linux Foundation is supported by more than 1,000 members and is the world’s leading home for collaboration on open source software, open standards, open data, and open hardware. The Linux Foundation’s projects are critical to the world’s infrastructure including Linux, Kubernetes, Node.js, and more. The Linux Foundation’s methodology focuses on leveraging best practices and addressing the needs of contributors, users and solution providers to create sustainable models for open collaboration. For more information, please visit us at linuxfoundation.org.

###

The Linux Foundation has registered trademarks and uses trademarks. For a list of trademarks of The Linux Foundation, please see our trademark usage page:  https://www.linuxfoundation.org/trademark-usage. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.

Media Contact

Jennifer Cloer
for the Linux Foundation
503-867-2304
jennifer@storychangesculture.com

The post New Open Source Project Uses Machine Learning to Inform Quality Assurance for Construction in Emerging Nations appeared first on Linux Foundation.

The post New Open Source Project Uses Machine Learning to Inform Quality Assurance for Construction in Emerging Nations appeared first on Linux.com.

Build and Deploy Hyperledger Fabric on Azure Cloud Platform- Part 3

Thursday 10th of June 2021 09:00:17 PM

By Matt Zand and Abhik Banerjee

Recap

In our first article in this series, we learned about the below topics:

Azure cloud for Blockchain Applications
Fabric Marketplace Template versus Manual Configurations
Deploy Orderer and Peer Organizations

In our second article in this series, we discussed the following:

Setting Up the Development Environment
Setting Up Configurations for Orderer and Peer
Setting Up Pods and Volume Mounts for Development

In this final article in the series, we will cover the following:

Create A Channel
Adding  Peer to Network, Channel and Nodes
Deploying and Operating Chaincode

It should be noted that while this article is intended to be  beginner friendly, it would be helpful to have prior familiarity with Azure, Kubernetes APIs, and Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS). Also, a good knowledge of Hyperledger Fabric and its components is required to follow steps discussed in this article. The topics and steps covered in this article are very useful for those interested in doing blockchain consulting and development

7- Create A Channel

Once the development pods are up and running, we can create a channel and then add in the clusters in consecutive steps.

To create a channel you need to bring it up with one ordering service. Here that would be our OrdererOrg cluster. So to create a channel we need to first start from the Orderer cluster’s development pod. Assuming you are inside the said pod, you can easily create a channel by running:

configtxgen -profile SampleChannel  -outputCreateChannelTx ./channel.tx -channelID ch01 -configPath ./

The configtxgen tool is provided by default in the Hyperledger Fabric binaries and since the pod is based on the image which has HF already installed and the required paths set, this tool will create a new channel with name “ch01”. The SampleChannel profile will be used in this case for specific details.

The channel details will be saved inside the channel.tx transaction file. This, as you may know, is a very important file needed to create the genesis block for this channel. The following step will use this file to bring up the channel with the OrdererOrg as the provider of the ordering service:

Peer channel create -o <URL of your Orderer Cluster> -c <Channel Name/ID> -f ./channel.tx –tls –cafile /var/hyperledger/admin/msp/tlscacerts/ca.crt –clientauth –certfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/cert.pem –keyfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/key.pem

Provide the URL of your Orderer’s AKS cluster for the -o flag and the channel ID (here ch01) in the -c flag. The -f flag will need the path to the channel.tx transaction file. These details are mostly the same no matter which cloud platform you use since these are the APIs provided by HF.

8- Adding the Peer to Network, Channel and Nodes

Channels can be understood as an analogue to Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) in a cloud platform. Generally on any cloud platform you have a default virtual private cloud (the offering name may differ from cloud platform to platform). Next there are subnets inside VPC that provide a layer of segregation between compute resources like VMs. VMs can have multiple vNICs and can be a part of more than one subnet.

When it comes to Hyperledger Fabric, think of Peer Nodes and Orderers as VMs. Channels which facilitate a common chaincode as a subnet. Nodes which are part of more than one channel (like VMs part of different subnets) facilitate cross-channel communication and are known as “Anchor Nodes”. And just like the VPC which contains all the subnets, there is a channel for managing the whole network. This is “testchainid” by default (check the config files of HF for more). To add a new Peer to the network, one simply needs to propose a transaction which would take into account the changes in the system channel configuration on the Orderer node. The transaction would be recorded and the new Peer’s addition would be added onto the ledger. The role of Membership Service Provider (MSP) comes to play here as the MSP of the new Peer is what is recorded.

Peer to the Network

First we start by logging into the development environment we created on Peer cluster. This can be done by making the kubectl point to that and then accessing the dev pod (refer to “Setting Up Pods and Volume Mounts” section ). Next we need to generate a configtx.yaml here. This config.yaml is similar to the configtx.yaml provided through the hosted code and we will only be needing till line 44 of that configtx.yaml which details Org01’s information. Once a new configtx.yaml has been derived/created, we will generate the Peer organization’s configuration as a JSON file using the configtxgen tool. Next we will need to copy it to the Azure Shell from where we will then copy it to the dev pod on Orderer Cluster. The following commands demonstrate how to do that:

configtxgen -printOrg Org01 -configPath ./ > Org01.json && exit
kubectl cp -n hlf-admin devenv:/var/hyperledger/admin/Org01.json Org01.json
az aks get-credentials –resource-group <Orderer Resource Group> –name <Orderer AKS Cluster Name> –subscription <Subscription ID>
kubectl cp -n hlf-admin Org01.json devenv:/var/hyperledger/admin/Org01.json
kubectl exec -n hlf-admin -it devenv /bin/bash

We generate a JSON of the Peer configuration and then exit to the Azure Shell. From there we copy the config of the Peer (here Org01.json) to the Azure shell. Then we get the kubectl to point at the Orderer Cluster from the Peer Cluster at step 3 and in subsequent steps copy the config to /var/hyperledger/admin in the Orderer Dev Pod. In the next steps we fetch the config of the system channel (channel name is testchainid) in a JSON file of name sys_config_block.json. In the subsequent steps we modify and save the changes onto a new file (called modified_sys_config.json).

Peer channel fetch config sys_config_block.pb -o <Replace with Orderer URL> -c testchainid –tls –cafile /var/hyperledger/admin/msp/tlscacerts/ca.crt –clientauth –certfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/cert.pem –keyfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/key.pem
configtxlator proto_decode –input sys_config_block.pb –type common.Block > sys_config_block.json
jq .data.data[0].payload.data.config sys_config_block.json > original_sys_config.json
jq -s “.[0] * {”channel_group”:{”groups”:{”Consortiums”:{”groups”: {”SampleConsortium”: {”groups”: {”Org01”:.[1]}}}}}}}” original_sys_config.json Org01.json > modified_sys_config.json

What we are doing in the above steps is essentially creating a new file which contains a modification which states that there is a new organization in the network. The “Consortium” property modification reflects that in the modified_sys_config.json. This difference between the original and the new config would be recorded in the ledger of the network. This would provide an irrefutable proof of inclusion for the Peer Organization Org01. This is what we accomplish with the following:

configtxlator proto_encode –input original_sys_config.json –type common.Config > original_sys_config.pb
configtxlator proto_encode –input modified_sys_config.json –type common.Config > modified_sys_config.pb
configtxlator compute_update –channel_id testchainid –original original_sys_config.pb  –updated modified_sys_config.pb > differed_sys_config.pb
configtxlator proto_decode –input differed_sys_config.pb –type common.ConfigUpdate > differed_sys_config.json
echo ‘{“payload”:{“header”:{“channel_header”:{“channel_id”:”testchainid”, “type”:2}},”data”:{“config_update”:’$(cat differed_sys_config.json)’}}}’ > modreqst_sys_config.json
configtxlator proto_encode –input modreqst_sys_config.json –type common.Envelope > modreqst_sys_config.pb

We calculate the difference between the two configurations using the configtxlator tool. This tool is also used to convert the JSONs to Protobufs as this is the preferred medium in HF. The difference is finally reflected as modreqst_sys_config.pb which will be used in the next command to create an update request through the Orderer (which is also technically a Peer).

Peer channel update -f modreqst_sys_config.pb -o <Orderer URL Here> -c testchainid –tls –cafile /var/hyperledger/admin/msp/tlscacerts/ca.crt –clientauth –certfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/cert.pem –keyfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/key.pem

With this, the new Organization (Org01) is now a part of the network, and almost 70% of the work is done. In the next sections we will add Org01 to our channel ch01 and then add the nodes which Org01 owns (here the Peer cluster on AKS) as a trusted component in the network.

Peer to the Channel

If we are going with the VPC analogy, then our new VM (Org01 Peer) has been turned on and included in the VPC but it is yet to be assigned a subnet. Until that point, it is virtually useless. Only after it gets a subnet would it be able to facilitate ingress and egress depending on its permissions.

Just like that we will also need to include the newly inducted Org01 into our channel ch01 that we created in our previous section. This too needs to be done from the Orderer Dev Pod. Instead of editing the config of the system channel (testchannelid) we will edit the config of our channel (ch01) and the difference between the original and the modified will be recorded as a transaction in the ledger. This will denote Org01’s inclusion in the channel. The following steps fetch the original ch01 config and store it in a JSON file for readability.

Peer channel fetch config ch01_config_block.pb -o <Orderer URL here> -c ch01 –tls –cafile /var/hyperledger/admin/msp/tlscacerts/ca.crt –clientauth –certfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/cert.pem –keyfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/key.pem
configtxlator proto_decode –input ch01_config_block.pb –type common.Block > ch01_config_block.json
jq .data.data[0].payload.data.config ch01_config_block.json > original_ch01_config.json
jq -s “.[0] * {”channel_group”:{”groups”:{”Application”:{”groups”: {”Org01”:.[1]}}}}}” original_ch01_config.json Org01.json > modified_ch01_config.json

Once we get the original config, we create a modified config which reflects Org01’s inclusion in the channel ch01 in steps 3 and 4. Just as before, we now need to have the modified configuration be accounted for by calculating the difference between the new and the old config and that too is done in the protobuf format.

configtxlator proto_encode –input original_ch01_config.json –type common.Config > original_ch01_config.pb
configtxlator proto_encode –input modified_ch01_config.json –type common.Config > modified_ch01_config.pb
configtxlator compute_update –channel_id ch01 –original original_ch01_config.pb –updated modified_ch01_config.pb > differed_ch01_config.pb
configtxlator proto_decode –input differed_ch01_config.pb –type common.ConfigUpdate > differed_ch01_config.json
echo ‘{“payload”:{“header”:{“channel_header”:{“channel_id”:”ch01″, “type”:2}},”data”:{“config_update”:’$(cat differed_ch01_config.json)’}}}’ > modreqst_ch01_config.json
configtxlator proto_encode –input modreqst_ch01_config.json –type common.Envelope > modreqst_ch01_config.pb

The above commands using the configtxlator tool should seem similar. We are literally doing the same thing here with ch01 instead of the testchainid channel. With the next command using the Peer API, the process of including the node into the channel gets completed.

Peer channel update -f modreqst_ch01_config.pb -o <Orderer URL here> -c ch01 –tls –cafile /var/hyperledger/admin/msp/tlscacerts/ca.crt –clientauth –certfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/cert.pem –keyfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/key.pem

The above command creates an update transaction which gets recorded. This update reflects the inclusion of Org01 into the channel ch01. Now all we need to do is include the nodes owned by this Peer organization into the network.

Peer to the Nodes

Previously we copied a file from Peer Dev Pod to Azure Shell and then to Orderer Dev Pod. In this case, we need to do the reverse. We need the Orderer’s TLS certificate located at devenv:/var/hyperledger/admin/msp/tlscacerts/..data/ca.crt on the Orderer Dev Pod at devenv:/var/hyperledger/admin/ca_Orderer.crt on the Peer’s Dev Pod. You may think why would we be needing this. The logic behind this is that we can use the MSP of Org01 which we quite recently enrolled into the channel ch01 but we can only connect to the channel- the node itself is not validated.

The TLS certificate from Orderer will help in that. Assuming the TLS certificate has been copied to the Peer Node, we need to retrieve the configuration of the genesis block from the Orderer. You need to provide this here while connecting to the Orderer node from the Peer with the following command:

Peer channel fetch 0 ch01_config.block -o <Orderer URL Here>-c ch01 –tls –cafile /var/hyperledger/admin/ca_Orderer.crt –clientauth –certfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/cert.pem  –keyfile /var/hyperledger/admin/tls/key.pem
Peer channel join -b ch01_config.block

And just like that the Node is now a part of the channel. The first line retrieves the channel’s genesis block configuration and stores it in a ch01_config.block file while the second uses this to let the node join the channel. Since the MSP of Org01 is already registered, this Peer node can now transact on the channel.

This concludes the construction of our Demo Network. At this point, the only thing remaining is deploying your required chaincode and invoking it when needed. In the next section we show chaincode management in this demo network. 

9- Deploying and Operating Chaincode

Once the network has been built and the nodes have been included in the channel, the process afterward is the same regardless of the cloud platform. While we are at the end of the section, it might be useful if you save the Orderer’s public URL as a ENV variable in this pod. Since this value can vary for every deployment, it is recommended to set it after pod creation.

The task of installing a chaincode has to be done from a Peer first which is supposed to operate the chaincode (here Peer node of Org01). This means you will need to first make the kubectl point to the AKS cluster of the Peer and then access the bash shell of the dev pod of the Peer. Afterward, the process of operating a chaincode is fairly simple. Provided you have set the paths in the env variables, you can use commands like:

Peer chaincode install -p <Path to the Chaincode> -n <Name of the Chaincode> -v <Version of the Chaincode (Generally start of 1.0 for every chaincode)> -l <Language the chaincode is written in> 

To install the chaincode on the Peer and then go on with the lifecycle. An interesting point to note here is that most Peer API commands have a global flag of -o which denotes the address of the Orderer. This would be the Orderer that the channel is using. In our case, the value of this flag will be the URL of the OrdererOrg.

Summary

We have now finished part 3, which concludes our article series.  At a high level, we learned how to deploy Fabric on Azure cloud platforms. We started out with a discussion on the Blockchain as a Service offerings of Azure and then moved onto demonstrating how easily the Azure Marketplace AKS offering for Fabric can be used to deploy clusters of Peers and Orderers. Further, we did a brief look at using chiancode once you have your network and nodes up and running as well as showing you how to expand the network and introduce more members in the channel after you have the initial setup done. 

Resources

Free Training Courses from The Linux Foundation & Hyperledger

Blockchain: Understanding Its Uses and Implications (LFS170)
Introduction to Hyperledger Blockchain Technologies (LFS171)
Introduction to Hyperledger Sovereign Identity Blockchain Solutions: Indy, Aries & Ursa (LFS172)
Becoming a Hyperledger Aries Developer (LFS173)
Hyperledger Sawtooth for Application Developers (LFS174)

eLearning Courses from The Linux Foundation & Hyperledger

Hyperledger Fabric Administration (LFS272)
Hyperledger Fabric for Developers (LFD272)

Certification Exams from The Linux Foundation & Hyperledger

Certified Hyperledger Fabric Administrator (CHFA)
Certified Hyperledger Fabric Developer (CHFD)

Review of Five popular Hyperledger DLTs- Fabric, Besu, Sawtooth, Iroha and Indy
Review of three Hyperledger Tools- Caliper, Cello and Avalon
Review of Four Hyperledger Libraries- Aries, Quilt, Ursa, and Transact

Hands-On Smart Contract Development with Hyperledger Fabric V2 Book by Matt Zand and others.
Essential Hyperledger Sawtooth Features for Enterprise Blockchain Developers
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Install Hyperledger Fabric on AWS
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Install and work with Hyperledger Sawtooth
Intro to Blockchain Cybersecurity (Coding Bootcamps)
Intro to Hyperledger Sawtooth for System Admins (Coding Bootcamps)
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Install Hyperledger Iroha on AWS
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Install Hyperledger Indy and Indy CLI on AWS
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Configure Hyperledger Sawtooth Validator and REST API on AWS
Intro blockchain development with Hyperledger Fabric (Coding Bootcamps)
How to build DApps with Hyperledger Fabric
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Build Transaction Processor as a Service and Python Egg for Hyperledger Sawtooth
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Create Cryptocurrency Using Hyperledger Iroha CLI
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Explore Hyperledger Indy Command Line Interface
Blockchain Developer Guide- Comprehensive Blockchain Hyperledger Developer Guide from Beginner to Advance Level
Blockchain Management in Hyperledger for System Admins
Hyperledger Fabric for Developers (Coding Bootcamps)
Free White Papers from Hyperledger
Free Webinars from Hyperledger
Hyperledger Wiki

About the Authors

Matt Zand is a serial entrepreneur and the founder of 4 tech startups: DC Web Makers, Hash Flow, Coding Bootcamps and High School Technology Services. He is a leading author of Hands-on Smart Contract Development with Hyperledger Fabric book by O’Reilly Media. He has written more than 100 technical articles and tutorials on blockchain development for Hyperledger, Ethereum and Corda R3 platforms at sites such as IBM, SAP, Alibaba Cloud, Hyperledger, The Linux Foundation, and more. At Hash Flow, he leads a team of blockchain experts for consulting and deploying enterprise decentralized applications. As chief architect, he has designed and developed blockchain courses and training programs for Coding Bootcamps. He has a master’s degree in business management from the University of Maryland. Prior to blockchain development and consulting, he worked as senior web and mobile App developer and consultant, investor, business advisor for a few startup companies. You can connect with him on LI: https://www.linkedin.com/in/matt-zand-64047871

Abhik Banerjee is a researcher, an avid reader and also an anime fan. In his free time you can find him reading whitepapers and building hobby projects ranging from DLT to Cloud Infra. He has multiple publications in International Conferences and Book Titles along with a couple of patents in Blockchain. His interests include Blockchain, Quantum Information Processing and Bioinformatics. You can connect with him on LI:  https://in.linkedin.com/in/abhik-banerjee-591081164

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Happy anniversary Enable Sysadmin

Wednesday 9th of June 2021 02:05:30 AM

Let’s celebrate two years of growth and community.
Read More at Enable Sysadmin

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Gain a New Skill This Summer With 25% Off Linux Foundation Training & Certification

Tuesday 8th of June 2021 09:15:43 PM

Summer is here, which means it’s time for summer school! Take advantage of longer days and more downtime by gaining new open source skills to advance your career prospects. With the Open Source Jobs Report finding 93% of hiring managers are having a difficult time filling positions requiring these skills, now is the time to make your move.

To help, we’re offering a 25% discount on ALL training courses, certification exams, bundled offerings and bootcamps. This includes programs exploring in-demand skills like Linux and system administration, cloud and containers, DevOps, web and application development, and more. Simply use code SUMMER25 at checkout to receive your savings.

Check out the full catalog to get started, or if you need some direction first, try taking our career quiz to figure out which career path is best for you!

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Free Course Explores Hyperledger Besu, the Open Source, Java-Based Ethereum Client

Tuesday 8th of June 2021 09:00:34 PM

Hyperledger Besu is an Ethereum client designed to be enterprise-friendly for both public and private permissioned network use cases. Accepted as a Hyperledger project in 2019, Besu is the first Hyperledger DLT that can operate on a public blockchain.

Developed under the Apache 2.0 license and written in Java, Hyperledger Besu runs on the Ethereum public network, private networks, and test networks such as Rinkeby, Ropsten, and Görli. Besu implements Proof of Work (Ethash) and Proof of Authority (IBFT 2.0 and Clique) consensus mechanisms and supports enterprise features including privacy and permissioning.

Hyperledger Besu can be used to develop enterprise applications requiring secure, high-performance transaction processing in private networks, making it applicable to many different use cases in both the public and private sectors. It is growing rapidly in popularity and adoption, which is why Hyperledger has partnered with Linux Foundation Training & Certification to develop a new, free online training course to help more individuals get started with this exciting distributed ledger technology, Hyperledger Besu Essentials: Creating a Private Blockchain Network.

The course covers how to install Hyperledger Besu, start up Hyperledger Besu for Ethereum mainnet and build a Hyperledger Besu private network. It also explores how to create a private network with privacy and send a private transaction in a private network using Tessera. This course will provide a learner with insight into how to configure and use Hyperledger Besu to do these activities. It’s perfect for experienced Developers and DevOps professionals who are interested in learning about Hyperledger Besu features and capabilities, and who are looking to expand their blockchain architecture knowledge. It will be also helpful to blockchain architects who are looking to learn more about Ethereum Virtual Machine compatible blockchains.

This course was developed by Thomas Hay, Head of Developer Relations for ConsenSys, who helps to bring the power of the blockchain to the developer community through practical tutorials and learning materials. Tom serves as an instructor for the ConsenSys Academy Blockchain Developer Program Bootcamp. He first got interested in blockchain through his work with student data and got excited about its potential in the education space, leading him on a path to join ConsenSys as a Product Manager on the Academy team. 

Enroll today and upgrade your blockchain skills!  And to get involved with the Besu community, you’re welcome to join the group’s calls and chat channel and make contributions to the project.  Learn more on the Besu wiki.

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Participate in the 2021 Open Source Jobs Report!

Tuesday 8th of June 2021 08:00:29 PM

Take the open source professionals survey

Take the hiring managers survey

The Linux Foundation has once again partnered with edX for the next iteration of our Open Source Jobs Report. The report examines the latest trends in open source careers, which skills are in demand, what motivates open source job seekers, and how employers can attract and retain top talent. This year’s report will also examine the effects of the ongoing pandemic on the industry.

The report is anchored by two surveys, one of which explores what hiring managers are looking for in employees, and one focused on what motivates open source professionals. Ten respondents to each survey (twenty in total) will be randomly selected to receive a US$150 gift card to the new Linux Foundation online store as a thank you for participating!

We encourage you to share your thoughts and experiences. The surveys take around 10 minutes to complete, and all data is collected anonymously. Links to the surveys are at the top and bottom of this post.

Take the open source professionals survey

Take the hiring managers survey

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TransTech Social and Linux Foundation Training & Certification Partner to Award Technology Training Scholarships

Monday 7th of June 2021 09:00:42 PM

We’re proud to announce that we are partnering with TransTech Social Enterprises, an incubator for LGBTQ talent with a focus on economically empowering the T, transgender people, to provide scholarships to promising individuals to help them get started working with open source software. 

TransTech will award 50 scholarships per quarter to deserving individuals, with Linux Foundation Training & Certification providing each of these recipients with a voucher to register for any Linux Foundation eLearning course and certification exam at no charge, such as the Linux Foundation Certified IT Associate, Certified Kubernetes Administrator, Open.js Node.js Certified Application Developer, and more. 

Linux Foundation Training & Certification offers dozens of training courses and certification exams around open source technologies that serve as the infrastructure for the modern world. From Linux which powers all the world’s supercomputers and the vast majority of mobile phones and the internet itself, to Node.js which is one of the most popular frameworks for developing web applications, to Kubernetes which has become essential to anyone working with cloud systems, learning these technologies can open countless doors to lucrative career opportunities.

“We know how difficult it can be to get started in the technology field, especially coming from an underrepresented community where you don’t see many people like you front and center in technology roles,” said Linux Foundation SVP & GM of Training & Certification Clyde Seepersad. “We are excited to work with TransTech to lower the barrier to entry and help hundreds of individuals this year figure out where to start. We look forward to seeing where the scholarship recipients take their open source careers, and hope they will inspire more members of the LGBTQ community to consider entering the tech sector.”

About TransTech: At TransTech, we’ve created a space for trans people to come together, work together, laugh together, go to lunch together. There’s strength in numbers. They’re building networks, and down the line they’ll think of each other when it comes to jobs.

Those interested in applying for a TransTech/Linux Foundation scholarship can do so here.

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Build and Deploy Hyperledger Fabric on Azure Cloud Platform- Part 2

Friday 4th of June 2021 09:00:08 PM

By Matt Zand and Abhik Banerjee

Recap

The first part of our article series discussed the Azure cloud platform offering for blockchain development, as well as differences between Azure marketplace template and manual configuration. We also took our first step toward building Hyperledger Fabric blockchain applications on Azure by deploying Orderer and Peer organizations. We continue our journey by covering how to set up the development environment, configure Orderer and Peer, and setting pods and volume mounts for our Fabric application in this article. 

In this next article, we cover the following:

Create a Channel
Adding Peer to Network, Channel and Nodes
Deploying and Operating Chaincode

It should be noted that while this article is intended to be beginner friendly, it would be helpful to have prior familiarity with Azure, Kubernetes APIs, and Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS). Also, a good knowledge of Hyperledger Fabric and its components is required to follow steps discussed in this article. The topics and steps covered in this article are very useful for those interested in doing blockchain consulting and development

4- Setting Up the Development Environment

In this section we will see how a development environment can be set up for Node related activities. We will be using Azure Shell (Bash) for this task. Before we install Hyperledger Fabric, we need to make sure that it has the prerequisites in place. This includes the programming language of the chaincode, Docker, and JQ. Azure Shell should have Docker installed already so we can just install Go (our preferred language here) and JQ. Be sure to set the GOPATH, PATH and GOROOT env variables otherwise Go won’t function properly. Follow the commands below if you are unsure.

wget https://dl.google.com/go/go1.12.17.linux-amd64.tar.gz -O /tmp/go1.12.17.linux-amd64.tar.gz
tar -C /usr/local -xzf /tmp/go1.12.17.linux-amd64.tar.gz
export PATH=/usr/local/go/bin:$PATH
export GOROOT=/usr/local/go
export GOPATH=$PWD

The first two commands will install Go in /usr/local directory and the path to it will be set in the third. GOROOT and GOPATH are essential to compile Go Programs and set in consecutive lines. While on a local PC you might put it in ~/.bashrc file, Azure Shell provides ephemeral storage so it will be gone after some time. There’s a way to make this permanent by using Docker containers as we will see in this section. In the next steps we install Hyperledger Fabric by downloading the Hyperledger binaries from its GitHub Repo and place it in /usr/local.

mkdir /usr/local/hyperledger
cd /usr/local/hyperledger
curl -sSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/hyperledger/fabric/master/scripts/bootstrap.sh | sudo bash -s — 1.4.4 1.4.4 0.4.18 -d -s
export PATH=/usr/local/hyperledger/bin:$PATH

As a last step we set the PATH env variable to point also to the /usr/local/hyperledger directory so we can easily invoke commands without always setting a path to the binary of that command. Before we proceed, it might be wise to create a Docker image. This would be really helpful for developing without always having to start from ground zero when you are developing inside the Orderer and Peer Clusters (you might want to refer to 5.1 and 5.2 to understand why we are also including extra files for config of Orderer and Peer organization). We encourage you to create a Dockerfile and then an image. You can publish this image to dockerhub (or Azure Container Registry if you are an expert in Azure) and use it in our upcoming sections.

5- Setting Up Configurations for Orderer and Peer

In this section we will be setting up the configuration for development on the cluster pods. You might think at this point “why would we require development on the pods when we already have deployed the cluster with required information?” The thing is these clusters of Orderers and Peer Organization are not connected as we mentioned in the previous section. Furthermore, we may require to deploy specific chaincode on Peer as we will see in the upcoming sections on chaincode management. For these reasons, it is helpful to have a dev env inside the cluster.

Orderer Setup

Next step to take at this point is to have our custom setup for Orderer. This setup has been derived from the sample setup available from the Hyperledger Fabric Test Network. It helps us to avoid writing out a YAML config for the Orderer from scratch. It will also be helpful for our development environment. It may be noted here that the configuration that we are going to use here serves our purpose for a demo. If you want a production environment, please use a different and more refined configuration as per your needs. The Orderer Config file used for this deployment has been provided in the code section associated with the book filename Orderer.yaml at the hosted link.

Peer Setup

To set up the Peer, the core.yaml file provided with the book’s hosted code can be used. The configuration file contains the configuration needed to make sure the Orderer can locate and communicate with the node cluster associated with Org01. You may notice that this YAML file contains sections for Peer, Chaincode, and Ledger among other sections. These are used for defining properties of the Peer, chaincode and the type of database that will be used as the ledger respectively. At the time of writing the third section supports “goleveldb” and “CouchDB” options.

You can copy the configtx.yaml, Orderer.yaml and core.yaml files to the Azure Shell by uploading them to the directory of your choice in the shell. This will be a step you might want to remember since this location will be used in the next section.

Creating a Docker Image for Dev Pods

Before we proceed further, it would be beneficial to create a Docker image out of the instructions we have executed thus far. This Docker image could be used to spin up pods which would provide an easy development environment with Hyperledger Fabric Binaries already included. As we will see in the next section, we shall use this image as the base image for volume mount related configs.

The Dockerfile provided with the hosted code section will help you create an image. The image will be based on Ubuntu 18.04 since that is the latest version HF supports at this time. Up to line number 22, the steps should seem familiar as we install Go, JQ, Hyperledger Fabric (from the repo) and set the respective paths. At lines 24 and 25, we copy our custom config and then in the last line we set the value of env variable FABRIC_CFG_PATH to /etc/hyperledger/fabric (the directory we copy the files to). Publish this image to Dockerhub.

6- Setting Up Pods and Volume Mounts for Development

Before we go and create a channel and make the Orderer and Peer organization join up, we need to finish up one final detail – creating proper volume mounts for our development pods. In the previous steps we have created a base image which the pods will be made from. Now to let the pods actually communicate with the cluster we need it to access the secret volumes which store the security keys in the respective clusters. This can be easily done by introducing a YAML file for each of the cluster types.

The table below tells of the secret mounting volumes we need the pods to know of and use. It may be noted here that these volumes would be separate for Peer and Orderer clusters and so will contain different values and are automatically created when the clusters were created on AKS. However, we only need to have these mounted onto the pod.

Secret
Mount

hlf-admin-idcert
/var/hyperledger/admin/msp/admincerts

/var/hyperledger/admin/msp/signcerts

hlf-ca-idcert
/var/hyperledger/admin/msp/cacerts

hlf-admin-idkey
/var/hyperledger/admin/msp/keystore

hlf-tlsca-idcert
/var/hyperledger/admin/msp/tlscacerts

hlf-admin-tls-idkey
/var/hyperledger/admin/tls

hlf-admin-tls-idcert
/var/hyperledger/admin/tls

You may use the dev_pod.yaml for this purpose. Please note that this YAML file is mostly the same for Orderer and Peer pods in respective clusters. It sets the volume mounts and environment variables required by the pod for proper development. The YAML sets required env variables for adding new nodes into a channel among others.

The file also needs some modification at your end. The lines 33 and 76 through 79 have been commented out. The former is where you need to place the name of your image that you built in the previous section while the latter section contains pod type specific details like name of the organization and the URL of the cluster.

The pods can be created by the following steps:

az aks get-credentials –resource-group <Resource Group Name> –name <Cluster Name> –subscription <Azure Subscription ID>

kubectl -n hlf-admin apply -f ./dev_pod.yaml

The first command when executed in the Azure Shell tells the kubectl to point towards the cluster specified by it. In the next step we provide the YAML in the hlf-admin namespace in that cluster. The first command would contain Orderer and Peer specific values for Resource Group and Cluster names (here these are RG-HLF-AzureOrd & RG-HLF-AzureOrg for resource groups and OrdererOrg and Org01 respectively). Once the pods are provisioned, you can access them by:

kubectl exec -n hlf-admin -it devenv /bin/bash

This will give you the bash shell inside the development pod of the cluster to which kubectl is currently pointing to.

Summary

We finished the second part of our article series where we covered how to set up the development environment, configure the Orderer and Peer, and setting pods and volume mounts for our Fabric application. 

In our next and final article in this series, we will build on top of what we finished in this article. Specifically, we will create a channel, add a Peer to network, channel and nodes. At the last and final step, we will show you how to deploy and operate Fabric chaincode on Azure. 

Resources

Free Training Courses from The Linux Foundation & Hyperledger

Blockchain: Understanding Its Uses and Implications (LFS170)
Introduction to Hyperledger Blockchain Technologies (LFS171)
Introduction to Hyperledger Sovereign Identity Blockchain Solutions: Indy, Aries & Ursa (LFS172)
Becoming a Hyperledger Aries Developer (LFS173)
Hyperledger Sawtooth for Application Developers (LFS174)

eLearning Courses from The Linux Foundation & Hyperledger

Hyperledger Fabric Administration (LFS272)
Hyperledger Fabric for Developers (LFD272)

Certification Exams from The Linux Foundation & Hyperledger

Certified Hyperledger Fabric Administrator (CHFA)
Certified Hyperledger Fabric Developer (CHFD)

Review of Five popular Hyperledger DLTs- Fabric, Besu, Sawtooth, Iroha and Indy
Review of three Hyperledger Tools- Caliper, Cello and Avalon
Review of Four Hyperledger Libraries- Aries, Quilt, Ursa, and Transact
Hands-On Smart Contract Development with Hyperledger Fabric V2 Book by Matt Zand and others.
Essential Hyperledger Sawtooth Features for Enterprise Blockchain Developers
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Install Hyperledger Fabric on AWS
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Install and work with Hyperledger Sawtooth
Intro to Blockchain Cybersecurity (Coding Bootcamps)
Intro to Hyperledger Sawtooth for System Admins (Coding Bootcamps)
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Install Hyperledger Iroha on AWS
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Install Hyperledger Indy and Indy CLI on AWS
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Configure Hyperledger Sawtooth Validator and REST API on AWS
Intro blockchain development with Hyperledger Fabric (Coding Bootcamps)
How to build DApps with Hyperledger Fabric
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Build Transaction Processor as a Service and Python Egg for Hyperledger Sawtooth
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Create Cryptocurrency Using Hyperledger Iroha CLI
Blockchain Developer Guide- How to Explore Hyperledger Indy Command Line Interface
Blockchain Developer Guide- Comprehensive Blockchain Hyperledger Developer Guide from Beginner to Advance Level
Blockchain Management in Hyperledger for System Admins
Hyperledger Fabric for Developers (Coding Bootcamps)
Free White Papers from Hyperledger
Free Webinars from Hyperledger
Hyperledger Wiki

About the Authors

Matt Zand is a serial entrepreneur and the founder of 4 tech startups: DC Web Makers, Hash Flow, Coding Bootcamps and High School Technology Services. He is a leading author of Hands-on Smart Contract Development with Hyperledger Fabric book by O’Reilly Media. He has written more than 100 technical articles and tutorials on blockchain development for Hyperledger, Ethereum and Corda R3 platforms at sites such as IBM, SAP, Alibaba Cloud, Hyperledger, The Linux Foundation, and more. At Hash Flow, he leads a team of blockchain experts for consulting and deploying enterprise decentralized applications. As chief architect, he has designed and developed blockchain courses and training programs for Coding Bootcamps. He has a master’s degree in business management from the University of Maryland. Prior to blockchain development and consulting, he worked as senior web and mobile App developer and consultant, investor, business advisor for a few startup companies. You can connect with him on LI: https://www.linkedin.com/in/matt-zand-64047871

Abhik Banerjee is a researcher, an avid reader and also an anime fan. In his free time you can find him reading whitepapers and building hobby projects ranging from DLT to Cloud Infra. He has multiple publications in International Conferences and Book Titles along with a couple of patents in Blockchain. His interests include Blockchain, Quantum Information Processing and Bioinformatics. You can connect with him on LI:  https://in.linkedin.com/in/abhik-banerjee-591081164

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The Zephyr Project Celebrates 5th Anniversary with new members and inaugural Zephyr Developer Summit on June 8-10

Thursday 3rd of June 2021 10:00:00 PM

AVSystem, Golioth, Pat-Eta Electronics, RISC-V International and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden joins Zephyr’s global open source RTOS ecosystem

SAN FRANCISCO, June 3, 2021 The Zephyr Project,an open source project at the Linux Foundation that builds a safe, secure and flexible real-time operating system (RTOS) for resource-constrained devices, continues to gain momentum with its 5th anniversary this year. To celebrate the milestone, the Zephyr Project is hosting its inaugural Zephyr Developer Summit on June 8-10. The virtual event, which is free to attend, features several Zephyr leaders presenting real-world use cases, best practices, tutorials and more.

Happy 5th Anniversary

Launched in 2016 by the Linux Foundation, the Zephyr Project has continued to grow its technical community each year. Today, almost 1,000 contributors have helped the project surpass 50,000 commits building advanced support for multiple architectures such as ARC, Arm, Intel, Nios, RISC-V, SPARC and Tensilica and more than 250 boards.

The first-ever Zephyr Developer Summit will offer community members a chance to learn more about the fastest growing RTOS in an informal educational environment.

“We are kicking off our first Developer Summit with an impressive line-up of Zephyr thought leaders and ambassadors for the growing Zephyr community of contributors and users.” said Joel Stapleton, Chair of the Zephyr Project Governing Board and Principal Engineer Manager at Nordic Semiconductor. “The strength of engagement the project has with its members and IoT solution providers reflects the importance of open source efforts to build secure and safe embedded technologies for increasingly connected applications in industrial, smart home, wearables and energy; and for computing platforms integrating microcontrollers with ever-increasing capabilities and functions.”

Sample summit sessions include power management, USB support, motor control; user presentations that showcase Zephyr with Renode and TensorFlow Lite and  RISC-V and contributor spotlights for securing MCUBoot, using OPC UA, energy-efficient device testing and developing hardware. Proposals were reviewed by the Programming Committee, which includes Anas Nashif, Intel; Carles Cufi, Nordic Semiconductor; Jonathan Beri, Golioth; Keith Short, Google; Maureen Helm, NXP; and Olof Johansson, Facebook. To see the complete schedule, click here. The registration deadline is June 4, click here to register.

The U.S. Executive Order on Cybersecurity

Less than a month ago, the United States White House released an Executive Order on Improving the Nation’s Cybersecurity that addressed the malicious cyber attacks that have become more frequent in the last few years. In a blog, the Linux Foundation responded how Zephyr RTOS, along with several other projects, has already built some of the support needed for a more secure future. Zephyr is able to generate Software Bill of Materials (SBOMs) automatically during the build and this capability will be available in the upcoming 2.6 release. It is one of the few open source projects that is a CVE Numbering Authority(CNA) and has an active Project Security Incident Response Team(PSIRT) that manages responsible disclosure of vulnerabilities to product makers. 

Product creators using zephyr can sign up for free to be notified of vulnerabilities.  

“SBOMs can communicate details about a software package’s contents, being able to understand exactly which source files are included in a resource constrained software image is key to understanding if it may be vulnerable to an exploit,” said Kate Stewart, Vice President of Dependable Embedded Systems at the Linux Foundation. “SBOMs created by manual processes can often be incomplete, incorrect or out-of-date as a software package advances. By being able to generate the SBOM during the build, and take it to the source file level, not just the component level, better diagnosis and detection of vulnerable states is possible and addresses some of the best practices  mentioned in the EO. Zephyr is being used today in thousands of wearables and other products with constrained environments. By automatically creating SBOMs during builds, the development process becomes easier, more efficient and improves maintainability in field.”

Zephyr’s Growing Ecosystem

Today, the Zephyr Project also welcomes AVSystem, Golioth, Pat-Eta Electronics, RISC-V and RISE Research Institutes of Sweden to its global RTOS ecosystem. These new members join Adafruit, Antmicro, BayLibre, Eclipse Foundation, Facebook, Fiware, Foundries.io, Google, Intel, Laird Connectivity, Linaro, Memfault, Nordic Semiconductor, NXP, Oticon, Parasoft, SiFive, Synopsys and teenage engineering, among others.

“We see amazing opportunities for IoT deployments involving resource-constrained devices operating in cellular LPWA networks,” said Marcin Nagy, Product Director for IoT, AVSystem. “We are sure that combining the Zephyr RTOS with our expertise in the Lightweight M2M standard will contribute to the acceleration of secure and standards-based IoT launches.”

“We can speak at length about the technical merits of Zephyr – the kernel design, native networking, scalable board support model and so on – but the largest differentiator is the community,” says Jonathan Beri, CEO of Golioth. “From chipset vendors to ecosystem players, it feels like we’re rising the tide for everyone to make the most secure & reliable open source RTOS in the market and we couldn’t be more excited to contribute to the project and community.”

“We are happy to be part of the Zephyr Project and hope to bring it more into the academic environment, especially within STEM (Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics),” said Sanyaade Adekoya, Developer, Programmer and Lecturer at Pat-Eta Electronics. “It has been challenging to bring RTOSes within the academic research sector and getting them in the hands of undergraduate learners. Our research extends the use of Zephyr RTOS in IoT, Edge Computing, Robotics, Smart and Wearable devices. The Zephyr Project will be a driving platform for our students that will make it easier for them to create ideas, projects, innovations and more. We look forward to showcasing our students’ Zephyr-related projects. ”

“RISC-V and Zephyr were both designed to drive innovation in the hardware space with open source technologies that are accessible to everyone,” said Mark Himelstein, CTO of RISC-V. “Many of our members are already taking advantage of the flexibility of RISC-V and Zephyr to design end-to-end open source solutions for resource-constrained devices. We look forward to collaborating with the Zephyr Project to offer even more opportunities for the open source community to innovate.”

“Zephyr RTOS enables us to rapidly prototype Thread wireless networks and is an excellent research platform for our work in IoT security,” said Samuel Lindemer, Research Engineer at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. “The interactive shell and configuration menu make it intuitive for new users, and the open-source community support is unparalleled.”

To learn more about Zephyr RTOS, visit the Zephyr website and blog.

About the Zephyr Project

The Zephyr Project is a small, scalable real-time operating system for use on resource-constrained systems supporting multiple architectures. To learn more, please visit www.zephyrproject.org.

About the Linux Foundation

Founded in 2000, the Linux Foundation is supported by more than 1,000 members and is the world’s leading home for collaboration on open source software, open standards, open data, and open hardware. Linux Foundation’s projects are critical to the world’s infrastructure including Linux, Kubernetes, Node.js, and more.  The Linux Foundation’s methodology focuses on leveraging best practices and addressing the needs of contributors, users and solution providers to create sustainable models for open collaboration. For more information, please visit us at linuxfoundation.org.

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Interview with Daniel Scales, Chief Brand Counsel, Linux Foundation

Thursday 3rd of June 2021 08:00:00 PM

Jason Perlow, Director of Project Insights and Editorial Content at the Linux Foundation, spoke with Daniel Scales about the importance of protecting trademarks in open source projects.

JP: It’s great to have you here today, and also, welcome to the Linux Foundation. First, can you tell me a bit about yourself, where you are from, and your interests outside work?

DS: Thanks, Jason! It is great to be here. I grew up in Upstate New York, lived in Washington and London for a few years after college, and have been in Boston for the last 20+ years. Outside of work, I coach my daughter’s soccer team, I like to cook and play my bass guitar, and I am really looking forward to getting back to some live music and sporting events. 

JP: And from what organization are you joining us?

DS: I have been with the Boston law firm Choate, Hall & Stewart since 2011. In addition to advising The Linux Foundation and other clients on trademark matters, I helped clients with open source license questions, technology licenses, and IP-focused transactions.  Before Choate, I worked as IP Counsel at Avid Technology, where I managed their trademark portfolio through a global rebranding and supported the engineering team on technology licenses. 

JP: So, how did you get into Intellectual Property law?

DS: Great question.  I studied economics in college and took a fantastic senior seminar on the economics of intellectual property.  After graduation, I worked in the economics consulting group at Ernst & Young.  A big part of my job there was determining the value of a company’s intangible property, which in many cases were its brands. I went to law school intending to study trademarks and the new field of “internet law” (this term probably dates me) and started my legal career at Testa, Hurwitz & Thibeault, which had a cutting-edge trademark and open source group.

JP: We typically think of IP and Trademark law as it applies to consumer products and commercial entities. What is the difference between those and when open source projects and organizations use brands?

DS:  On one level, there really isn’t a difference.  A trademark signifies the unique source of a good or service. Trademarks help consumers, developers, and users distinguish various offerings, and they communicate the specific source and quality of those offerings.  Software developers and users need to understand what code they have and where it came from. Trademarks help communicate that information.  Of course, the specific issues that every brand and brand owner faces and how they address them are different, but many of the core principles are the same.

JP: What are some of the trademark issues you’ve seen come up in open source communities?

DS: While it happens in every industry, I see many “helpful” people apply to register projects’ trademarks when they are not the rightful owner.  Sometimes they have good intentions, sometimes not, but it can be a lot of work to sort it out either way.  I’ve also had the opportunity to work with many different people and companies on project branding. It is amazing how many different philosophies there are regarding branding, even within the software industry.  Much of what we do is to bring these folks together to determine the best approach for the specific project.  I also spend a lot of time debating the scope of trademark rights with opposing counsel, but that isn’t really unique to open source:  one lawyer tried to convince me that his client had the exclusive right to use a picture of a hop flower on a beer label. 

Other common issues are helping companies register a mark for their company or product and then used the same mark for an open source project. The neutrality of those situations is imbalanced, and the Linux Foundation has worked with organizations making this transition. Sometimes it involves rebranding the open source project, and we assist in finding and clearing a new name for the community to use independent of the company that started it.

JP: Why is the Linux Foundation a good place for open source projects to protect their brands?

DS: We have worked with many open source projects on their trademarks, and we learn something with every new experience.  We can help them name the project at the beginning, take steps to protect their trademarks across the globe, and show them how trademarks can be a tool to build their communities and increase participation and adoption.  We also recognize the importance of our neutral position in the industries we serve and how that is fundamental to open governance.

Also Read: Open Source Communities and Trademarks: A Reprise

JP: Trademark conformance can also protect a project from technical drift. How can a trademark conformance program be used to encourage conformance with a project’s code base or interfaces? 

DS: Great point. As in most areas of trademarks, clarity and consistency are key. Trademarks used in a conformance program can be a great tool to communicate quickly and accurately to the target community.  Projects can develop specific and transparent criteria so that users understand exactly what the conformance trademark symbolizes.  This can be much more effective and efficient for projects and users alike than everyone deciding for themselves what a term like “compatible” might mean.  

Also Read: Driving Compatibility with Code and Specifications through Conformance Trademark Programs

JP: Do projects at the Linux Foundation give up all control of their trademark? How do you decide what enforcement to pursue or not pursue?

DS: On the contrary — we work very closely with project leadership throughout the lifecycle of their trademarks.  This includes trademark enforcement.  Typically, the first step is to figure out whether the situation requires enforcement (in the traditional legal sense) or if it is simply a matter of educating another party.  More often than not, we can reach out to the other party, discuss our project and our trademarks, discuss our concerns, and work out a solution that works for everyone and strengthens our brands.  But like any brand owner, we do sometimes have to take other action to protect our projects’ trademarks, and we work closely with our projects in those situations, too.

JP: Thanks, Daniel. It’s been great talking to you today!

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Linux Foundation Kubernetes Certifications Now Include Exam Simulator

Wednesday 2nd of June 2021 09:00:49 PM

 New tool will enable those registered for a certification exam to experience the test environment before sitting for their exam

 SAN FRANCISCO, June 2, 2021 – The Linux Foundation, the nonprofit organization enabling mass innovation through open source, and the Cloud Native Computing Foundation® (CNCF®), which builds sustainable ecosystems for cloud native software, have announced that their three Kubernetes certification exams will now include access to an exam simulator, enabling those registered for an exam to experience the exam environment before actually sitting for the exam. 

Those registered for the Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA), Certified Kubernetes Application Developer (CKAD), and Certified Kubernetes Security Specialist (CKS) exams will have access to two attempts, provided by Killer.sh. Each attempt grants 36 hours of access starting from the time of activation. The exam simulations include 20-25 questions similar to the ones candidates can expect to encounter on the real exam. 

The questions presented in the simulator are the same for every attempt and every user, unlike those found on the actual exams, but are graded to give candidates an idea of how they are performing. The expectation is this offering will help candidates become comfortable and familiar with the environment in which they will sit for their certification.

“We have heard from the community that it can be stressful to jump into a certification exam without knowing exactly what to expect, especially one that is performance-based and simulates real world environments and problems,” said Chris Anisczcyk, CTO of CNCF. “Providing this exam simulator will ensure candidates know what to expect going into their exam, helping to ensure they are being tested on their skills without an environmental learning curve.”

Anyone who registers for CKA, CKAD, or CKS beginning today will have immediate access to the simulator. Individuals who have an existing, non-expired registration for one of these exams who have not yet sat for both of their two exam attempts will receive access on a rolling basis – beginning with those who have the earliest registration expiration dates – as follows:

June 02, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 1 month of June 2, 2021
June 08, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 2 months of June 02, 2021
June 15, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 3 months of June 02, 2021
June 22, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 4 months of June 02, 2021
June 29, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 5 months of June 02, 2021
July 06, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 6 months of June 02, 2021
July 13, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 7 months of June 02, 2021
July 20, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 8 months of June 02, 2021
July 27, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 9 months of June 02, 2021
Aug 03, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 10 months of June 02, 2021
Aug 10, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 11 months of June 02, 2021
Aug 17, 2021 – All open eligibilities expiring within 12 months of June 02, 2021

About Cloud Native Computing Foundation

Cloud native computing empowers organizations to build and run scalable applications with an open source software stack in public, private, and hybrid clouds. The Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) hosts critical components of the global technology infrastructure, including Kubernetes, Prometheus, and Envoy. CNCF brings together the industry’s top developers, end users, and vendors, and runs the largest open source developer conferences in the world. Supported by more than 500 members, including the world’s largest cloud computing and software companies, as well as over 200 innovative startups, CNCF is part of the nonprofit Linux Foundation. For more information, please visit www.cncf.io

About the Linux Foundation

Founded in 2000, the Linux Foundation is supported by more than 1,000 members and is the world’s leading home for collaboration on open source software, open standards, open data, and open hardware. Linux Foundation’s projects are critical to the world’s infrastructure including Linux, Kubernetes, Node.js, and more. The Linux Foundation’s methodology focuses on leveraging best practices and addressing the needs of contributors, users and solution providers to create sustainable models for open collaboration. For more information, please visit us at linuxfoundation.org.

The Linux Foundation has registered trademarks and uses trademarks. For a list of trademarks of The Linux Foundation, please see its trademark usage page: www.linuxfoundation.org/trademark-usage. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.

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Attached – Preview of the Kubernetes Certification Exam Environment:

The post Linux Foundation Kubernetes Certifications Now Include Exam Simulator appeared first on Linux Foundation – Training.

The post Linux Foundation Kubernetes Certifications Now Include Exam Simulator appeared first on Linux.com.

Enable Sysadmin’s May 2021 top 10 Linux article round-up

Wednesday 2nd of June 2021 05:11:11 AM

Check out our ten most-read articles from the month of May
Read More at Enable Sysadmin

The post Enable Sysadmin’s May 2021 top 10 Linux article round-up appeared first on Linux.com.

Super Blueprints Integrate the 5G Open Source Stack from Core to Door

Tuesday 1st of June 2021 10:03:30 PM

There is an exciting convergence in the networking industry around open source, and the energy is palpable. At LF Networking, we have a unique perspective as the largest open source initiative in the networking space with the broadest set of projects that make up the diverse and evolving open source networking stack. LF Networking provides platforms and building blocks across the networking industry that enable rapid interoperability, deployment, and adoption and is the nexus for 5G innovation and integration. 

LF Networking has now tapped confluence on industry efforts to structure a new initiative to develop 5G Super Blueprints for the ecosystem. Major integrations between the building blocks are now underway–between ONAP and ORAN, Akraino and Magma, Anuket and Kubernetes, and more. 

“Super” means that we’re integrating multiple projects, umbrellas (such as LF Edge, Magma, CNCF, O-RAN Alliance, LF Energy, and more) with an end-to-end framework for the underlying infrastructure and application layers across edge, access, and core. This end-to-end integration enables top industry use cases, such as fixed wireless, mobile broadband, private 5G, multi-access, IoT, voice services, network slicing, and more. In short, 5G Super Blueprints are a vehicle to collaborate and create end-to-end 5G solutions.

Major industry verticals banking on this convergence and roadmap include the global telcos that you’d expect, but 5G knows no boundaries, and we’re seeing deep engagement from cloud service providers, enterprise IT, governments, and even energy.

5G is poised to modernize today’s energy grid with awareness monitoring across Distribution Systems and more.

This will roll out in 3 phases, the first encompassing 5G Core + Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) using emulators. The second phase introduces commercial RANs to end-to-end 5G, and the third phase will integrate Open Radio Access Network (O-RAN). 

The 5G Super Blueprint is an open initiative, and participation is open to anyone. To learn more, please see the 5G Super Blueprint FAQ and watch the video, What is the 5G Super Blueprint? from Next Gen Infra

Participation in this group has tripled over the last few weeks! If you’re ready to join us, please indicate your interest in participation on the 5G Super Blueprint webpage, and follow the onboarding steps on the 5G Super Blueprint Wiki. Send any questions to superblueprint@lfnetworking.org

The post Super Blueprints Integrate the 5G Open Source Stack from Core to Door appeared first on Linux Foundation.

The post Super Blueprints Integrate the 5G Open Source Stack from Core to Door appeared first on Linux.com.

Exploring ARM64 runtime patching alternatives

Tuesday 1st of June 2021 10:00:00 PM

An overview on utliizing the Linux Alternatives Framework to perform runtime kernel patching.
Click to Read More at Oracle Linux Kernel Development

The post Exploring ARM64 runtime patching alternatives appeared first on Linux.com.

Learn About Magma, the Open Source Project Bringing High Speed Internet to Remote Areas, in This Free Course

Tuesday 1st of June 2021 09:00:11 PM

Magma is an open source project supporting diverse radio technologies, including LTE, 5G and WiFi, which can help extend network access into remote, sparsely populated areas. It helps connect the world to a faster network by providing operators an open, flexible, and extendable mobile core network solution. Its operational simplicity and lower cost structure also empower innovators to build fixed and mobile wireless networks never previously imagined.

Magma has already been deployed in production environments. Muralnet, for example, is using Magma to extend network access to Native American communities, while Brisanet has similarly deployed it into remote areas of Brazil. With high speed internet access having huge impacts on regions’ economic fortunes, Magma has the potential to be a game changer around the world.

However, as a relatively new technology, there are not enough individuals with expertise in Magma at present. That’s why Linux Foundation Training & Certification and the Magma Core Foundation have partnered to develop a free, online training course to help technology strategists and decision makers at telcos – as well as rural ISP operators and systems integrators – learn the fundamentals of Magma.

Introduction to Magma: Cloud Native Wireless Networking is designed to provide an understanding of the overall Magma architecture and how it fits into the bigger picture of cellular network architectures, particularly 4G/LTE and 5G. Participants will learn to recognize and understand the main functions of a mobile wireless network, understand the key use cases and value proposition of Magma, the overall architecture of Magma at a functional block level, and the functions performed by each of the main Magma components (Access Gateway, Federation Gateway, and Orchestrator). The course will also provide resources to learn to deploy Magma on standard hardware.

The course was developed by Bruce Davie and Larry Peterson. Davie is a computer scientist noted for his contributions to the field of networking who has served in senior roles at VMware, Software Defined Networking (SDN) startup Nicira, and Cisco. He has over 30 years of networking industry experience. Peterson is the Robert E. Kahn Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus at Princeton University, where he served as Chair from 2003-2009. His research focuses on the design, implementation, and operation of Internet-scale distributed systems, including the widely used PlanetLab and MeasurementLab platforms. 

With Magma adoption still in relatively early stages, now is the time for telco and networking professionals to begin learning about this exciting technology. Enroll today!

The post Learn About Magma, the Open Source Project Bringing High Speed Internet to Remote Areas, in This Free Course appeared first on Linux Foundation – Training.

The post Learn About Magma, the Open Source Project Bringing High Speed Internet to Remote Areas, in This Free Course appeared first on Linux.com.

More in Tux Machines

Kernel: Graphics and Linux M1 Support

  • AMD + Valve Focusing On P-State / CPPC Driver With Schedutil For Better Linux Efficiency - Phoronix

    As reported at the start of August, AMD and Valve have been working on Linux CPU performance/frequency scaling improvements with the Steam Deck being one of the leading motivators. As speculated at that time, their work would likely revolve around use of ACPI CPPC found with Zen 2 CPUs and newer. Published last week was that AMD P-State driver for Linux systems indeed now leveraging CPPC information. AMD formally presented this new driver yesterday at XDC2021.

  • DRM Driver Posted For AI Processing Unit - Initially Focused On Mediatek SoCs - Phoronix

    BayLibre developer Alexandre Bailon has posted a "request for comments" of a new open-source Direct Rendering Manager (DRM) driver for AI Processing Unit (APU) functionality. Initially the driver is catering to Mediatek SoCs with an AI co-processor but this DRM "APU" driver could be adapted to other hardware too. Alexandre Bailon sums up this DRM AI Processing Unit driver as "a DRM driver that implements communication between the CPU and an APU. This uses VirtIO buffer to exchange messages. For the data, we allocate a GEM object and map it using IOMMU to make it available to the APU. The driver is relatively generic, and should work with any SoC implementing hardware accelerator for AI if they use support remoteproc and VirtIO."

  • Apple M1 USB Type-C Linux Support Code Sent Out For Testing - Phoronix

    he latest patches sent out for review/testing on the long mission for enabling Apple M1 support on Linux is the USB Type-C connectivity. Sven Peter has sent out the initial USB Type-C enablement work for the Apple ACE1/2 chips used by Apple M1 systems. In turn this Apple design is based on the TI TPS6598x IP but various differences. The Linux kernel support is being added onto the existing TIPD driver.

Proprietary Security Issues

Audiocasts/Videos: GNU World Order, Sioyek, LUTs

today's howtos

  • How to Install VirtualBox on Debian 11 (Bullseye)

    As we all know that VirtualBox is a free virtualization tool which allows us to install and run multiple virtual machines of different distributions at the same time. VirtualBox is generally used at desktop level where geeks used to create test environment inside the virtual machines. Recently Debian 11 (bullseye) is released with latest updates and improved features. In this post, we will cover how to install VirtualBox and its extension pack on Debian 11 system.

  • How To Install Opera Browser on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Opera Browser on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, Opera is one of the most popular cross-platform web browsers in the world. Opera offers many useful features such as free VPN, AdBlocker, integrated messengers, and private mode help you browse securely and smoothly. Share files instantly between your desktop and mobile browsers and experience web 3.0 with a free crypto wallet. This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of Opera Web Browser on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • Get your Own URL Shortening Service With YOURLS and Raspberry PI

    Online URL shortening are services able to transform a long, hard to manage url into a shorter one, usually composed by a domain ana a short casual string (the most famous being Bitly, Adfly and Shortest). With YOURLS and Raspberry PI you can create your own, private shortening service In this tutorial, I’m going to show you how to install and configure YOURLS with a Raspberry PI computer board and publish it. Please note that this can’t be performed with a Raspberry PI Pico as it is a microncotroller and not a Linux computer. YOURLS stands for Your Own URL Shortener. It is an open source software, running on a LAMP server and using a small set of PHP scripts that allow you to run your own URL shortening service.

  • How to play Orcs Must Die! 2 on linux

    Create your own, self hosted url shortener service with YOURLS and Raspberry PI. Step-by-step guide to have it working in a very few time

  • Configure External RAID on Ubuntu/Centos/RedHat - Unixcop

    RAID: Stands For Redundant Array Of Independent Disks (Hardware Raid) or Redundant Array Of Inexpensive Disks (Software Raid) and that is technology that keeps data redundant to avoid data loss if any disk falls or is corrupted .

  • Don’t like Visual Studio Code? Try these 5 Alternatives Apps - itsfoss.net [Ed: Some of the 'alternatives' are also Microsoft and also proprietary software. Rather awful list...]

    When it comes to programming, we are going to need a plain text editor that allows us to easily modify files or take notes. One of the most complete and professional tools is Visual Studio Code. Although this Microsoft program is not indicated for users with little experience, so, if it is our case, surely we want to know what the best alternatives are. Anyone can download Virtual Studio Code, since it is completely free, but without a doubt, it has been designed to be used by programmers. In this field we find many other good options for professional work, especially if we are interested in knowing anything about a program developed by Microsoft.

  • How to Access BBSes in Linux Using Telnet

    In the '80s and early '90s, the most popular way to get online in the US was through Bulletin Board Systems or BBSes. While they're nowhere near as numerous as they were during their mid-90s heyday, there are still hobbyists operating these systems scattered around the world. And you can access them from Linux, without a dial-up modem.

  • How to solve the undefined variable/index/offset PHP error - Anto ./ Online

    This guide will you how to solve the notice undefined variable, index, or offset error that you are experiencing in PHP. This error is easy to spot in the warning and error message logs. Consequently, you will typically see a descriptive error message like this...